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Why and how do peace loving people go
to war and are we helpless to do anything

about it, the author asks, and proceeds to

a realistic consideration of peace and its

possibilities and problems.


gene Staley. League of Nations Association.
78 pp. Price 25 cents from the association,
8 West 40 Street, New York.

Subtitled, "an analysis of the cost to
the United States of cash and carry neu-
trality embargoes, economic sanctions and
other policies in the Far Eastern conflict."


Integration or Separation, by Ellen C. Pot-
ter, M.D. Reprinted from the Social Service
Review. Copies from the author, Depart-
ment of Institutions and Agencies. Trenton,
N'. J.

A discussion of the place of public wel-
fare institutions in the future of public
welfare administration in the United
States, and of the danger that with all
the current emphasis on the categories,
the institutions will be side-tracked in
terms of planning.

cial Work Publicity Council. 16 pp. Price
25 cents from the council, 130 East 22
Street, New York.

A collection of "chapters from experi-
ence" for the guidance of case workers
and others who must add publicity to their
other jobs.

by the Council of Social Agencies, 230 East
Forsyth Street, Jacksonville, Fla. 45 pp.
Order from the council.

A workmanly study of social problems
in Jacksonville and Duval County, un-
dertaken by a study planning committee
as fact-finding for use in continuous plan-
ning to meet the community's human
needs. Major problems, their extent and
location are delineated in fields of health,
dependency, behavior and general welfare.

In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLV




Publication and Editorial Office:
l\2 East 19 Street, New York. N. Y.

-.1 R\ I A MIDMOMMLV Monthly $3 a year

SI R\ I.V GRAPHIC Monthly *3 a year


JULIAN \V. M u >.. chairman of the Board;
Lucius R. EASTMAN, president; JOSEPH P. CHAM-
BERLAIN. JOHN PALMER GAVIT, vice-presidents;
ANN REED BRENNER, secretary.





LEON WHIPPLE, associate editors; RUTH A. LER-

II.O. HELEN CHAMBERLAIN, assistant editors.

tributing editors.

WALTER F. GRUENINCER, business manager;
K CONDON, circulation manager; MARY R.
PERSON, advertising manager.

MARCH 1938



Douglas P. Falconer FRONTISPIECE

\t-w York Starts Central Financing


These Past Five Years WILLIAM H. MATTHEWS 70

Charity A Poem HELEN MARINO 72

"Oh, Those Social Workers!" KATHRYN CLOSE 73

Board Member Soul Searching RUTH HYDE HARVIE 74

The Poorhouse Persists HELEN GLENN TYSON 76

The Common Welfare 78

The Social Front 80

Relief Public Assistance Compensation Child Wel-
fare Schools and Education Youth Administration
Jobs and Workers Against Crime Money at Work
The Public's Health Volunteer Service Professional
People and Things

Book Reviews 92

The Pamphlet Shelf 96

' Sn: -; > .W iciatl *. Inc.

Averages easily cover up spots of poverty
md instability. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT.

:e has never been a man great enough
o be a dictator and there is not one today.
PEARI. BIIK in .Surrey Graphic.

A wise statesmanship will not presume ton
nuch upon stability of ideals over an empty
Ouch. ALVIN JOHNSON, rlirfrt'.r.

oo/ for Social Research.

Men will probably always want more than
r share, but it may be that it will not

be of the same things. PROFESSOR
IAI.PII GERARD, University of Chicago.

It is the hungry child, not the one who is
lourished. who is most apt to grow up to bite
Je hand that didn't feed it. RAYMOND
CLAPPER, Washington news commentator.

When we speak of helping people today we
mean a charity that maintains them
n their plight, but a wisdom that lifts them
jut of it and strengthens them against relapse.
W. J. CAMERON on the Ford radio program.

