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organizing cooperation of democratic na-
tions to embargo war supplies, raw ma-
terials, loans and credits destined for
aggressor nations; and modification of
our neutrality act to distinguish between
aggressor and victim.

Radio A five-year study of radio
broadcasts planned for school use has



been launched under the direction of I.
Keith Ty' cr , bureau of educational re-
search, Ohio State University. The first
two years of the project are financed
by a General Education Board grant.
Chicago, New York, Detroit, California,
have been selected as the centers for the
study because in each of these places
school broadcasts are originating. The
study will cover school broadcasts in
the fields of the social studies, science,
and the arts, and will include national,
regional and local programs. Particular
attention will be given to changes in
attitudes and development of new inter-
ests through school broadcasts.

Educational programs for adults in
evening hours definitely reserved for
that purpose will be attempted soon by
the Columbia Broadcasting System. A
committee of educators and publicists
headed by Lyman Bryson of Teachers
College, Columbia University, will plan
the new programs.

Youth Administration The Amer-
ican Youth Congress, meeting in an
emergency session in Washington, urged
the expenditure of the maximum con-
gressional allowance of $75 million by
the NYA as a means of offsetting the
effects on youth of the current business
recession. NYA expenditure of $38 mil-
lion during the current year has been
authorized. . . . Plans to continue the
work-experience project at Passama-
. quoddy Village, Me., have been approved
by President Roosevelt. The group of
228 youths drawn from New England
families on relief who were sent to
'Quoddy Village June 1 for training
and experience in various skills and
crafts returned to their homes October
31. The second group of 150 students
will include young people from New
York as well as New England.

School Health One third of New
York City's classrooms are inadequately
lighted even on a bright sunny day, a
recent Board of Education survey dis-
closes. Accepting a minimum standard
of fifteen foot-candles of intensity as
necessary, the report states that on av-
erage dark days 74 percent of the desks
do not receive this minimum. Even with
artificial lighting, 65 percent of the
pupils about 700,000 carry on their
classroom work under "extremely try-
ing seeing conditions." The report in-
cludes recommendations for improving
conditions in the present buildings and
for better illumination in new schools.

Illiteracy A campaign to stamp out
illiteracy in Louisiana has been launched
by the State Department of Education
and the WPA. An experiment has been
started in three parishes which, it is
hoped, will supply data for a state-wide



FEBRUARY 1938



53



program beginning in the fall. Classes
are being conducted in rural schools,
churches, homes, vacant stores. Enroll-
ment already totals about 2900 Negro
and 300 white illiterates. Both white and
Negro teachers are conducting the
classes. . . . "Appalling facts" on the
number of children who cannot read
and write in Alabama are quoted in
Alabama Social Welfare for January.
Recent figures for children eight to six-
teen years of age in the state show a
total of 50,811 illiterates 48,956 rural
children, 1855 city children. Of these,
33,685 are Negroes, of whom 32,624
live in the country, 1061 in cities; and
17,126 are white children, 16,332 rural,
794 city.

Negro Youth A study to determine
"what effect the minority racial status
of Negro youth has upon their person-
ality development" will be made by a
special committee for the American
Youth Commission, 744 Jackson Place,
Washington, D. C. Will W. Alexander,
Farm Security administrator and a mem-
ber of the commission, is chairman of
the committee. The study will be di-
rected by Robert L. Sutherland, head
of the division of social sciences, Buck-
nell University. The case study method
will be used, with personality inventories
and attitude tests for a large number of
individuals. "Data will be sought through
a consideration of the influence of segre-
gation and isolation; the bearing upon
personal stability of a narrow occupa-
tional horizon ; and the effects of limita-
tion of participation in civic and social
activities." Two guidance centers for
Negro youth will be established.

Study and Report References on
Leisure Education, an annotated bibli-
ography, is published by the American
Association of School Administrators, a
department of the National Education
Association, 1201 16 Street, N.W.,
Washington. Price, 25 cents. . . . The
National Occupational Conference, 551
Fifth Avenue, New York, offers four
more of the series of pamphlets each
giving an abstract and bibliography of
literature in a vocational field. These are
on aviation, diesel engine occupations,
occupations of the radio service man, and
of the air conditioning engineer. Price,
10 cents each.

