schools, and grades 1 to 7 inclusive in all town and city schools.
2. All teachers of each kind were supervised. An average of 5 visits to
the rural and village schools, and 4 to the town and city schools, was made
during the year.
The emphasis of my attention last year was given to improving the in-
struction in reading.
3. My first visit was devoted to observing the teacher, her attitude and
method of work, the children and to general schoolroom conditions. At the
end of this visit the teacher and J met in conference. During our conference,
after finding out the teacher's feeling of greatest need, I talked over with her
principles which I had found helpful in teaching reading, with the suggestion
that she try them out in her class. On my next visit 1 observed her work along
the line I had suggested. After the recitation, we would meet in conference
as soon as possible, or I would, upon the teacher's request, take the class and
demonstrate for her the principles under discussion. The number of demon-
stration lessons given during the year was 130.
4. The only county organization, up to the present time, is the Talbot
County Teachers' Association. This association met on Saturday once last year
for an all day session. The program consisted of general educational topics,
which were discussed by speakers from out of the county.
At the district meetings our problem was to improve our course of study
;n geography. But as we held so few meetings it is impossible for me to
evaluate them at present as agencies in supervision.
In my survey last year I found that, so far as I could judge, the greatest
need on the part of the teachers was an extensive study of principles of
education. With this in view, we have planned our meetings for this year
according to the inclosed schedule. At the district meetings we expect to
base our discussions upon "How to Study," McMurry ; "The Learning Process,"
Colvin & Bagley ; "Interest and Effort in Education," and Moral Principles in
Education," by Dewey ; and "How to Teach," by Strayer & Norsworthy.
We expect to hold three meetings. The first of these will be held on Nov.
17 The day will be devoted to demonstrations by the teachers with their own
class, of the type and quality of work being done in both city and rural schools.
At the January meeting the program will be given over entirely to the trustees
and patrons of the schools of the county. Our purpose is to bring about a
full and sympathetic understanding and close cooperation among the teachers,
patrons and trustees. In the spring we hope to have a full meeting of patrons.
116 Annual Report of the State Board of Education
trustees and teachers, the program to consist of discussions led by Dr. M. Bates
Stephens, Mr. Reavis, Mr. Holloway and Mr. Orem.
My work in the schoolroom will be the same in character as that of last
We are also working toward the organization of Community Leagues and
School Improvement Associations. So far the people of only one community
have taken steps toward effecting such an organization.
FRANCES H. CLARK,
\. I supervised the first four grades of the graded schools, beginning with
the Primary class, all of the one-teacher schools, and the Primary grades of the
two-room and three-room schools.
2. There were about fifty teachers in the graded schools, twenty-five in the
two and three-room schools, and one hundred in rural schools. I made at least
two visits a year to each rural teacher, and about four visits to the graded
teachers. In cases of especially weak teachers, many more visits were made,
and in some cases half-days and whole days were spent. Individual appoint-
ments were made after school hours, whenever occasion arose, and sometimes
on Saturdays. Also regular meetings were held with the Hagerstown teachers
every Monday at 3 P. M., one group meeting one Monday and alternating with
the other group.
3. In supervising a teacher at work, the method was to observe the teacher
for awhile, and then, by suggestion or demonstration, make changes. Most of
the changes were made by the latter method; in some cases the supervisor
returned the next day and taught for a whole, or half-day, as the case required.
4. The rural teachers were divided into seven groups, and a meeting was
held for each group every seven weeks, on Friday afternoon at 2.30 o'clock, at
some convenient center. Reading in the lower grades, particularly to beginners,
was stressed all the year. Principles and ideals underlying reading were given
by the supervisor, and demonstrations by some of the teachers were given. A
quantitative outline in number work and primary language was issued with a
few suggestions on method. The problem of seat-work was also emphasized,
and a scrap-book of profitable seat-work was collected and exhibited in each
district. Instruction was also given in phonics, as the teachers were unfamiliar
with the sound of letters. At many of the meetings, six or seven teachers were
called upon to stand and tell how they taught some particular subject, the teachers
having been notified about a week beforehand and allowed to choose a subject.
At the meetings of the Hagerstown teachers, reading also was stressed, and
many demonstrations were given, after which constructive criticism was ofifered
by the supervisor and teachers. Primary language was handled in about the
same way and number work was touched upon. Some teachers were irregular
in attendance because transportation was inconvenient or too expensive.
Teachers' meetings are of great value in bringing together people who are
working along the same lines, and have the same problems. The teachers dis-
cussed their problems freely, and many difficulties were solved and a professional
Annual Report of the State Board of Education 117
spirit was aroused. In meeting in different centers, the teachers who arrived
early had the benefit of seeing others teach.
