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Manhasset, L.I.

Fruit of Research

GROUP ADJUSTMENT A STUDY IN EXPERL
MENTAL SOCIOLOGY, by Wilber I. Newsletter.
Marc J. Feldstein and Theodore M. Newcomb.
School of Applied Social Sciences, Western
Reserve University. 154 pp. Price $2 postpaid
of Survey Midmonthly.

T^HE results of nine years of research
are compressed into this important
volume. Scene of the study is a camp, al-
ready familiar to many people through an
earlier report, Wawokiye Camp, pub-
lished in 1930. A variety of ingenious de-
vices is employed involving heavy depen-
dence upon statistical method. The cen-
tral purpose of the project is to penetrate
into the phenomena of group adjustment.

By perfecting a personal preference
interview technique it was possible to de-
velop for each individual in a group an
index of group status. This status, which
is at the basis of group adjustment, was
found to be relative to a particular group
in a particular situation.

At weekly intervals six persons inde-
pendently rated each camper on the de-
gree of acceptance shown in terms of ( 1 )
being sought for and welcomed in groups;
(2) being liked and on good terms with
boys; (3) being a leader; (4) being ac-
tually found in a variety of groups. A
total of 4873 activity groupings were ob-
served and recorded. One is impressed
with the close similarity which the find-
ings sustain to those reported by J. L.
Moreno in his "Who Shall Survive?"

Dr. Newcomb's contribution, primarily
a contribution to methodology in behavior
research, is contained in a single chapter,
where he is concerned with the measure-
ment of the kind, frequencies and degrees
of behavior directly related to being ac-
cepted or rejected by a group. Three hun-
dred and ten minute units of observation



were completed for each boy in the study.
Upon the basis of these data a nine-point
Cordiality vs. Antagonism scale was de-
veloped, yielding three different scores.
Analysis indicated that "an individual's
group status is largely revealed in cordial
behavior received from others, but not
very largely determined by his cordiality
shown to others."

The final chapter, "Implications for
Group Work," would appear to have
been developed independently of the re-
search project itself.

This volume constitutes a significant
contribution to professional literature.
Obviously, however, it is not a book for.
the novice either in social work or in the
social sciences.
New York CHARLES E. HENDRY

Only Birth Pangs

HOUSING COMES OF AGE, by Michael W.
Straus and Talbot Wegg. Oxford University
Press. 259 pp. Price $2.75 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.

HpHIS is the Apologia pro Vita Sua of
the old PWA housing division. It
is a book that needed publishing, not so
much because of the technical value of its
material but because it helps to explain,
clearly, and in places brilliantly, an atti-
tude of mind often puzzling to those out-
side of Washington who are interested in
low rental housing. Those who followed
the progress of the housing division be-
fore the U. S. Housing Authority under
Nathan Straus was set up, were often
mystified at sudden changes in personnel
and policy. In one or two cases there
was a strong feeling that injustice to
individuals had occurred. The present
text does not tread long on dangerous
ground. However, the sequence of events
is clearly given and while these may be
of only academic importance they help
one understand some of the tremendous
problems facing the division in its early
days and point out quite clearly the dan-
gers inherent in this particular kind of
centralization.

It is really too early to write a his- j
tory of the old Housing Division. How-
ever, it was well to keep a log of events, J
but until the demonstration projects
erected by the division in most of our i
large cities have been lived in long
enough to prove their true value, whether .
positive or negative, the story is only half
told. Also something more than one J
point of view will have to be expressed. ,
We should hear from the local archi-
tects who worked with the division, from
local housing and planning bodies, from
politicians, social workers, land accumu-
lators, lawyers and property owners;
from managers and tenants, and perhaps
from some former members of the staff
of the division. All of these people dealt
with Washington and the division during
its hectic early days.

