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paid of Survey Midmonthly.

*~p HIS competent analysis of employ-
ment, unemployment, and relief in
Allegheny County, Pa., is based on the
federal 1930 census, the special Emergen-
cy Relief Administration unemployment
census of 1934, reports of the Pittsburgh
Social Study and other statistics. Alle-
gheny County, highly industrialized, is
fairly typical of the entire American
scene.

The statistical report is preceded by an
incisive analysis of what the author calls
the "commercial workings of the eco-



nomic system." Even when the system
works well it is characterized by irregu-
lar employment, low wages, absence of
opportunities to work rather than by un-
willingness to work. But in addition about
10 percent of the population does not
have access to the commercial economic
system. There has developed, therefore,
a supplementary economic system for the
"non-commercial distribution of purchas-
ing power," that is, relief.

The book includes an adequate treat-
ment of the incidence of unemployment
on industrial, racial, age and sex group-
ings, a discussion of seasonal and long
time irregularities in the Pittsburgh area,
a summary of family composition, aver-
age wage and cost of living. His basic
conclusions and brief seem to be valid
for the national scene.

In view of the fact that "current Amer-
ican effort appears to be in the direction
of saving as much of capitalism as can be
saved," the author has concluded in re-
gard to social policy toward relief, first,
that relief cannot be avoided. Second,
federal participation and state participa-
tion in relief is essential. Third, in spite
of increasing federal participation, local
communities still must share the respon-
sibility, of both administration and finan-
cing. Fourth, the social security act pro-
vides for only limited benefits and ex-
cludes many groups, but the problem of
supplementing the old age, welfare and
state unemployment compensation bene-
fits remains. Finally, while there is a
place for private charities and social
agencies, the basic relief program must
be a public program accomplished through
the public instrumentality of government.
WILLIAM HABER
University of Michigan

Sales Resistance Builder

40,000,000 GUINEA PIG CHILDREN, by

Rachel Lynn Palmer and Isadore M. Alpher,

M.D. Vanguard. 249 pp. Price $2 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

TT is just as bad, if not worse, to be a
^ guinea pig child as an adult guinea
pig, according to these authors who feel
that parents should be forewarned, es-
pecially those whose intelligence is above
guinea pig level. Hence this book of facts,
showing the disparities between many
kinds of advertising and the reports of
scientific tests and research on the self-
same products. The products discussed
pertain primarily to needs of babies and
young children foods, milk products,
cereals, bread, sweets, medicines colds,
exercise, movies and "this vitamin busi-
ness." Advertising is shown to wield a
potent influence on the "child salesman,"
through radio, in comics, at school, an
influence often complicated by the child's
simultaneous desires to be cowboy, G-
man and several other things. The net
result is that he often is an indirect but



30



major asset to inaccurate and harmful
advertising.

Though one product cited here recently
has mended its ways, the book adds many
cogent arguments to those already evi-
dent for a new food and drugs bill. It
should do much to arouse public opinion
in this direction. A readable, practical
manual, full of common sense and first
aid information, it offers warnings of
what not to do and cites examples of
danger points at which to "call the
doctor."

For the reader an unexpected by-
product is a heightened amusement at
radio advertising. You may feel like the
mother in a recent magazine article who
says that until her children are beyond
the exploitation stage "there seems to be
nothing to do but eat, drink (what the
children buy), and be merry." But it
can be great fun, thus armed, to build up
ah intelligent sales resistance.
New York MILDRED SAWYER

Run of the Shelves

THEY DARED TO LIVE, by Robert M. Bart-
lett. Association Press. 135 pp. Price $1.25
postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

A COLLECTION of interestingly written
biographical sketches of present-day
"giants" who have lived dangerously and
made their marks in the world in the
face of obstacles.

BEHAVIORISM AT TWENTY-FIVE, by A. A.
Roback. Sci-Art Publishers. 256 pp. Price $1.75
postpaid of The Surety.

A THOROUGH mauling of behaviorism,
its higher and lower priests and some
whom the author so classes for debatable
reasons. Includes a "who's who" and
bibliography which appear to omit no
psychologist who ever opened mouth or
took pen in hand on this provocative
subject.