The Public's Health



the publication of findings of
the National Health Inventory, vast
two-year fact-finding job of the Health
Institute, U.S. Public Health Service,
the nation has its first life-sized answers
to vital questions of health: Who and
how many people in the United States
are sick at a given time? What is the
nature of their disability? How much



medical and nursing care do they receive?
How do the amounts of total sickness
and of care received relate to economic
condition?

White-collar WPA workers, em-
ployed with the aid of $4 million of WPA
funds, asked the questions in a house-to-
house canvass which reached 2,800,000
persons. These included 740,000 urban
families in eighty-four different cities of
nineteen states, a total of 2,660,000 per-
sons; 36,000 families in twenty-three pri-
marily rural counties, a total of 140,000
persons. Findings were coded and cor-
related, during months of painstaking
work, by a staff which at its peak num-
bered a thousand workers also WPA.
The coding job alone required 13,000
"man-months" of work, while editing,
verification and checking through re-
peated processes was another vast under-
taking.

The plan and method for the inven-
tory were laid out with great care to at-
tain the highest degree of medical and
statistical accuracy. The work was di-
rected by Dr. L. R. Thompson of the
National Institute of Health; G. St. J.
Perrott, project director, and Clark Tib-
bitts, field director. Technical aspects
were handled also by Selwyn D. Collins,
principal statistician, and Rollo H. Brit-
ten, senior statistician.

"ON AN AVERAGE WINTER DAY," THE

census computes, six million people in
the United States are unable to work,
attend school or pursue their other usual
activities, on account of illness, injury or
gross physical impairment resulting from
disease or accident. In other terms, an
average of 4.5 percent of persons of all
ages were found to be "on the sick list,"
thus defined, on the day canvassed. For
persons of sixty-five years or over, this
proportion fluctuated to about one in
every eight, while only one in forty of
ages fifteen to twenty-four was disabled.
Among those under fifteen years, as well
as among the twenty-five to sixty-four-
year-olds, about the same proportion of
illness was found, slightly over 4 percent.

In terms of rime lost from usual activ-
ities (counting only illnesses which
caused disability for a week or more),
this means for the country as a whole
a quarter billion days each year. For the
average person this is about ten days
annually of incapacity from injury or
illness lasting a week or longer. Chronic
disease alone, in these statistics of mass
and average, accounts for six of the ten
days incapacity per person per year.

Analyzing the sick list by the afflictions
it includes, it appears that on this aver-
age winter day acute respiratory diseases
accounted for a million and a half of
the six million disabled persons. Approxi-
mately two and a half million were
disabled by chronic diseases such as
rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, tu-
berculosis, asthma, nervous diseases, ulcer



of the stomach. Injuries due to acciden'
accounted for the disability of about ;
half million persons, while acute infectioui
diseases afflicted about 250,000 persons'
mostly children. Appendicitis and acute
diseases of stomach and liver disablei
another 250,000.



MOST SIGNIFICANT OF THE 1NVENTOR1

findings are the correlations between ill
ness, medical care and annual income
The families canvassed were divided foi
purposes of the inventory into: familie:
with income in excess of $2000 (only 2(
percent of the whole group canvassed)
middle group with total family incomt
between $1000 and $2000 (40 percent oi
entire group studied) ; and the group
with annual family income under $100(
(the remaining 40 percent), of which
about half had received some form ol
public relief during the twelve months
preceding the canvass. Certain findings
are presented also, for what is consid-
ered the "comfortable" income group,
families with $3000 a year or over.

The data now released confirm the
findings of earlier surveys that frequency
of illness is highest among the lowest in-
come groups. Illnesses disabling for a
week or longer occurred among families
on relief, 57 percent more frequently than
among families with annual incomes of
$3000 or over. The highest frequency
rates, both for acute and for chronic ill-
ness, were found among the relief popu-
lation. In acute illnesses, the relief group
exceeded the "comfortable" income group
by 47 percent; in chronic illness by 87
percent. During the year of the survey,
two persons on relief were disabled for
one week or longer for every person in
the middle and highest income groups.

Illness disabled the wage earner of:
only one family in 250 among the high-
est income group (over $3000) while in
non-relief families with income under
$1000 this calamity was found in one in
every thirty-three families; in relief fam-
ilies, one in twenty.