No person interested in public hous- J
ing will want to miss this book but it



396



should Be remembered that the title,
"Housing Comes of Age," is misleading.
The book deals only with the birth pangs
of housing as an experiment in the financ-
ing and construction of a very few, well
designed, rather expensive rental units.
While the division did much, it seems a
bit presumptuous of it to claim a greater
accomplishment. Low cost, low rental
housing for the lowest income groups in
the United States has not yet been born.
Columbia I'niversity CARL 1- HNS

The Living Being

FEARFULLY AND WONDERFULLY MADE;
THE IITMAN ORGANISM IX THE LIGHT
OF MODERN SCIENCE, by Renee von Eulen-
burg-Wiener. Macmillan. 472 pp. Price $3.50
postpaid of Survty UidmMtUy.

TJARDLY a month passes without its
addition to the stream of books de-
signed to tell the reader about his body
and its workings; for human beings con-
tinue to be interested in themselves. For
the most part these books for the lay-
man deal with established facts and ac-
cepted principles. They rarely take the
reader sufficiently into the confidence of
the scientist to share the secret that there
are more unsolved problems than there
are reliable rules. In this way they serve
to diffuse a great deal of valuable in-
formation, to allay vast mountains of
curiosity, enlarge the public's regard for
science and cultivate a new dogmatism.

Perhaps that is all that the layman
eally wants. Here, however, is a book
hat not only recognizes the limits of our
:nowledge but explains clearly enough
he limits of our resources for extending
)ur knowledge, specifically in the realm
of life knowledge. For our triumphs
lave been the mastery of multitudes of
details; our needs are to understand the
jody as a whole, the living being in its
nner complexities and in its outer rela-
ions. It is significant that the last chapter,
'The Human Organism as a Whole,"
s the longest in the book and ia frankly
peculative. It shows at least that the
luthor is a scientist and not merely a
etailer of scientific doctrines. For the
eader this book is quite as informative
s any to be had; it is clearly and co-
lerently written, and it has the further
advantage of immediate relationship to
he present stream of research. It pre-
upposes some foundation in elementary
iiological or physiological knowledge and
t least a highschool reading ability.
Vew York BENJAMIN C. GRUENBERC



BOOKS FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER



Answers to Youth

LIFE AND GROWTH, by Alice V. Keliher. Ap-
pleton-Century. 245 pp. Price $'1.20 postpaid of
Survey MidmoHtMy.

"THIS is a book which one would like
to put into the hands of every young
person in the land, his teachers and his
tarents. It is full of straightforward, clear
ind satisfying answers to questions of
act concerning life and growth. I say
atisfying because many of the answers to



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addition to its informing text, it contains 151 illustrations, eight in full color,
58 from the noted Ulmann collection made for this volume. HANDICRAFTS should
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young peoples' questions about sex and
mating are adequate as far as they go,
but leave out the unasked questions which
trouble the minds of the adolescent. This
author answers the unasked questions and
deals with the whispers and innuendoes
on the same level as the discussion of
height and weight and growth. She cov-
ers a great deal of ground in an ordinary
sized book and without a superfluous
word.

Added to the readable and frank dis-
cussion of scientific facts, the implications
throughout the volume rest on a well
balanced, healthy, civilized philosophy of
living. One or two chapters discuss social
values but on the whole these values are
In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

397



underlying accompaniments to the dis-
cussion of fact. It is the author's insight
and sense of values which give the book
distinction and make one wish that all
young people might read it. Many young
people today, obsessed with the idea of
"the normal" and "the average," spend
pathetic years, with the help of our ad-
vertising and moving pictures, striving to
be "the type." They would get comfort
out of Miss Keliher's treatment of such
ideas, and many of the cobwebs would be
brushed away.

A high regard for the dignity of the
human spirit and the worth of the indi-
vidual and no moralizing runs through
the book. "Each must work out his own



set of values and make his own choice,"
says Miss Keliher in the excellent chap-
ter on "Growing Pains." "Morality must
be based, not on rules nor unreasoned ta-
boos but on honesty, integrity and emo-
tional sincerity. . . . Sincerity, honesty and
personal integrity will lead different peo-
ple to different choices. For some they
will lead to choices that culture has not
yet learned to tolerate, and if the pres-
sure is too great, the danger is that these
persons may lose the sense of their own
inner integrity. . . . Morality based on
these values will, in the long run, bring
higher standards of behavior than can
rules or taboos because the person has al-
ways within him deep respect for his own
life and the lives of others."