MODERN WAYS WITH BABIES, by Eliza-
beth B. Hurlock. Lippincott. 347 pp. Price $2.50
postpaid from Survey Midmonthly.

IN simple, comprehensible style the au-
thor, a staff member of Columbia Uni-
versity's psychology department, presents
practical information about the first three
years of life. While obviously based on a
background of scientific information, the
book presents no obstacles to easy read-
ing by the average parent and everyday
use of the information.



POISONING THE PUBLIC, by Russell C. Erb.
Dorrance. 219 pp. Price $2 postpaid of Survey
UidmonlMy.

USING chemical analysis for his evidence,
the author presents an horrific series of
lessons from daily life and poisons in
everything. While the book approaches
an all-time record for its frequency of
reminders of death and disaster, it offers
to the commonsensible reader, who can
take his literary diet with salt and selec-
tivity, a mass of useful information on
his daily food, drink and surroundings.

In answering



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Circular on Application

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Special Train To Seattle!

IN cooperation with several railroads, arrangements have been made
for special through trains to carry social workers, their friends and
associated groups to the Seattle Conference in June.

THE first schedule permits a one-day visit to GLACIER NATIONAL
PARK, arriving at Seattle on the opening day of the Conference.
The second provides special cars for the use of Associate Groups,
scheduled to arrive at the Conference city at 8:00 A.M., Friday,
June 24th.

THESE two services offer an attractive opportunity to friends and
fellow workers to renew old friendships and make new acquaintances
while traveling through some of America's most fascinating scenery.

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National Red Cross



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS

Administered through National Headquar-
ters in Washington, D. C., and three Branch
Offices in San Francisco, St. Louis and
Washington, I). C. There are 3711 local
chapters organized mostly on a county basis.
Services of the Red Cross are: Disaster
Relief, Civilian Relief, First Aid and Life
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Sick, Junior Red Cross, Nursing Service,
Nutrition Service, Public Health Nursing,
Volunteer Service and War Service.



Industrial Democracy



LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY

Promotes a better understanding of problems
of democracy in industry through its
pamphlet, research and lecture services and
organization of college and city groups. Ex-
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Foreign Communities



NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF IMMIGRANT
WELFARE 1270 Sixth Avenue, New York.
A league of International Institutes, Citi-
zenship Councils and other local agencies
specializing in the interests of the foreign-
born. Gives consultation, field service, pro-
gram content to agencies engaged in any
form of constructive effort for the foreign-
born in local communities.



Is your
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Foundations



\MERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND,
INC. 15 West 16th Street, New York. A
national organization for research and field
service. Activities include : assistance to state
and local agencies in organizing activities
and promoting legislation ; research in legis-
lation, vocations, statistics, and mechanical
appliances for the blind ; maintenance of a
reference lending library. M. C. Migel, Presi-
dent ; Robert B. Irwin, Executive Director.



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Im-
provement of Living Conditions Shelby M.
Harrison, Director ; ISO E. 22nd St., New
York. Departments : Charity Organization,
Delinquency and Penology, Industrial Stu-
dies, Library, Recreation, Remedial Loans,
Social Work Interpretation, Social Work
Year Book, Statistics, Surveys. The publica-
tions of the Russell Sage Foundation offer
to the public in practical and inexpensive
form some of the most important results of
its work. Catalogue sent upon request.



World Affairs

HATE-MONGERS AGAIN?, by Anna Me-
lissa Graves. From William Allen, World
in Brief Service, 20 Vesey Street, New
York.

JAPAN IN WORLD ECONOMICS, by Emil
Lederer. 25 cents from the Graduate Faculty
of Political and Social Science of the New
York School (or Social Research, 66 West
12 Street, New York.

NO PASARAN!, by Upton Sinclair. 25 cents
from the author, Station A, Pasadena, Calif,

AT THE MOSCOW TRIAL, by D. N. Pritt,
K.C.. M.P. 5 cents from the International
Publishers, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York.

THE ECONOMICS OF ISOLATION. 50
cents from the American Academy of Politi-
cal and Social Science, Philadelphia, Pa.

TERROR IN CUBA, by Arthur Pincus, with
preface by John Dos Passos. 5 cents from
the Workers Defense League, 112 East 19
Street, New York.