There is a Reading Circle held in Hagerstown under the direction of one
of the principals. It is open to all teachers of the county, and one of 'the books
prescribed by the State Course is studied. At the meetings of the rural teachers
for the coming winter, chapters of Strayer's "Brief Course in the Teaching
Process" will be discussed.
There has been no inter-school visiting, but it is being planned for this year.
Printed matter in the form of a number outline and language outline was
issued last year, and subject-matter in nature study is being issued now; and a
monthly magazine called the "Builder" is sent to each teacher. The Board of
Education rents a page in this magazine upon which school notes and suggestions
are given every month. Much administrative news is circulated in this way,
and lists of poems and stories appropriate to each month were given. The
County Library has aided the schools very materially in having many duplicates
of every poem suggested by the supervisor printed and mounted on a card, so
that teachers could get by mail any poems desired.
The plan of work for the coming year is to meet the rural teachers every
seven weeks as heretofore. A part of the time will be devoted to discussing
certain chapters of Strayer's book. The other half of the period will be devoted
to business and demonstrations.
The Hagerstown groups will receive instruction in Nature Study and how
to teach it, and outlines of this work which will eventually be incorporated in
a course of study will be distributed. If time is allowed the supervisor to pre-
pare the work, the teachers of the beginning classes will receive instruction in
industrial work. This line of work is much needed, for the teachers of the
primary classes do not know how to interest the little children or keep them
In Wicomico County, the Supervisor devoted his entire time during the
school year 1916-17 to the forty-two one-teacher schools in the county. Each of
these schools did the work of the seven elementary grades.
The length of visits to each school varied from sixty to two hundred minutes.
Visits of this length made it possible for the Supervisor to see each teacher
at work on six or more different days. In supervising class-room instruction,
the method depended upon individual conditions and necessities. The Supervisor
usually observed the work of the teacher with one or two classes, and then
offered suggestions in a conference with the teacher or through a demonstration
lesson in the teacher's own school.
Several teachers' meetings were held in Salisbury during the school year,
that being the most centrally located and accessible town for teachers from all
parts of the county. These meetings were usually held from 10 A. M. to 12 M. on
Saturdays. One hour of the meeting was devoted to Reading Circle work, and
the other hour to round-table discussions of the theory of teaching the various
subjects in the several grades. These meetings were well attended, considering
118 Annuai. Report of the State Board of Education
the difficulties of transportation and the weather conditions on many Saturdays
during the year. The value of teachers' meetings, judging from those of last year,
seems to depend, to a great extent, on the opportunity given teachers to exchange
ideas on class-room instruction, and on such suggestions as the Supervisor is
able to offer to teachers as a body.
Each teacher was given an opportunity to visit a school similar to the one
ill which she was teaching, these visits being made with the Supervisor, or to
such schools as he had designated. Very often one-half of the visiting day was
spent in the Model School connected with the Teacher Training Class of
Wicomico High School.
This year the Supervisor of rural schools will work entirely in the one-
teacher and two-teacher schools. The teachers of these schools will meet the
Supervisor about once a month for professional study and Reading Circle work.
The Superintendent expects to visit all schools in the county, and to devote
as much time as his other duties will permit to actual supervision of class-room
instruction in schools employing more than two teachers.
JAMES M. BENNETT,
Dr. M. Bates Stephens,
In reply to your request that I state my plan for work during the present
school year, I will say that, acting on the advice of Mr. McMaster and Mr.
HoUoway, I shall work exclusively this year (1917-18) with the teachers of our
rural schools. We have fifty-five rural teachers in our county, many of them
teaching this year for the first time ; so I feel that this is a sufficiently large
field for me to spread my energies over, for a while at least.
r am working this year with the following objects in view:
1. To improve material equipment.
2. To bring about a closer relation between home and school by en-
couraging teachers to organize Parent-Teachers' Associations, Com-
munity Leagues, etc.
3. To improve the teaching in the subjects of our Course of Study.
For this year we will work particularly for the improvement of our
reading and oral English. I shall do some demonstration teaching
frequently during my visits ; always when I think it would be helpful
to the teacher. ^
4. To encourage our teachers in service to work for self-improvement
by subscribing for and reading educational magazines, joining the
State Teachers' Reading Circle, attending summer schools, and in
I am enclosing you a copy of a program I sent our teachers ; also a copy
of our "Clean-up Day" letter.
Yours very truly,
MARY B. PUSEY.
RURAL SCHOOLS OF A BETTER TYPE. Photo^^raphed October,, 1917.
Annual Report of the State Board of Education 119
THE CERTIFICATE EXCHANGE.