The volume contains a list of books for
further study organized around topics pre-
sented in the various chapters. It is illus-
trated with stylized drawings in schematic
form by Irving Geis and by photographs
and pictorial statistics all illustrative in
the best sense of the word.

MRS. EVERETT DEAN MARTIN
Claremont, Calif.

Sensible and Pleasant

HEALTH AND A DAY, Addresses by Lord
Horder. Putnam. 213 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid
of Survey Midmonthly.

T ORD HORDER, physician to the King
of England, has collected in this
volume twelve of his addresses delivered
in 1936-7. Four were given in the United
States, two before the House of Lords,
one was a broadcast. They are popular
addresses, with many quotations after the
English manner. Some of the best of these
are from Emerson, whom he calls "your
greatest American."

Lord Horder is above all a man of
common sense, conservatism and good na-
ture. There is no originality or brilliance
in these essays but much urbanity and
good will. "I attach much importance to
the amenities of life. . . . Manners maketh
man. . . . Because we cannot face the
company of our own souls we jostle each
other and chatter loudly and incessantly.
... A gentleman makes no noise. A lady
is serene. . . . With the passing of the
spade and the spinning wheel tranquillity
has passed also. Even the sound of this
lovely word is strange to some. . . . We
shall not get anywhere that counts for
anything until we recapture tranquillity."
He is strongly for a greater recognition
of the psychological and of the spiritual
elements both in disease and in health.
To me the most significant of his senten-
ces are these: "The patient may have
placed his trouble in a lower category
than that to which it rightly belongs. It
may be loss of his aspirations and his
ideals from which he is suffering, not a
mere failure to adjust his physiological or
even his psychological balance." His in-
terest in public health leads him to char-
acterize those "pernicious folk who try
to plant in the public mind the idea that



to preserve health is a very ticklish thing."
On the contrary he maintains, rightly I
believe, that, "Health is a broad, well
paved road; generally speaking the way-
faring man must be a fool indeed if he
errs therein."

This is a sensible pleasant book, of very
little permanent value.
Cambridge, Mass. RICHARD C. CABOT

Sleep, Gentle Sleep

YOU CAN SLEEP WELL, by Edmund Jacob-
son, M.D. McGraw-Hill. 269 pp. Price $2 post-
paid of Survey Midmonthly.

JLJAVE you ever had trouble sleeping?
Have you ever had an insomniac as
a patient? Have you ever been asked by
some exasperated friend for a formula
for sleep? If so, read "You Can Sleep
Well."

Written in the second person singular
it starts off describing "You," still awake
and alert, two hours after you have re-
tired. You have a restless night and at
last decide that "something must be done
about it."

You go to the doctor, have a physical
check-up, are told to carry out some
simple daily rules of hygiene which you
do for a few days, and then forget them,
resuming your nerve-rackingly sleepless
nights. You decide that something rad-
ically wrong has been overlooked by your
physican. You talk yourself into the hos-
pital for observation. (The description
of the experiences and thoughts that oc-
cur while there are highly amusing).

Home again, "you try sleeping medi-
cines." Quoting from an article in For-
tune the author shows how, in a two-
year period, the sale of phenobarbital
was nearly doubled.

What prevents sleep? Coffee? Dr.
Jacobson's thirty years spent studying
the phenomena of sleep has made pos-
sible an authentic answer.

Step by step methods of inducing slum-
ber are accompanied by photographs of
"you" in the process of flirting with Mor-
pheus, and at the end of each chapter,
which includes one on "Your Child's
Sleep," an easy-to-follow outline is given
summarizing the subject matter which
preceded it.