THE FASCIST INTERNATIONAL, by Har-
ry F. Ward. 2 cents from American League
Against War and Fascism, 268 Fourth Ave-
nue, New York.

WORLD PEACE AND CHRISTIAN MIS-
SIONS, by Harold E. Fey. Price 35 cents
from the Friendship Press, 150 Fifth Ave-
nue, New York.

COLONIES, TRADE AND PROSPERITY,
prepared by Maxwell S. Stewart. Price 10
cents from Public Affairs Committee, 8 West
40 Street, New York.

PACIFIC POLITICS, by Joseph Ralston Hay-
den. 25 cents from the University of Minne-
sota Press, Minneapolis.

Labor

INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM IN THE AMER-
ICAN LABOR MOVEMENT, by Theresa
Wolfson, Ph.D. and Abraham Weiss, 15 cents
from the League for Industrial Democracy,
112 East 19 Street, New York.

LABOR AGITATOR, THE STORY OF ALBERT
R. PARSONS, by Alan Calmer. Price 35 cents
from International Publishers, 381 Fourth
Avenue, New York.



THE PAMPHLET SHELF



THE OFFICE WORKER LABOR'S SIDE
OF THE LEDGER, by Orlie Pell. 10 cents
from the League for Industrial Democracy,
112 East 19 Street, New York.

OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR
NEGROES, by Lester B. Granger and T.
Arnold Hill, 15 cents from the National
Urban League, 1133 Broadway, New York.



Social Action

STEEL AND MEN, by Harold O. Hatcher.
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL ACTION, by Hugh

V. White.

YOUTH IN ACTION
SOCIAL ACTION IN BOMBAY, by Arthur

E. Holt. 10 cents each from Social Action,

289 Fourth Avenue, New York.

THE VIGILANTES HIDE BEHINDTHE FLAG,
by Isobel Soule. Price 5 cents from Na-
tional Committee for Defense of Political
Prisoners, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York.

DOCTORS, DOLLARS ANT) DISEASE,
prepared by William Trufant Foster, 10 cents
from Public Affairs Committee, National
Press Bldg., Washington, D. C.



Social Services

STATE INSTITUTIONS: How TO USE
THEM WISELY. New York State Commit-
tee on Mental Hygiene. Price 10 cents from
the committee, 105 East 22 Street, New
York.

MEDICAL RELIEF IN THREE WISCON-
SIN COUNTIES. June 1937. Wisconsin
Public Welfare Department, Madison, Wis.

FEDERAL RELIEF WHAT NEXT? From the
National Economy League, 280 Madison Ave-
nue, New York.

SUCCESS DESPITE HANDICAP, by Alfred
Weiner, M.D. New York League for the
Hard of Hearing. 30 pp. From the league,
480 Lexington Avenue, New York.

THE OHIO-MISSISSIPPI VALLEY FLOOD
DISASTER OF 1937. Preliminary Report
of Relief Operations. American Red Cross,
Washington, D. C.



State of the Nation

RICH LAND, POOR LAND, A summary
by Marian Tyler of Stuart Chase's book,
Rich Land, Poor Land. Price 15 cents from
the League for Industrial Democracy, 112
East 19 Street, New York.

WHAT IS REGIONALISM?, by Harry E.
Moore. 15 cents from the University of
North Carolina Press.

ECONOMIC FRAGMENTS, by James Bann.
Order direct of author, R. R. 9, Box 120,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

READJUSTMENTS REQUIRED FOR RE-
COVERY, prepared by Maxwell S. Stewart.
10 cents from the Public Affairs Committee,
National Press Bldg., Washington, D. C.

INFLATION, INEVITABLE OR AVOID-
ABLE?, by Arthur W. Marget. 25 cenU
from the University of Minnesota Press,
Minneapolis.



Miscellaneous

THE SKELETON IN THE CLOSET, by
Clarence S. Darrow. 25 cents from the Iji-
ternational Pocket Library, 306 Stuart Street,
Boston, Mass.

BILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, by William T.
Stone and Ryllis Alexander Goslin.