Not only do relief and low income
families suffer more frequent illness
than do higher income groups, but the
average case of disabling chronic illness
in relief families is of 63 percent longer
duration than among the "comfortable"
group. Thus the estimated annual days
of disability (chronic and acute) among
the relief group total 15.3; for the non-
relief group under $1000, 11.7; the
$1000 to $2000 group, 7.6; the $2000 to
$3000 group, 7.1; over $3000 group, 6.6.

AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED, CARE BY PHYSI-

cians for disabling illness (lasting a week
or longer) among the lower income
groups, was found to be markedly
deficient. Even among "comfortable"
families, 17 percent of disabling illness
did not receive a physician's care.
Among relief families 30 percent of such



54



illnesses were unattended by a doctor,
though these are, for the most part, rec-
ords of the relatively well-provided pe-
riod of Federal Emergency Relief, when
some allowance was made for "medical
relief." Among families not on relief but
with incomes of less than $1000, 29
percent of illnesses were not under a
physician's care.

Private duty nursing in disabling
illness was available to only about one
percent of the relief cases, and to approxi-
mately 3 percent of cases in the $3000
and upwards level. A higher volume of
visiting nurse service was given to re-
lief and low income groups (13 percent)
than the 3 percent given to "comfor-
table" families.

The relief population was hospital-
ized at the annual rate of sixty-three
cases per thousand persons surveyed
(both sick and well) as compared with
forty-five persons per thousand of popu-
lation among persons in the "comforta-
ble" income class. This percent must be
related, however, to the much higher
percent of disabling illnesses among the
general relief population. In percent of
disabling illness hospitalized the story is:
among the non-relief population with in-
comes under $1000 the lowest rate, 24
percent ; among the relief population, the
next lowest rate, 26.8 percent; among
the "comfortable" families, 30 percent.

Professional

IN the school year that ended last
October the New York School of So-
cial Work awarded 115 diplomas, the
largest number in any year in its his-
tory. By the end of that month, 102 of
the graduates were employed in social
work, forty-three of them in New York
City, the rest scattered all over the coun-
try and as far afield as Chili and
Hawaii. Of the 102, twenty-three were
in jobs in public agencies.

Scholarships For 1938-39 Teachers
College, Columbia University, offers to
graduates of normal schools and colleges
or to teachers now in service a limited
number of scholarships and teaching fel-
lowships in work with the mentally,
physically or socially handicapped. Full
information from Prof. Merle E. Framp-
ton, 525 West 120 Street, New York.

Vol. 1, No. 1 New publications an-
nounced for early appearance which will
be of interest to social workers include:
Psychiatry, A Journal of the Biology
and the Pathology of Interpersonal Re-
lations, published by the William Alan-
White Psychiatric Foundation,



son



Washington, D. C., quarterly; Social
Problems, a magazine devoted to the
Critical Examination of the Ills of Con-
temporary Society, published by the so-
ciology department of Mount Saint



YOU CAN BE SURE OF THE BEST



IF YOU SUFFER FROM
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Symptoms such as nausea, "up-
set stomach," gat, "acid head-
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can now be relieved easily.

Just alkalize your excess stomach
aridity quickly by this fast
Phillips' method:
Take two teaspoons of Phillips'
Milk of Magnesia 30 minutes
after each meal, or two Phillips'
Milk of Magnesia tablets, each
tablet containing the equivalent



of a teaspoonful of the liquid
form. Almost immediately you
enjoy relief.

Always avoid "acid indigestion"
discomfort this easy way after
heavy meals or late hours.

Keep a bottle of genuine
Phillips' Milk of Mag-
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carry a box of Phillips'
tablets with yon. They
cost only 25c per box.




PH I LLI P



MAGVESIA



MERCUROCHROME, H. W. & D.

(Dibrom-oxymercuri-fluorescein-sodium)

After a thorough investigation of the evidence for and against at the
close of the last period of acceptance, the Council on Pharmacy and
Chemistry of the American Medical Association has again reaccepted
11935)

MERCUROCHROME, H. W. & D.

Literature on Request

HYNSON WESTCOTT & DUNNING, INC.

Baltimore, Md.




Joseph College, Philadelphia, monthly
except July and August; Cooperative
Health, published by the Medical Bu-
reau of the Cooperative League of the
U.S.A., monthly.

