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Elmer F. Andrews, New York State In-
dustrial Commissioner, to remove the
maximum limitation of $49 million now
set for federal appropriation for the ad-
ministration of state unemployment com-
pensation laws. Under the act, contribu-
tions collected by the state from employ-
ers must be used exclusively for benefit
payments. The state unemployment com-



MARCH 1938



83



pensation administrations are wholly de-
pendent on federal funds for administra-
tive expenses. Grants for the third quar-
ter of the present fiscal year totalled $13
million. This leaves $9,500,000 for the
administration of jobless benefits for the
final quarter. Mr. Andrews holds that
unless the terms of Title III are altered,
less than 40 percent of the payroll taxes
imposed under the act to defray the ad-
ministrative costs of unemployment in-
surance will be returned to the states
through 1939.

Security Conference The eleventh
national conference on social security,
called by the American Association for
Social Security, will be held in New York
City, April 8 and 9. Problems of adminis-
tration as well as the fundamental issues
raised by the programs already adopted
will be the outstanding topics of the meet-
ing. Detailed program from the associa-
tion, 22 East 17 Street, New York.

Proposed Change Senator Byrnes
has introduced a bill proposing a change
in the security act to permit states to be-
gin to pay unemployment compensation
at the end of one year after enactment
of a state law, instead of two years. . . .
Senator Byrnes also has introduced a bill
under which the Security Board could
require states to establish a merit system
for state employes engaged in the ad-
ministration of programs where the fed-
eral government pays part of the cost.

The representatives of small business,
meeting last month in Washington, rec-
ommended to President Roosevelt "the
simplification of detailed forms in con-
nection with the social security tax," and
"the reduction of unemployment taxes in
stabilized industries where now exists
justifiable employment experience."

Partial Unemployment The spe-
cial New York legislative committee to
study the payment of benefits to the par-
tially employed has presented an interim
report asking that its study be continued
for one year before any specific program
is offered. The committee holds that the
loss in wages due to partial unemploy-
ment may be as great as the loss due to
total unemployment, and that the fram-
ing of practicable provisions giving pro-
tection against partial unemployment is
more complex than devising measures to
give compensation for total unemploy-
ment. Further, the committee feels it
would be unsafe to launch a program of
partial-unemployment benefits before the
adequacy of the reserve fund has been
tested.

Record and Report Some Basic
Readings in Social Security, Publication
No. 28 of the Social Security Board, is a
well arranged guide to books, magazine
articles, pamphlets and government re-



ports on all phases of the security pro-
gram. . . . One phase of the thorny prob-
lem as to when a claimant is or is not
entitled to benefits is explored on the ba-
sis of British principles and procedure in
a detailed study of Trades Disputes
Disqualification Clause under the British
Unemployment Insurance Acts, by Peter
T. Swanish. Studies in Business Admin-
istration, University of Chicago Press.
Price $1.




The change in the number of children un-
der five years per 1000 white women 20 to
44 years old in this country, is one of the
factors affecting the numbers and ages of
the public school population. The Effect
of Population Changes on American Edu-
cation is shown, in text and lively picture
charts, in a new study published by the
Education Policies Commission, appointed
by the National Education Association and
the American Association of School Ad-
ministrators, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. Price 50 cents.

Child Welfare

A FIFTEEN-YEAR fight for cus-
todial care for feeble-minded
Negro children in Virginia has been won.
The state's 1938 budget carries an ap-
propriation for special facilities to estab-
lish a training school and custodial in-
stitution which will accommodate 300 of
these children beginning with the calen-
dar year 1939.

The problem of education and custody
of this group of the state's underpriv-
ileged children has been extremely diffi-
cult as there has never been any specific
provision made for them and necessarily
they have been scattered through a va-
riety of inappropriate institutions. The
Virginia State Department of Public
Welfare, in its official publication, con-



gratulates those who have brought about
the advance and says, "The lack of such
care has been one of the greatest ob-
stacles to sound welfare progress in
Virginia."

News Notes It was much safer to
be a baby in Chicago in 1937 than in
1927, that is, if the baby and its mother
are under the care of the Infant Wel-
fare Society. Last year the society
achieved a low water mark in mortality
among its 9051 young charges, 6.4 deaths
per thousand. In 1927 the rate was 9.8
per thousand.