COOPERATIVES, by Ryllis Alexander Goslin.
Headline Books. 35 cents each from the For-
eign Policy Association, 8 West 40 Street,
New York.

COOPERATION: THE DOMINANT ECONOMIC
IDEA OF THE FUTURE, by Henry A. Wallace.
10 cents from the Cooperative League, 167
West 12 Street, New York.

THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH
EDUCATION OF NEGROES IN THE
UNITED STATES. Yearbook of the Jour-
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from Howard University, Washington, D. C.

THEY CRASHED THE COLOR LINE! 15
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SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



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Publication and Editorial Office:
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MRM.'i MIDMOMIIl.V Monthly a year
St RV1 Y GRAPHIC Monthly $3 a year

SUBSCRIPTION TO BOTH $5 a year.

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retary.
PAUL KELLOGG, editor.

i AH AMIDON, ANN REED BRENNER, JOHN
PAI MER GAVIT, LOULA D. LASKER, FLORENCE LOEB
KK.I HX;G, GERTRUDE SPRIN(.ER, VICTOR WEYBRIGHT,
I.IIIN WIIIPPLE, associate editors; RUTH A. LER-
RH;O. IlnfN CHAMBERLAIN, assistant editors.



EUWARD T. DEVINE, GRAHAM TAYLOR, HAVEN
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11. H. KI-RTZ. HELEN CODY BAKER, con-
tributing editors.

WALTER F. GRUENINCER, business manager;
Mm ME CONDON, circulation manager; MARY R.
KSON, advertising manager.



FEBRUARY 1938



CONTENTS



VOL. LXXIV No. 2



Frontispiece

"This Business of Relief" GERTRUDE SPRINGER 35

Women and Children Last BBULAH AMIDON 38

Dead End Penology AUSTIN H. MaccoRMiCK 40

Social Agency Hoards and How to Serve on Them
IV Community Roots CLARENCE KING 41

Are You Afraid of Syphilis? RUTH ELLEN LINDENBERG 43

\Ii>s Bailey Says . . . :
"Speaking of Interpretation ..." GERTRUDE SPRINGER 45

The Common Welfare 47

The Social Front 49

Housing Among the States WPA In Pennsylvania
Insurance Compensation Recreation Youth and
Education The Public's Health Professional People
and Things

Readers Write 58

Book Reviews 60

Pamphlet Shelf 64

Survey Associates, Inc.



Wisdom teeth seem to make nothing but
trouble for the Roosevelts. so we have them
out. MRS. FRANKLIN IX ROOSEVELT.

There is absolutely no reason why. because
you understand something it should therefore
be true. LEONARD WOOI.F in The Listener.

The cost of social security is high but the
cost of social insecurity is higher. CHARLES

MII.IKR in YtiungstnTn Ohio /'indicator.

The modern progressive movement is a
crystallization of materialism, sensism, prag-

i and Frcudianism. TIIF. REV. WALTER
IMERS. Furdham I'nrcersity, New York.

I set out to give the public what it
wants, as the saying is, is a dangerous and
fallacious policy. SIR JOHN C. W. REITH.
director general, Brtish Broadcasting Cor-

<n.

h is being said and written about
saving the democracies. The best and wisest

> save our democracy is to use it.
DOROTHY DETZER, Woman's International
' /or Peace and Freedom.

By associating only with like-minded peo-
ple one has a sense of intellectual activity
without encountering those conflicts of ideas
which might bring on an attack of reflection.
GEORGE E. VINCENT. Pii.IX. to the Alumni

il, Amherst College.

\Ve have a right to demand of our leaders
in government, business and labor, fair evi-
dence that they are functioning like good
mechanics, not chewing the rag on our time.
But let us resolve not to look for miracles.
AI.VIN JOHNSON. New School for Social
Research.



So They Say



Idealism is commitment to the fulfilling of
possibilities. ARTHUR E. MORGAN in Antioch

Notes.

We live at the confluence of two things,
rivalry' and brotherhood. ROBERT FROST, at
the \ea- School for Social Research.

Discriminating reading by its citizens is
one of democracy's best guarantees of fulfill-
ment. PAUL IlfTciiiNSON in How to Read a
Newspaper.