After the Depression Friends and
supporters of the Philadelphia YMCA
are making a determined effort to re-
habilitate its financial structure shaken
by years of depression conditions. Some
months ago its liabilities totaled more
than $5 million. Through the coopera-
tion of creditor groups and the relin-
quishment of the central properties to
the mortgage holder, indebtedness has
now been reduced to some $600,000.
During the present year a determined
effort will be made to raise $1 million
to buy back the central properties which
cost $4,400,000 and which are admirably
adapted to "Y" work. A similar effort
will be made to extend the membership
of the branches and to strengthen the
program, especially for boys.



State Coordination Wisconsin has
what its organizers believe to be the
first state coordinating committee of its
kind. Its purpose is "to do at the state
In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MID MONTHLY

55



level what local community or coordinat-
ing councils do at the local level." Or-
ganized through and interlocking with
the State Conference of Social Work, it
has its own officers, membership and
committee set-up through which it seeks
to coordinate activities of local groups
and associations in the state on public
welfare matters, particularly on specific
state-wide projects. Approximately fifty
organizations now are affiliated in the
committee. Its first project is the dis-
semination of information gathered by
the Citizen's Committee on Public Wel-
fare for its recent report to the legisla-
ture. Cooperating are the state universi-
ty and various public departments.

Elected Two newly-elected members
of the Central Committee of the Amer-
ican Red Cross are George L. Harrison,
president of the Federal Reserve Bank
of New York and Lloyd B. Wilson,
president of the Chesapeake and Poto-
mac Telephone Company of Washing-
ton, D. C. They succeed Alfred E. Smith
and Cornelius N. Bliss, of New York,
resigned.

Wesley C. Mitchell, professor of eco-
nomics at Columbia University, was
elected president for 1939 of the Amtr-



ican Association for the Advancement
of Science. George D. Birkhoff of Har-
vard is the 1938 president.

Sage News The 1937 edition of the
Social Work Yearbook, edited for the
Russell Sage Foundation by Russell H.
Kurtz, has had a second printing to
meet the demand occasioned by sales
already well beyond that of all previous
editions. . . . The biggest first printing
ever made of a Russell Sage publica-
tion has been ordered for The Public-
Assistance Worker, another of Mr.
Kurtz" editorial children. (See page
60) . . . Leader in bookstore interest
among Sage books of 1937 is Allan
Eaton's Handicrafts of the Southern
Highlands. [See Survey Graphic, No-
vember 1937.] Mr. Eaton recently ar-
ranged an exhibit of rural arts of Amer-
ica for the seventy-fifth anniversary cele-
bration of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. So popular was the exhibit
that its duration was extended and there
were requests that it be permanent.

On the first of February the Russell
Sage Foundation created a new depart-
ment of consumer credit studies. This
is really a descriptive re-christening of
the department of remedial loans which
has grown steadily since 1930 and now
is directed by Rolf Nugent.

Coming Events Member groups of
the American Council of Guidance and
Personnel Associations will hold their
annual meeting February 23-26 in At-
lantic City, N. J. . . . The American
Association for Adult Education will
meet May 16-18 at Asbury Park, N. J.
. . . The National Conference of Jew-
ish Social Welfare will be held May
28-31 in Washington, D. C. Harry
Greenstein of Baltimore is the president.
Still to come in a current series of
lectures for the benefit of the Affiliated
Schools for Workers are: Labor Cul-
ture, by Tom Tippett, February 15;
Foreign Labor Movements as seen from
the International Labor Office, by Carter
Goodrich, March 1; Philosophy of
Workers' Education, by Eduard C.
Lindeman, March 8. Information from
the schools, 302 East 35 Street, New
York. . . . New York University, divi-
sion of general education, has announced
a new occupational training course in
child care intended for those vocationally
interested in the care of small children.
It will be given on ten Tuesday after-
noons beginning February 8. ... The
New School for Social Research, New
York, in its spring curriculum has added
several new courses for social workers:
Social Security and Social Work, given
by Frieda Wunderlich, for many years
in social welfare work in Germany;
Whither Social Work, Issues and
Trends, by Leonard W. Mayo of the
Welfare Council of New York City;



Social Case Work and Social Resources,
by Mary Louise Whitehead, chief of
social service, New York Hospital. In-
formation from the school, 66 West 12
Street.