At the request of the New York State
Board of Social Welfare and other agen-
cies, the Children's Aid Society of New
York has undertaken the placement of
a group of Negro children from the
Warwick State School. A new staff
member, Alice Hyman, formerly with
the city Emergency Relief Bureau, has
been appointed for the work of attempt-
ing to place some of these children in
Negro boarding foster homes in and
about New York. The project is looked
upon as a demonstration in an increasing-
ly difficult problem of child welfare.
Many Negro children are committed to
Warwick simply because of lack of fa-
cilities for their care in the community.

Because money is lacking to employ a
nurse in its new neighborhood day
nursery, New York's Hudson Guild is
experimenting by having mothers of the
children take turns on the job. The
mothers selected were given preliminary
instruction and demonstrations by a pro-
fessional nursery-school teacher.

Georgia's Children With assistance
to dependent children now getting under
way in Georgia, by means of Social Se-
curity Board grants, social workers are
taking a hard look at conditions which
have long troubled them, and which now
have a chance for correction. Adoptions,
for example. Says Virginia L. Bennett,
supervisor of child care and adoptions in
the children's division of the Department
of Public Welfare, "Child placing in
Georgia is frankly in a chaotic state. . . .
Almost we can repeat the old song 'To-
day is the day we give babies away with
a half a pound of tea'." As a first step
in safeguarding the process of adoption,
the progressive child placing agencies
of the state, in conference, agreed on
standards and goals for their services.
They are now requesting supervision
from the state department, such super-
vision being implicit in the granting of
a license.

Georgia is learning, too, about its crip-
pled children. A WPA survey sponsored
by the State Departments of Health,
Education and Public Welfare showed at
least 7557 crippled children in the state
with reason to believe that the number
would have been higher, especially in the
proportion of colored children, had the



84



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



count been as accurate in all counties as
it was in some. Most disquieting was
the fact that while 75 percent of the
cases were found in rural areas only
27 percent of them were receiving hos-
pital treatment as against 53 percent in
urban counties. Among older crippled
children a large proportion were "old"
cases which had become crippled early
in life and had lacked orthopedic and
educational treatment.

Surprise The Girl Scout Council of
the Oranges and Maplewood, N. J. still
is rubbing its eyes over the unexpected
gift of a highly improved twenty-acre
island in Saranac Lake in the Adiron-
dack* with a value estimated variously
from several hundred thousand to a mil-
lion dollars. Looking about for a new
site for a summer camp the council had
-heep's eyes on the island, long the
summer home of Henry Graves of
Orange. While it was discussing finan-
cial plans, Mr. Graves presented the
estate to the scouts, lock, stock and
barrel complete with boats, canoes and
everything. On the island is a large
lodge with twenty-four bedrooms fully
equipped with modern conveniences,
fourteen small buildings, log-cabin style,
picnic grounds, tennis courts, and so on.

Boys' Club Boom Projects for the
expansion of facilities of boys' clubs are
assuming the proportions of a modest
boom. From thirty-one different cities
Boys' Clubs of America, Inc. recently has
had requests for expert advice on plan-
ning and on operating costs, while four-
teen new club houses and additions to
fifteen others representing a total cost
of $2,343,000, are at the construction
stage. In Washington, D. C. the Boys'
Club has a new $200,000 building under
way and the Jewish Community Center,
a large addition especially planned for
boys' work. In Chicago a gift from L. L.
Valentine is erecting a building to cost
$275,000, complete with a large roof
playground, to accommodate three thou-
sand boys. In New York the Children's
Aid Society is planning a $400,000 Har-
lem unit and the Madison Square Boys'
Club a new $300,000 home for itself.