Medicine today is probably the most lib-
eral of all of the professions of society.
CHARLES GORDON HEYD, past-president, Amer-
ican Medical Association.

\ -ulution of any economic problem which
fails to folve the social situation of which it
is a part, is not a solution at all. DAVID
KM iv JR.. president, \e;r Jersey Conference
oj Social Work.

I cannot reconcile myself to a primary
education which equips a child with the Eski-
mo technique of making a snow house but
does not teach him how to spell. PROF.
EARNEST A. HOOTON, liar-card University.

A charity ball is an insult to the poor for
whose sake men and women claim they dance,
dine and wine. A means adopted to help the
poor characteristic of a generation of enter-
prisers who believed themselves philanthropists
whenever they tossed a bone to the victims
of an economic system to which they owed
their opulence. Warder's Review, Central
Blatt and Social Justice.



Practically every new worker looks eagerly
for formulae. MARY V. BOOK, Brooklyn
Bureau of Charities.

Sometimes pooling ignorance is mistaken
for planning. PAUL L. BENJAMIN, Council
of Social Agencies, Buffalo, N. Y.

Industry needs each man and woman who
works for it, not only as a worker but as a
consumer. ARTHUR J. ALTJ.IEYER, chairman,
Social Security Board.

There are crimes of violence in every coun-
try, but our criminal record is the best ad-
vertised. CARL W. ACKERMAN, dean, C/ilum-
lia I niversity School of Journalism.

Forgive us our indolence and faithlessness
in not teaching nations a better way than
strife. Purge our own hearts of racial and
national antagonisms. A Prayer /or 1938,
Federal Council of Churches.

What is the good of reading unless you
know what books to read? Bibliographies
ought to lie about in every educated house-
hold. H. G. WELLS, speaking on the Empire
Broadcasting Service.

For all our pacifism, our unwillingness to
make any international commitments and our
supposed geographic security, the United
States is spending a billion dollars a year
upon its armaments. RAYMOND LESLIE BUELI.
in The Nation.

If the scientists can band themselves to-
gether internationally to prevent governments
using the latest advances of knowledge for
bad ends and will cease to be their agents in
so doing, it would be a magnificent thing.
SIR JOSIAII STAMP, British industrialist, in
The Rotarian.



"Dear Mr. President




Fitzpatrick in S/. LDIIU Post-Dispatch





Carmack in Christian Science Monitor
The Question Before the House and Senate



Fitzpatrick in St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Faith Hasn't Even Budged This Mountain



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



FEBRUARY 1938




VOL. LXXIV NO. 2



"This Business of Relief"



By GERTRUDE SPRINGER



SHARPEST business recession in American history.
. . . December employment drops by 300,000 ; weekly
payrolls by $15,800,000. . . . Unemployment census
invalidated by events. . . . Applications for relief skyrocket.
. . . \VPA expands to its budgetary- limit. . . . Local relief
funds petering out under pressure. . . . Business men and
welfare officials converge on Washington. . . . Hope. . . .
Confusion. . . . Anxiety. . . . Fear. . . . "More federal relief
imperative." . . . But how ?

Thus the mid-winter story unfolds; the curve of recov-
ery broken, the orderly development of a broad public wel-
fare program disrupted by rising need which cannot be
denied or postponed. Human want is again an immediate
and critical public problem.

The economic doctors disagree or are frankly at sea over
the causes of the business recession. Disturbed foreign trade?
Adverse government policies? Fear of "labor troubles"?
Decreased government spending? Hindsight analysis of
causes was clearer than foresight. Said William S. Knud-
sen, president of General Motors Corporation, "I don';
think anybody in God's world could have told me that the
outlook was going to drop 50 percent in two or three
weeks."

Anyway, what with over-extended inventories and con-
tracted buying, production was cut, hours reduced and men
laid off. "Put 30,000 men back to work?" exclaimed Mr.
Knudsen, "What would we give them to do? If we can't
sell cars we can't make them."

So the thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thou-
sands, all through industry were laid off. And because their
work these past several years has been so broken, they have
no back-log of reserves against unemployment, no recourse
but public assistance relief. And relief, bogged down in
the sequellae of the "depression" has neither capacity nor



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