Other nations are making strenuous efforts
jo produce a generation fit for war. Surely
e need no less to strive to rear up a genera-
lion fit for the pursuits of peace. DR.
THOMAS PARRAN, surgeon general, V . S. Pub-
ie Health Service.

m the welter of acrimonious discussion
ancerning medical organizations that has
!pne on both within and without the profes-
iion during the last few years, at least one
lignificant fact emerges and that is that the
nedical profession cannot live to itself alone.
lent. \f:i Ynrk Academy of Medicine.

So They Say

Impatience is a phase of violence. GANDHI.

Intelligent fools are people who have re-
fused to apply their intelligence to the sub-
ject of themselves. ALDOVS HCXIKY in Ends
unit Means.

Instead of looking on discussion as an ob-
stacle to action we think it an indispensable
preliminary to any wise action at all. Peri-
cles, c.490-429 R.C.

Visitors to the World's Fair will find art
all around them to the right, to the left
and even under foot. GROVER WIIAII.N.
president. .\>:r }'-,rk World's Fair.

When the \egro begins to lose employ-
ment in ever-increasing numbers, the first
evidence of lowering business activity has
appeared. EUGENE KINCKLE JONES, executive
secretary, National Urban League.

The British censor bars kids under sixteen
from seeing Snow White. He's afraid it will
scare them. . . . England, in case you've for-
gotten, is where tots drill once weekly with
gas masks! WALTER WINCHEI.I., newspaper

Governmental propaganda is a contagious
disease. It begins by being educational. It
evolves and culminates in partiality, in the
fixation of opinions. In the end it becomes
a weapon of governments, whether they are
democratic or totalitarian. In the end it de-
stroys both the freedom of news and of
opinion. CARL W. ACKERMAN, dean, Colum-
bia University School of Journalism.

It isn't public health ideas we lack it's
money. MAYOR LA GUARDIA, New York.

I think the poorest he that is in England
hath a life to live as the richest he. Colonel
Rainhoro, Cromwell soldier, 1647.

All that makes existence valuable to any-
one depends on the enforcement of restraints
upon the action of other people. JOHN
Srt-ART MILL, 1806-73.

Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia
is hunting "a moral substitute for war."
There is peace of course or are we being
inane? Chicago Daily Netcs.

God may have Eternity, but we have
only a little while to solve our problems and
be Christian. Department of Race Relations,
Federal Council of Churches,

History has proved that the only place
you can trust power is in the hands of the
people. You have to take your chances with
the judgment of the people. EDUARD C.
LINDEMAN, New York School of Social Work.

I have no objection to brilliant talk about
capitalism as magic, and I get a lot of fun
out of it. But I want more light on how
capitalism works or doesn't work, and how
to control it or displace it. MAX LERNER in
The Nation.

There is the danger that radio and the
movies will in time make us a nation of
grown up children. An intelligence which be-
fits a child of twelve is a beautiful thing when
found in a child of twelve but not in a child
of thirty. GEORGE HENRY PAYNE, Federal
Communications Commission to National
Conference on Educational Broadcasting.


Roy Pinney


The executive director of the newly formed Greater New York Fund, Inc., was identified for fifteen years with child
welfare work in Buffalo, N. Y. Since 1932 he has been the general secretary of the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities.


MARCH 1938


New York Starts Central Financing

By JAMES G. ELAINE, president, Greater New York Fund, Inc.