For Use The Child Study Associa-
tion of America has ready for distribu-
tion copies of its new film based on ac-
tivities of children in its summer play
schools, demonstrating the possibilities in
all-day care programs. The film is loaned,
on application, to responsible agencies
paying transportation costs and giving
assurance of proper handling of the film.
Apply to the association, 221 West 57
Street, New York. . . . The first com-
pilation of material from the Child Wel-
fare League of America's questionnaire
on salaries of executives, case workers
and other professional staff is available.
Price 25 cents from the league, 130 East



22 Street, New York. . . . Copies of
the Health Program for Children in
Foster Care, adopted by the board of the
league and sent to all members, may be
purchased for 35 cents. Copies of the
dental record card (3 cents each) of the
eye examination card (2 cents each) and
the medical record form (\ l /t cents
each) also are available. The material
is offered as a guide to children's organ-
izations in developing medical services.
It has been prepared by Dr. Florence A.
Browne, staff pediatrician of the league.
(All prices direct from Child Welfare
League of America.)

Schools and Education

TPHE Board of Regents of the Univer-
sity of Minnesota has exonerated Prof.
William S. Schaper, dismissed from the
teaching staff in 1917 because he opposed
entrance of this country into the World
War. The action of twenty years ago has
been expunged from the records of the
board. Professor Schaper had been a full
professor at Minnesota for thirteen
years and was head of the department of
political science at the time he was dis-
charged, without hearing, after a Minne-
sota Safety Commission meeting decided
that he was "disloyal." The Board of
Regents has offered him the title of pro-
fessor emeritus in the college of political
science, and $5000 "in reparation of his
loss of salary for the academic year 1917-
18." Prof. Schaper is now a member of
the University of Oklahoma faculty.

New York Forums More than 200,-
000 persons attended open forums in 525
centers in New York State in 1937, ac-
cording to a report issued by the division
of adult education and library extension
of the state education department. The
report covers only the forums included
in the cooperative program of the public
schools and the WPA. Most of the fo-
rum interest is in cities and large towns,
though discussions have been held in thir-
ty granges and other rural groups. There
is greatest interest throughout the state
in international problems, with domestic
economic problems second. In the New
York program, chief reliance has been
placed on local people as speakers and
leaders. About 2000 volunteer speakers
have addressed the forums. About one
hundred persons are employed as "coun-
selors" to assist in the organization of
forum groups, and to maintain such ser-
vices as a listing of some 4000 speakers,
outlines of discussion series, bibliogra-
phies of pamphlets and books on current
subjects, and so on. The report shows
unit costs so low that the leaders have
every reason to hope that school boards
will be able to take over the expense
when WPA aid is discontinued. A cost
as low as 7 cents per forum member per



hour was achieved in Buffalo, "due to the
efficiency of the volunteer system em-
ployed and the successful use of existing
groups."

College Salaries Salaries of 25,000
full-time faculty members in 250 institu-
tions of higher learning throughout the
United States are analyzed in a new
Office of Education study. The report
shows a wider salary range in private
than in public institutions. Thus the sal-
aries of professors vary from a low me-
dian of $2606 to a high median of $4676
in different types of publicly controlled
colleges and universities. The range in
privately controlled institutions is from
$1662 to $5733. In Negro colleges, typi-
cal staff salaries vary from $1173 to
$2094 for all faculty ranks. The bulletin
notes that college salaries have not yet
been completely restored to pre-depres-
sion levels, although salaries have in-
creased in most colleges and universities
during the past year.

Ten Years Out How a hundred
picked college graduates look back on
their higher education "ten years after"
is summarized in the annual report of
the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad-
vancement of Teaching by William S.
Learned, staff member. The evaluation
is based on reports from the top 4 per-
cent of some four thousand seniors in
Pennsylvania colleges who were given a
general examination in 1928. Over 1500
recently have presented detailed judg-
ments on their college education. All but
four of the one hundred highest-score
men say they would attend college, given
the choice again, but thirty-three would
not attend the same college; eight were
in doubt. Among the factors which these
alumni cited as having "diminished the
potential value" of their college experi-
ence were: "lack of general intellectual
guidance"; "confusion of too many dis-
connected subjects"; "undue stress on
extra-curricular activities." The results
of these tests, the summary makes clear,
point to the need for better organization
of the college program, for more definite
guidance and advice, and for correction
of "the fundamental weakness" of the
course unit, which has been "diverted
from its proper function of aid in a con-
tinuous, long range process of learning
and erected into an arbitrary measure of
assumed education."