The Pennsylvania Conference on So-
cial Work will meet February 15-19 in
York, Pa. Information from H. A.
Waldkoenig, secretary, 743 Woolworth
Building, Lancaster.

The fourth annual conference on Con-
servation of Marriage and the Family
will be held April 12-15 at the University
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Infor-
mation from R. M. Grumman, extension
division of the university.

Organization News The National
Safety Council is twenty-five years old
this year. Its Silver Jubilee celebration
will take the form of a year-long in-
tensified effort for safety of all kinds.
. . . The Associated Charities Society of
Charleston, S. C. has reached the hon-
ored landmark of fifty years.

A number of Cleveland social agencies
recently have acquired new facilities.
These include: a new nurses' home at
the Salvation Army Booth Memorial
Home, a new industrial building for the
Society for the Blind, and one for the
Association for Crippled and Disabled
as the result of a bequest by the late
Metelene Wickwire; a new warm-water
pool for paralysis treatment at the latter
association, by a grant from the Beau-
mont Charities Trust; a Community
Service Building which provides a new
home for fifteen community fund agen-
cies, through a bequest to several agen-
cies by the late Mrs. Mariett L. Hun-

tington.

As Bostonian as
the traditions of
Beacon Hill, where
it was built in the
early nineteenth
century, and pre-
serving the charm
of that period, is
the new home of
the Boston Family
Welfare Associa-
tion, at 10 Derne
Street, recent gift of "a friend." The
society for many years of late very
crowded ones carried on its work at
43 Hawkins Street, but now leaves that
building to the manifold uses of public
welfare agencies.

The National Probation Association,
recognizing the growing importance of
the far West in criminology, has an-
nounced that it will establish a western
branch office at San Francisco, the first
branch in the association's thirty years
of existence. Eleven western states will
be included in the new division to be
directed by Ralph G. Wales, executive
secretary of the Protective Service Bu-
reau of Buffalo, N. Y. . . . The Trav-




elers Aid Society of New York reports
ar. increase of nearly 10 percent in the
number of persons assisted in 1937 over
1936 the 1937 total being over 52,-
000. . . . The Charity Organization So-
ciety of New York has changed the
name of its Bureau of Advice and In-
formation to Contributors Information
Bureau. The change is in the interest
of accuracy, says the society, citing re-
quests for increasingly irrelevant infor-
mation from matrimonial advice to
where to get a social security number
tatooed. The bureau is directed by Ru-
dolph T. Danstedt, until recently assist-
ant director of the Family Welfare So-
ciety of Queens. Evelyn Bevier, former
secretary, remains as his associate.

Westward Ho Bertha C. Reynolds
has resigned from the Smith College
School of Social Work and next fall
will join the faculty of Washington Uni-
versity, St. Louis, to give a course in
supervision in the George Warren
Brown department of social work, Frank
J. Bruno, director. Writes Mr. Bruno:
"Miss Reynolds' group will be limited
to twenty persons who have completed
two years in a school of social work,
selected from among the younger gradu-
ates who have had or are ready to have
supervisory experience. She hopes that
the group will include representatives
of public as well as private social work,
rural as well as urban, and group as
well as case work. While applications
for the course will be accepted freely,
the choice of the twenty best fitted to
take it will be made carefully."

The course will run through the aca-
demic year, September 29, 1938 to June
2, 1939, and registration for one semes-
ter only will not be accepted. It will
carry twelve semester units of credit.
Supporting courses in psychiatry, ad-
vanced case work and research will en-
able students to complete their full time
curriculum.

In Print A notable addition to the
slender literature available on supervis-
ory methods and procedures in case
work in a large public family service
agency, is a study hammered out on the
anvil of experience by a committee in the
family service division of the Chicago
Relief Administration, 222 West North
Bank Drive. This committee and its sub-
committees, headed by Clara Paul Paige,
director of the division, and made up
largely of staff, has been at work on the
project off and on for three years or so.
The report, complete with samples of
record blanks, deals with methods devel-
oped and tested as routines whereby a
large volume of work may be handled
effectively. The scope of the study is in-
dicated by the titles of its chapter head-
ings: Standards for the Case Worker;
Organization of the Day's Work by the



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 17 of 109)