BIGGEST, hardest, last New York City finally
has swung into line and taken first steps which
parallel though they do not follow exactly the
orthodox course of central financing for voluntary social
work. The Greater New York Fund, Inc. now is lined up
in marching order and will head for its first goal now
set :it an approximate $10 million around May first.
Hedged about with complications and special circum-
l, for years proposals for such a project in New
York have been a subject of debate and study, usually end-
ing with rejection. When the Welfare Council of New
York City was born in 1925, a major recommendation
i>f the distinguished committee which produced it was that
"a scientific study of the community chest method of
financing social agencies, and its adaptability to New York
City either on a city-wide basis or by boroughs, by func-
ions or possibly even by trades, would seem to be an in-
vitable obligation of a welfare council." Since that time,
:ommittee after committee has labored and gained little
nore for its pains than a tentative proposal or two and the
jerpetuation of the idea. The most recent committee, made
ip of business men and professional and volunteer social
md health workers, for three years has worked as a com-
nittee of the Welfare Council. It has held to the idea that
a plan commended itself to the substantial group
)f social agencies of the city, it should be shelved. At last
i plan has been developed which does so commend itself.
>ince the fund will afford only partial support to its ben-
ficiaries and will not seek gifts from individuals except
is members of employe groups, its sponsors point out that
t is not a community chest. They call it rather "a united
Qanthropic movement." This plan has the approval of
Welfare Council, the United Hospital Fund, the lead-
ng sectarian federations, and important individual agen-
i-s. without which initial blessing no start could or would
lave been made.

The most sturdy proponents of New York City's plan
or central financing do not call it perfect. Neither do they
rail it simple. All of the city's traditional set-up of private
ocial work, some of it century-old, had to be considered.
The vast bulk, cumbersome geography and political and
Vligious make-up of the five-borough metropolis had to

be woven into a reasonably cohesive plan. It is estimated
that of the $85 million annually expended by some eight
hundred voluntary social welfare and health agencies and
hospitals in New York City, about $25 million comes in as
contributions, the balance being income from endowments
and capital funds, payments for services and for the care
of public charges. Involved in the contributed $25 million
are several large functional and sectarian federations, spe-
cial money-raising departments in most of the unaffiliated
agencies, professional fund-raising firms, fraternal and oc-
cupational groups and, to some extent, business and cor-
poration giving. All these were considered.

THE vital seed at the core of New York's plan for cen-
tral financing is the need to widen the sources of in-
come of the city's voluntary social work. The planners
were convinced that two important classes, corporations and
employe groups, notably generous in past emergency ap-
peals, have lacked any planned or systematic opportunity
for regular contributions. These are the same business
groups which gave some 26 percent of the $20 million
raised for relief of unemployment in emergency campaigns
of 1931 and the employe groups which contributed 23
percent of that total. Only in the case of one or two large
federations are these groups given any organized attention
in annual campaigns. The fund will make a comprehensive
effort to reach, through these groups, sources of additional
money now badly needed to bolster weak spots in the
city's social services and to meet the special stresses of need
and shrinkages of giving which recent years have brought.
Hand in glove with the objective of added money is the
planning function of the proposed new fund. That is en-
visioned as the injection of enough broad plan and direc-
tion into social and health work to find and take account
of neglected and deprived areas where they exist and to
achieve equitable distribution of services throughout the
greater city. This problem of distribution of services is
greatly aggravated by the tendency of New Yorkers to
work in the borough of Manhattan but to reside in the
boroughs of Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens and Richmond.
Thus, Manhattan business largely supports the boroughs
which, in turn, house many of the problems Manhattan


creates. With new sources of income, the ultimate objec-
tive of New York's centralizing fund, then, is not so much
a plan limited to deficit financing as a means of implement-
ing a more rational and defensible social work structure.

The chances for success of the whole venture depend in
large measure upon a spirit of voluntary participation and
a ready give-and-take by everybody concerned. Completely
in the democratic tradition, the plan and its proponents
begin with the thesis that there is no such word as "en-
force" in any part of the proposition. New York's social
work is accustomed to this type of joint effort through its
United Hospital Fund, its federations of agencies and the
Welfare Council, with its years of experience in coordina-
tion. With even greater gains in prospect from this newest
form of team play, there seems good reason to anticipate
a wholehearted effort from all hands for the success and
growth of the Greater New York Fund, Inc.

Can it be done? Is the whole thing too big? Is the new
money really there and will it let itself be tapped ? Can the
planning function, to include the whole vast structure of
the city's social and health services, public as well as private,
hope to succeed in the complete absence of "dictatorship?"
Will the necessarily complex machinery for budgeting and
for raising and distributing the money bog down of its own
mass? Is New York too set in tradition for such a venture?
At this early date, no one can venture conclusive answers to
these inevitable questions. But one thing is certain; there
can be few possible questions which the planning commit-
tees have failed to consider or which they have ignored.