CCC Study In October 1936, the
American Youth Commission undertook
a study of the social and educational as-
pects of the CCC. Findings will be based
on the results of a five-hour "battery"
of tests to be given to enrollees in 250
camps in all parts of the country. About
11,000 enrollees have been given these
tests; the information is being punched
on Hollerith cards, and the analysis will



MARCH 1938



85



be completed this spring. In addition,
case studies are being made of 400 en-
rollees who also have had the tests. These
case studies will include interviews with
the youths themselves, with the family
and the closest friend of each.

Youth Administration

^ SUMMARY of the work of the
National Youth Administration, cov-
ering all activities since its establishment
by executive order in June 1935, was pre-
sented by Charles W. Taussig, chairman
of the National Advisory Committee, at
a meeting of the committee in Washing-
tion, the first week in February.

Funds Allocations under the ERA acts
for the NYA program have totaled $132,-
486,403 as of December 31, 1937. These
funds have been divided between the stu-
dent aid and work project divisions.

Student Aid Part time employment
of needy students between the ages of
sixteen and twenty-five includes assistance
to highschool, college and graduate stu-
dents. Participants in the program are
selected by school and college authorities
on the basis of need and the ability "to
perform good scholastic work." The peak
of this program was in April 1936, when
443,986 young people were receiving ben-
efits. On November 30, the number was
283,269, of whom 188,332 were high-
school, 92,648 college, and 2289 graduate
students. Average earnings for Novem-
ber were $4.41 for highschool students,
$11.92 for the college group, $17.76 for
graduate students. In thousands of in-
stances, these modest sums, often only
enough for carfare and lunches, made
the difference between "staying on" and
"dropping out."

Projects on which NYA students are
employed are of five general types: re-
search surveys and statistics; off-campus
community service; departmental service,
laboratory assistance ; recreation and ed-
ucation; ground and building mainte-



Out of School The NYA work proj-
ect program provides assistance to out-
of-school young people who are members
of families certified as in need of relief.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1937,
employment fluctuated between 160,000
and 189,800. Average earnings have var-
ied from 37 cents to 40 cents an hour.
Monthly earnings are now about $15.75
for youth certified as in need (about 95
percent of the total) and $63 for the
small non-relief group. Over 10 percent
of these young people are engaged on
public building projects; 13 percent in
the development of community recreation-
al facilities; over 10 percent are serving
as recreation leaders; nearly 29 percent
are employed on clerical, professional and



technical projects, such as library ser-
vice, museum exhibits, visual aid, demon-
stration activities, and so on. More than
17 percent of the girls are on sewing and
handicraft projects.

Resident Training There are sev-
enty projects, bringing together about
6000 young men and women, designed to
give resident training to the sons and
daughters of farm-tenant and other low
income families. While learning agricul-
ture and homemaking, and studying Eng-
lish, hygiene and other basic subjects,
these young people are able to earn suffi-
cient funds to meet the cost of their sub-
sistence and have about $5 cash a month.
No young people with more than ele-
mentary schooling are eligible.

At 'Quoddy Village, Me., a second
group of 150 young men are taking part
in a five-month work experience and vo-
cational guidance project. Each 'Quoddy
worker spends half the day from Mon-
day through Friday working in one of the
shops or on the grounds, the other half
in the classroom studying related sub-
jects. Each worker changes his job three
times during his term of enrollment.

Guidance and Placement In sev-
enty-seven cities of thirty-two states,
NYA has cooperated with the state em-
ployment services in establishing special
offices for the guidance and placement of
young people. As of January 1, 214,937
young people have registered in these of-
fices, and 93,768 have been placed in pri-
vate industry.

NYA has prepared sixty-four indus-
trial or occupational studies which aim to
give a picture of the industry, its growth
or decline, its national distribution, the
kinds of skills it requires, the conditions
of work.