During the year 1916-1917 the State Superintendent of Schools
issued new teachers' certificates under the provisions of the present law
in exchange for the county certificates held under the old law. The
plan was discussed at a meeting of the county superintendents in No-
vember. The following letters and the report forms reproduced below
were issued explaining the plan proposed for the exchange :
November 9, 1916.
To the County Superintendent:
Below is given a tentative plan for exchange certificates. This de-
scription and the enclosed proofs of a proposed form for reporting the
county superintendents' recommendations are offered as a basis for
discussion at the county superintendents' meeting November 15th.
Please be prepared to offer any suggestions that will improve the
Yours very truly,
M. Bates Stephens,
A TENTATIVE PLAN FOR REPORTING TEACHERS
RECOMMENDED FOR EXCHANGE
Since limited certificates issued under the old law can no longer be
renewed, the State Superintendent proposes to exchange new certifi-
cates for the limited certificates of teachers who were regularly em-
ployed at the time the new law went into effect. The new certificates
will be subject to the renewal privileges of the new law. (Sec. 55.)
All certificates issued under the old law remain valid for the full
term for which they were originally issued. But as they expire it will
be necessary for the teachers to secure certificates as provided in Sec-
tion 55. The new law does not affect unlimited or "life" certificates
heretofore issued, except that they are made valid for administrative
and supervisory positions only under special conditions (Chapter 8,
Section 53). But the certificates of most teachers are limited to run a
definite number of years.
The State Superintendent wishes to require as few old teachers as
120 Annual Report of the State Board of Education
possible to take the examination. For this reason he proposes to issue
new certificates in Heu of Hmited certificates now in force, and in each
case for such time as the old certificates would have run, except that
no new certificate can be issued for a longer period than is provided
in Section 55 for that particular grade of certificate.
If any teacher prefers he may teach on his present certificate until
it expires and then meet the requirement for a new certificate in the
usual way. If the exchange is desired it must be made this year with
the others from the same county. It will be more convenient for the
State Superintendent to have the applications of all teachers at one
time. All exchanges will be considered and the new certificates issued
during the present school year so that any who are required to take the
examinations may be notified early.
Enough copies of the enclosed card will be furnished to the county
superintendents to report each teacher on a separate card. The card
is to be filled out on one side by the teacher. The county superintendent
will then verify her statements as to grade of certificate held, and in
other particulars as far as possible. He will supply the information
for the top half of the other side of the card and send the cards to the
State Superintendent. After the applications are considered the cards
will be filed as a part of the permanent record which the State Superin-
tendent is required to keep of all persons licensed to teach in the State.
The white card is for reporting white teachers ; the blue card for
reporting colored teachers.
In rating his teachers on scholarship, executive ability, personality
and teaching power, the county superintendent is requested to divide
them into five groups, as follows : the best 10 per cent, in the first group ;
the next best 20 per cent, in the second group ; the next 40 per cent,
in the third group ; the next 20 per cent, in the fourth group, and the
final or poorest, 10 per cent, in the fifth group. He will mark the
best 10 per cent. "A"; the next best group "B"; the next "C" ; the
next "D", and the final, or poorest, group "E". He will do this on
scholarship, executive ability, personality and teaching power sepa-
rately. These four points, it will be observed, are those heretofore
used by the county superintendent in classifying teachers.
A mark in the system proposed is not a "grade" in the sense that
it assumes to show the exact worth of any teacher. It simply shows
how the county superintendent thinks any given teacher compares
with the other teachers of his county. It is believed that the county
superintendent will find this system of marking easier than grading the
teachers numerically, and the information in this form will be much
more useful to the State Superintendent.
Annual Report of the State Board of Education 131
In the bottom of the square for "present rating" cancel the two of
the three words, "growing, static or decadent," that do not apply to
the particular teacher.
The State Superintendent will treat the information as confidential.
It will in no case be reported or shown to the applicant.
December 1, 1916.
To the County Superintendent:
I am sending you today by parcel post the material with which to
report teachers recommended for exchange certificates. The package
1. A few more than twice as many cards as you have elemen-
tary teachers, so that you can replace any cards damaged or lost,
and still have enough to keep a duplicate record of each teacher
2. The printed letter to elementary school teachers, explain-
ing the plan and giving directions for filling out the card.
3. As many heavy envelopes of each of two sizes as there are
schools in your county.
In mailing material to the different schools the smaller envelope
should be inclosed for the return of the cards.
The white card is for white teachers ; the blue card is for colored
The card should be filled out by all principals and teachers in the
county, except the principals of approved high schools and the teachers
of high school subjects in the approved high schools.
Within a week or ten days I shall send you some suggestions in
regard to supplying the data which the county superintendent is asked
to furnish on the reverse side of the card.
Very truly yours,
M. Bates Stephens,
State Sup erin te n dent.