WOVEN into the plan's essential fabric is New York's
effort to answer its problem of bigness in central fi-
nancing. There is no thought of meticulous blueprinting,
either in the planning function or in the budgeting procedure
as related to individual agencies. The very fact of admission
into fund participation carries with it a vote of confidence
in the agency's or federation's own board of directors and
general plan of operation. The fund will look to agencies'
directors for the minute scrutiny of items in individual
budgets and will expect the allotted money to be used with-
in the broad understanding arrived at with the agency. The
fund -will be concerned with the essential functions being
performed by an agency, their usefulness and relation to the
total need for those functions in the area served.

There will be no quizzing of "Just how many pencils
did you use last year and can you get along with two more
or less this year?" The fund would ask rather, "Are you
performing in a useful and fairly efficient manner a function
which contributes to a rational plan for the general welfare
of your community?" There might be such recommenda-
tions as that the money supplied by the fund be used to raise
a sub-standard salary scale or to improve personnel perform-
ance rather than to pay for new functions when old ones
are not being efficiently performed. Thus the fund will be
able to say to an agency, "You need to improve this or that
part of your job," and then to help finance the improvement.

New York hopes to steer around the shoals of mass and
detail by setting up a central admission and distribution
committee heading a series of functional admission and dis-
tribution committees, basic to the whole plan. Through this
committee mechanism, direction will be given to the huge
undertaking at the outset, through analysis of total needs
and resources, and by apportionment of available money
geographically and by services. The functional committees
each will cover an area, such as family case work, care of

the aged, recreation, and so on. The central committee will
be an integral part of the Welfare Council, served by mem-
bers of the council staff. It will determine the number, size
and scope of the functional committees and will correlate
their activities. The United Hospital Fund will designate
the committee for the voluntary hospitals; appointment to
membership in other functional committees will be made
by the president of the Welfare Council on nomination by
existing divisions of the council and with the approval of
the executive committees of fund and council.

THE functional committees will be responsible for giv-
ing to the central committee a general estimate of
needs for additional money in their special fields, to be
considered eventually by the board of directors in setting
annual campaign goals. At the other end of the process, the
functional committees will have the responsibility of recom-
mending allocations to be made to individual agencies in
their special fields, with regard to total money available, to
varying needs of geographic areas, and to relative possibili-
ties and needs for development of individual agencies.

The job of reviewing and considering the applications of
agencies for participation in the fund also falls to the func -
tional committees. Certain broad general requirements are
set by the central committee, including responsibility of
agency board and staff, performance of a necessary service
in a reasonably efficient manner and in accord with sound;
practice, and business-like financial recording. Beyond that
it is the duty of the appropriate functional committee to
review and offer recommendations on an agency's applica-

In its strategic, unifying position, the central committee
will "seek to accomplish better community planning in the
fields of social and health work," and "shall make a con-
tinuous study of data now available . . . and call for addi-
tional data as needed," to achieve steady progress toward
the goal. An important instrument to that end, especially
in the early years before planning has had time to takej
effect, is the reserve fund. This will be raised as part of thej
regular annual campaigns but will be set apart to be avail-
able, through the central committee, for use in meeting
"unforeseen emergencies and to correct, at least in part,'
inadequacies and inequities found to exist."

Departure from the plan of central financing of entire
agency budgets as followed in a majority of cities, undoubt-
edly will bring both liabilities and assets. Besides the restric-
tion of sources of income, there will be lacking that alluring
if dubious guarantee to the individual giver that he buys
immunity from any and all appeals by giving once. In plans
for the Greater New York Fund, Inc. that immunity is!
promised only to corporations as such and to employe groups
as such not to individuals involved, who may be approached
through other channels. Special complications are encoun-
tered in the budget-making and reviewing processes in af
supplementation plan such as this one. On the other hand
under such a plan the individual agency is not tempted to
settle back and give over either its immediate ties to its com^
munity of givers or its energetic efforts for self-improvement,
a situation which makes for healthy agencies.