The author takes you behind the scenes
to learn there more about the mystery of
sleep. The three closing chapters are de-
voted to various phases of this subject
from the viewpoint of science.
New York BEULAH FRANCE, R.N.

The Red Cross at Work

DISASTER FIGHTERS, by Fairfax Downey.
Putnam. 321 pp. Price $3 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.

TN his graphic and chronological re-
counting of the 2128 disasters that have
occurred through fire, famine, flood and
pestilence in the United States within
the last fifty -six years, the author grips
one's interest and at the same time inter-
prets the policies of the Red Cross.



As Dunant's "Un Souvenir de Solfer-
ino" is a vivid picture of the horrors of
warfare, so is Mr. Downey's "Disaster
Fighters" a vivid picture of the horrors of
disaster in this country. He shows that
concurrently with Dunant in Europe an
American woman, Clara Barton, was
carrying out the same principles here
through her ministrations, with volun-
teers, to the soldiers of the Civil War.
From her services and devotions later
came the American Red Cross, chartered
by Congress in 1881, in accordance with
the Treaty of Geneva which Dunant in
Europe sustained.

In the foreword to Mr. Downey's vol-
ume, it is stated that the efficient fulfill-
ment of its duties has won for the Red
Cross its leadership in the field of dis-
aster relief. It should be remembered
that not only does the Red Cross operate
under a Congressional charter, but that
its charter is mandatory, imposing on it
the obligation of leadership in this field.

Mr. Downey gives appropriate recog-
nition to the many governmental agen-
cies and to the dedicated men and women
who have contributed to reclaiming both
the minds and bodies of the victims of
the harrowing experiences of holocaust.

The book is well worth owning, an

excellent one for students of sociology.

ELLA LAYNE BROWN

Cincinnati and Hamilton County Chapter
The American Red Cross

Gain or Lose

EAT AND KEEP FIT, by Jacob Buckstein,
M.D. Emerson Books. 128 pp. Price $1 post-
paid of Survey Midmonthly.

ONE index of public interest in diet is
the stream of non-technical books
on the subject now being published. To
meet the popular demand, authors draw-
ing upon the same factual material must
make individual appeals through distinc-
tive treatment. This book's conservative
tendency is to its credit. Apart from the
trumpery about scientific secrets on the
jacket, the tone is one of simplicity and
restraint.

While the author quotes from docu-
ments published by the Health Organiza-
tion of the League of Nations, he pays
little attention to the emphasis in those
documents on the malnutrition that exists
in all countries including our own. Per-
haps it is natural that this type of book
should cater to the buying public, indi-
viduals concerned with keeping fit and
reducing weight, rather than to the
undernourished or malnourished not gen-
erally found among the book buyers.

For the most part the book fulfills its
purpose. It is comprehensive without
being encyclopedic; instructive without
being dull, usually accurate and authori-
tative without being intricate and dog-
matic. Its few lapses from strict accuracy
may be due to the attempt to compress
within relatively few pages all that is
known of the science of nutrition. These



398




CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS



WORKERS WANTED



WANTED (a) Medical social worker: city hos-
pital ; woman with southern training or ex-
perience required : salary to be paid by Junior
League : southeast, (b) Social worker : outpa-
tient department, pediatric hospital : univer-
sity group: midwest, (c) Medical social work-
er : degree and eligibility in medical social work
required, university hospital : $2500. (d) So-
cial worker : syphilitic clinic : university hos-
pital : West, (e) Director social service de-
partment : large eastern hospital. No. 70-SM,
M. Burneice Larson. Director, The Medical
Bureau. Pittsfield Building. Chicago.

Experienced caseworker for medical social de-
partment. State age. training, experience and
give references. 7587 Survey

SITUATIONS WANTED

Young woman with two years' casework train-
ing, six years' experience, desires position in
child welfare organisation, rural field pre-
ferred. 7540 Survey.