Jobs and Workers

\I7~HEN the National Labor Relations
Board entered on the last fiscal year,
its annual report shows only 330 cases
were pending. Yet during the year end-
ing June 30, 1937, it handled 4398 cases,
involving 1,494,835 workers; and in the
next five months, ending December 1,
1937, it handled 5432 cases an indica-
tion of the speed at which its work has
increased. Of the 1937 cases, 2344 were
closed, all but 109 of these without for-
mal action. In addition to 1429 settle-
ments, 539 cases were closed by with-
drawal of the charge or petition, 254 by
dismissal of the petition or refusal to
issue complaint, 13 by transfer to other
agencies. In 446 of the cases in which
settlements were secured, strikes were
actually in progress ; in 254 cases strikes
had been threatened and were averted.
The report includes a 98-page discussion
of principles established by the board,



with citations of cases; a list of all cases
heard and decisions rendered, and vari-
ous other references.

Minimum Wage A study of wages,
hours and working conditions of women
and minors in New York's cigar indus-
try is being undertaken by the Division
of Women in Industry and Minimum
Wage of the State Labor Department,
the findings to be submitted to a mini-
mum wage board for the industry. A
wage order in the industry would cover
1590 women in 181 factories throughout
the state. Preliminary investigation has
revealed some weekly wages as low as
$5.35; no pay for cleaning the machines,
which must be done twice daily; no basic
rate of pay for time lost through break-
down of machines.

The attorney general of Oklahoma has
handed down an opinion that the state's
minimum wage law is constitutional as
applied to men as well as to women and
to minors.

Silicosis The U. S. Department of
Labor is preparing a motion picture on
silicosis including causes of the disease,
its effects on the worker, methods of pre-
vention. . . . Approximately 2.7 percent
of the 12,000 foundry workers in New
York State have silicosis and of this num-
ber about 0.7 percent show signs of tu-
bercular complication, according to a re-
port on a study of this industry made by
the division of industrial hygiene of the
State Labor Department. Eighty of the
311 foundries in the state, employing one
third of the total number of New York
foundry workers, were selected for spe-
cial study. Over 4000 workers were X-
rayed, and a complete occupational his-
tory taken. An engineering investigation
of all the 311 foundries showed that, in
regard to the silicosis hazard, fewer than
10 percent were in good condition, 27
percent in fair condition, 45 percent in
poor condition, 17 percent in bad condi-
tion. Recommendations for dust control
are included in the report. ... As part
of its campaign for the prevention and
eradication of silicosis and other indus-
trial dust diseases, the New York De-
partment of Labor is sending out a
"cruising X-ray laboratory," a specially
built body on a school bus chassis con-
taining full X-ray equipment. The trav-
eling laboratory will be sent to industrial
centers where dust hazards are known
or suspected. By tying in to plant electric
power the truck will provide completely
equipped quarters for medical and X-ray
examination of plant employes.

After Forty In Chicago, a Committee
on the Employment of Older Persons has
been appointed under the Council of So-
cial Agencies, to study the problem, to
draw up recommendations, and to stimu-
late public interest in carrying them out.



86



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



The New York Joint Legislative Com-
mittee on Discrimination in Employment
of the Middle Aged has been holding
hearings at various points throughout the
state. Its report is now being drawn up.
. . Under legislative resolution adopted
in 1935, the Massachusetts Department
of Labor and Industry has been making
a similar inquiry through hearings, con-
ferences, and questionnaires to labor of-
fk'i.il- and employers.

Study and Report C h i 1 d Labor
1938, a revision of an earlier
pamphlet, is published by the National
Child Labor Committee, 419 Fourth
Avenue. New York. Price 25 cents. . . .
Steel Problems of a Great Industry is
ba>ed on the two-volume report of a
study made by the Bureau of Business

rch, University of Pittsburgh. Pub-
lic Affairs Committee, 8 West 40 Street,
New York. Price 10 cents. . . . The re-

if Introduction to Trade Unionism,
a pamphlet originally published in 1935,
includes a supplement on recent changes
in the American labor scene. The Affili-
ated Schools for Workers, 302 East 35
Street, New York. Price 35 cents. . . .
Why the C.I.O., by Alfred Baker Lewis
is an informed though frankly partisan
discussion of industrial unionism in this
country. League for Industrial Democ-
racy. 112 East 19 Street, New York.
Price 10 cents.

Against Crime

N striking contrast to the hubbub and
debate surrounding the determination
of sanity or insanity by lunacy commis-
sions, a system now under fire in New-



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 25 of 109)