While solicitation of employe groups often has opened
the way for the undesirable element of "pressure giving"'-
there is another and an important aspect. The "little giver" 1
who would give a few dollars under ordinary circumstances,
whether he is aware of it or not hardly meets the collection
expenses for his gift. Thus his only chance of making his



gitt count at the receiving end is to give under some such
plan of group solicitation. In employe group giving, the
employer actually pays the cost of collection. Whatever the
employe or his neighbors have experienced of New York's
voluntary social or health work will help to overcome the
impersonality of this type of giving and the small giver will
have the satisfaction of being assured that his gift is going
for "approved services." Advice has been solicited from
labor leadership and other qualified sources on methods of
soliciting employe group gifts, and a special committee will
be established to act as watch-dog against abuse.

The pre-existence of a number of strong federations in
York, both sectarian and functional, frequently has
been offered as a serious objection to central financing. The
fund has recognized the importance of gearing its structure
to the operations of these groups and plans have been laid
accordingly. In cases where federations or agencies custom-
arily have received income from corporations or groups
which the fund now plans to solicit, any gifts which come
from these same sources, up to the amount of the former
gift, will be earmarked for the next three years for the usual
recipient. Federations probably will receive in a lump sum
the total of allotments to their constituent agencies, though
the agencies will be reviewed individually by the committees.

It is possible, of course, that some individual agencies
which are members of a federation, for one reason or an-
other will fail to qualify for fund participation. Such a
situation might call for additional financing through the
fund to bring that agency up to the standard for eligibility;
on the other hand, it might call the attention of the federa-
tion to a standard too low to be accepted by federation or
fund. On the other hand, there may be agencies which are
acceptable fund participants but which will not need addi-
tional financing and so will participate without a budget

A HAPPY circumstance attending the birth of central
financing in New York is the fruitful thirteen years
of life of the Welfare Council. Probably no other fund
in the United States, with the possible exception of the
Cleveland Community Fund, has begun life with its agen-
cies so habituated to cooperation and with the guidance of
to comprehensive a body of information on the needs and
resources of its community as the council has assembled.
Findings on the city-wide services to the aged, the relief
and case work given to needy families, needs and available
services for health, are only segments of the comprehensive
factual material at hand, through the efforts of the Welfare
Council research department and other central agencies.
Welfare Council studies show at a glance the totals and
distribution of expenditures for the city's health and social
services, broken down by functions, religions, sources of
money, and so on. The recent Hospital Survey of New
York, under United Hospital Fund auspices, studied that
field with unprecedented thoroughness. There will be little
excuse for guesswork in the planning of the Greater New
York Fund, Inc.

All along the way, New York's planning committee has
availed itself of the experience of funds in other cities.
Many common problems are found even in situations which
differ materially. In fact, the New York fund has been
described as a kind of cross between the Chicago and Cleve-
land plans taking much of the pattern of its planning and
allocating functions from Cleveland and of its set-up for
solicitation of funds from Chicago. It is interesting to note

in Chicago's experience with a similar type of solicitation
that gifts to individual agencies from customary sources of
support have not been reduced. Analysis of campaigns in
St. Louis shows corporations, exclusive of employes, giving
28.1 percent of the total received in welfare campaigns. In
Pittsburgh, 29.3 percent of the 1935 community total was
contributed by business firms.

THE initial campaign of The Greater New York Fund
opens with the support of a sponsoring committee of
some 1500 New Yorkers, including names to conjure with
in business, finance, industry and government. The hon-
orary chairmen of this commitee are: Mayor Fiorello H.
La Guardia, Walter S. Gifford, Thomas W. Lament, the
Hon. Alfred E. Smith, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Percy

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 20 of 109)