Below is reproduced the printed letter to elementary school teach-
ers, explaining the plan and giving directions for filling out the card :
November 27, 1916.
To Elementary School Teachers:
The State Superintendent is asking all elementary school teachers
to fill out the enclosed card, so that he may have a record of the train-
ing, experience and certificates of all teachers as required by law.
All teachers, except those in approved high schools, who teach
grades or subjects higher than the seventh grade, should fill out the
122 Annual Report of the State Board of Education
card also. A different form for report will be sent later to teachers in
approved high schools.
' When you have filled out the card it should be mailed to your county
superintendent. Where there are more than one teacher in a school,
the cards will be less likely to be injured in the mails if all are returned
m a single envelope.
Kindly read this letter carefully before filling out the card.
Since teachers' certificates issued under the old school law cannot
be renewed when they expire, the State Superintendent proposes to
exchange new State certificates for the limited (other than life) certifi-
cates of teachers who were regularly employed at the time the new
school law went into effect. The new certificates will be subject to the
renewal privileges of the new law. (Sec. 55.)
All certificates issued under the old law remain valid for the full
term for which they were issued. But as they expire it will be neces-
sary for the teachers to secure certificates under the new law. The
new law does not affect "life" certificates heretofore issued by the State
Board of Education and the State Superintendent, including normal
school diplomas which have had the seal attached, except that they are
valid for administrative or supervisory positions only under special
conditions. (Chap. 8, Sec. 53.) Teachers who hold normal school
diplomas without the seal should apply for new State certificates.
The State Superintendent wishes to require as few experienced
teachers as possible to take an examination. For this reason he pro-
poses to issue new certificates in place of limited certificates now in
force, and in each case for such time as the old certificate would have
run, except that no new certificate can be issued for a longer period
than is provided in Section 55 for that particular grade of certificate.
It should be remembered that certificates issued under the old law
have not the same value as certificates of the same name or grade under
the new law. For example, the new first grade certificate is equivalent
to a normal school diploma or to the old form of professional certifi-
cate, whereas the old first grade certificate was granted on examination
to persons with less academic preparation than the normal school
diploma required, and without any professional requirement whatever.
For this reason, an old first grade certificate does not entitle the holder
to a new first grade, unless his experience, his accredited reading circle
work, his institute work, and his other schooling has provided academic
and professional training equivalent to normal school graduation.
The grades of certificates referred to in the minimum salary sched-
ule of the new law (Sec. 60) are the new grades as given in Sec. 55. A
county board is not required by Sec. 60 to pay a teacher the salary
Ax N UAL Report of the State Board of Education 123
specified for a particular grade of certificate unless the teacher holds
one of the new certificates of that grade, or an old certificate which is
equivalent to the new certificate of that grade. It will be seen that the
minimum salary schedule in Sec. 60 of the new law corresponds to the
schedule in the old law with the wording changed to conform to the
new gradation of certificates. It was not the intention of Sec. GO to
force county boards of education to pay more at this time, nor to au-
thorize them to pay less, than was required before.
In issuing the exchange certificates without examination, it is not
the intention of the State Supe^rintendent to issue a higher grade of
certificate than the teacher's old certificate, preparation and teaching
record justifies ; but if a teacher is not satisfied with the grade of new
certificate issued without examination, he can take the examination for
the next higher grade, or he can attend Summer sessions to make up
If any teacher prefers, he may teach on his present certificate until
it expires, and then meet the requirement for a new certificate by ex-
amination. If the exchange is desired, it must be made this year with
the others from the same county. All exchanges will be considered and
the new certificates will be issued during the present school year, so
that any who are required to take the examination may be notified early.
When the new certificates are issued, they will be sent direct to the
county superintendent and not to the individual teachers.
The old certificate remains the teacher's property. It should not
be sent to the State Superintendent, nor should the teacher send any
letters of- recommendation or ask anyone to write the State Superin-
tendent in his behalf.
Note that all public elementary school teachers are asked to fill out
the card, whether they desire new certificates or not. If a teacher does
not have a certificate now in force, but has had one which has expired,
the last certificate held should be reported in full with the date of ex-
piration indicated in the proper space. If a teacher has more than one
certificate now in force, he should report only the highest one.
All blank spaces on the card should be filled. When there is nothing
to report in any blank, a cipher should be used or the word none written
in the space.
The following explanations and suggestions are numbered to corre-
spond with the numbers of the questions on the card :
(3) Teaching address is the address where mail will reach the
teacher during the school year.
(4) The county in which you are employed.
(5) The address from which mail will always be forwarded.
Annual Report of the State Board of Education
(6) Use figures only, giving number of month, day of month
and year. For example, the date of this letter would
be written 11-27-1916.
(7) Indicate here whether your certificate is a normal school