Trained boys' worker, some experience, desires
position. Recent graduate of Social Group
Work Course at University of Notre Dame.
7641 Survey.



APPLICANTS for positions are sincerely
urged by the Advertising Department to
send copies of letters of references rather
than originals, as there is great danger of
originals being lost or mislaid.



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Program of work analyzed, planned Literature
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tional organisations, institutions by writer,
editor, radio speaker of twenty years experi-
ence Activities, relation to community and
other agencies analysed.

Social Service Building. Philadelphia. Pa.



Special article*, theses, speeches, papers. Re-
search, revision, bibliographies, etc. Ovtr
twenty years' experience serving busy pro-
fessional persons. Prompt service extended
AUTHORS RESEARCH BUREAU, lit
Fifth Avenue. New York. N. Y.



PAMPHLETS AND PERIODICALS



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lapses occur in a misleading enumeration
of diseases in relationship to diet and in
references to sugar as a "natural" food
and to the shortcomings of gelatin. Much
space is devoted to a fourteen-day reduc-
ing diet, prefaced by the admonition pre-
viously to consult a. doctor. A fourteen-
day diet for gaining is also given followed
by useful tables and graphs. While these
diets may serve a purpose, it is ques-
tionable whether more than a few per-
sons would be able to follow them closely
enough to obtain the desired results.

Nevertheless, here is a safe and au-
thoritative guide to diet, carefully and
pleasantly written by a well-known spe-
cialist. FRANK G. BOUDREAU, M.D.
Milbank Memorial Fund

Crime Trailers

MV DOUBLE LIFE, by Mary Sullivan. Farrar
* Rinehart. 302 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

MEN AGAINST CRIME, by Henry Lysing.
David Kemp and Co. 265 pp. Price $2.50 post-
paid of Survey Midmonthly.

"pHE author of the first of these two
volumes illustrates the old saying that
a Celt in his time plays many parts. Mary
Sullivan walked upon the stage as a po-
licewoman in 1911 when she reported at
the station house for duty with a flower-
trimmed picture hat and a green parasol.
Embarrassed young police officers found
it necessary to take her aside and explain
the facts of life in the underworld. Her
job of gathering evidence, however, speed-
ily made a character actress of her; she



has posed effectively as a rich widow, a
madame, a companion of gangsters' wives,
and even as a prisoner. She has investi-
gated missing persons, shoplifters, confi-
dence men, disorderly houses, fortune tell-
ers, matrimonial bureaus, fraudulent ad-
vertisers, voodoo doctors, and has been the
only woman regularly appointed to the
homicide squad. Since 1925 she has been
the director of New York City policewo-
men and has had to content herself with
assigning roles to the hundred and fifty
members of her cast. As contributing
causes of bobbed-hair banditry, she calls
our attention to lack of religious train-
ing, neurotic relatives, poverty and bad
housing. Her book is delightful reading.
Too bad it lacks an index.

"Men Against Crime" are, of course,
the G-men, "flying from one end of the
country to the other with a veritable arm-
ory of firearms, trailing the worst despe-
radoes the country ever knew, and if ne-
cessary smashing them in their own way
with withering gunfire." In such lurid
terms, very different from Mary Sulli-
van's simplicity, Mr. Lysing discusses the
work of the Federal Bureau of Investi-
gation. Each chapter opens with a quota-
tion from the speeches of J. Edgar Hoo-
ver, and includes biographical material
concerning him.

The informed reader will find nothing
much new in Mr. Lysing's book. He is at
his best when dealing with the actual ap-
prehension of criminals; weak when he
ventures to discuss criminology as a whole.
In answering advertisements please mention SUKVEY MIDMONTHLY

399



Sociologists may smile at his naive trust
that "youngsters who play G-men and
gangsters will grow up realizing that
crooks are the scum of the earth." He
can announce sternly on one page that
"the purpose of imprisonment is punish-
ment" and on the next complain that
"much crime is perpetrated by the hard-
ened criminal, by men who have been



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 108 of 109)