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York, is the behavior clinic of Cook
County, III., described in a recent an-
nual report of the board of commission-
\ "diagnostic and psychiatric ser-
vice" for the judges of the criminal
court, the clinic has no concern with le-
gal questions, but is used to decide the
sanity, insanity or feeble-mindedness of
the offender or to decide whether he is a
good risk for probation. Prior to the
hearing of each case which has been re-
ferred to the clinic, the presiding judge,
the state's attorney and attorney for the
defense receive from the clinic copies of
thr social history and results of psycho-
logical, psychiatric and physical examina-
tiim. If the offender is committed or
sentenced, these reports are sent to the
institution responsible for his care. If he
is granted probation, the reports are sent
to the adult probation department. They
are available also to social agencies.
When necessary (last year, in 25 percent
of cases) the clinic psychiatrist is called
to court to testify regarding the patient's
mental condition. Thus the court saves
the expense of hiring psychiatrists for
testimony, but more important, court bat-
tle* on the subject are eliminated. Al-



most without exception, the findings of the
clinic have been accepted by the court,
defense and prosecution, as unbiased and
reliable. Similar procedure is followed in
Massachusetts. [See Survey Midmonth-
l\. September 1937, page 289.]

Much newsprint was spent in New-
York recently on attack and defense of
its lunacy boards. There were public
hearings, -charges and countercharges of
politics, inefficiency and extravagance. For-
mer Commissioner of Accounts Paul Blan-
shard, some months earlier, had recom-
mended the boards' abolition charging they
had been used for political patronage and
had cost the city one million dollars since
1930. He urged the use of the qualified
psychiatric service available at Bellevuc
and other city hospitals. The New York
Prison Association, in its annual report,
condemned the lunacy commissions as not
qualified for their undertaking and made
essentially the same recommendations as
did Mr. Blanshard.

For Gun Molls A new classification
in women's prisons is the proposed "Al-
catraz" for hardened women convicts.
While detailed plans have not been re-
vealed, "informed sources" have given
out a report that one of three new fed-
eral penal institutions provided for in the
President's last budget message will be a
strong prison to house incorrigible gang
"molls." The location probably will be
either eastern Kentucky or Oklahoma.

The Department of Justice has special
facilities for women prisoners at Alder-
son, W. Va. and Milan, Mich. However,
according to a recent report of James V.
Bennett, director of the federal Bureau
of Prisons, the facilities of the Industrial
Institution for Women at Alderson "are
not designed for confinement of the more
serious female offenders who have been
convicted for participation in organized
crimes of violence." Alderson already
houses more than its capacity of five
hundred.

In Print The annual report of the di-
rector, U.S. Bureau of Prisons, for the
fiscal year 1936-7, is an attractive and
well-organized presentation of important
material, such as too often is lost in the
dull appearance of official reports. San-
ford Bates, now with the Boys' Clubs of
America Inc., who directed the bureau
during the first half of the period cov-
ered, was succeeded January 1, 1937 by
James V. Bennett. Two significant ac-
complishments cited in the report are the
placing of all personnel on a career basis,
and the inauguration of a new program
of in-service training and promotion
founded on merit and accomplishment.
... A committee appointed by Mayor
La Ciuardia of New York to select suit-
able books for children who come before
the juvenile courts has issued a pamph-
let presenting its recommendations. Dr.



Frank J. O'Brien is chairman of the
committee for the bibliography, which is
published by the New York Municipal
Reference Library, 2230 Municipal Build-
ing. Price 25 cents. . . . Coping with
Crime is the 1937 christening of the Na-
tional Probation Association's Yearbook.
The 463-page volume, edited by Marjorie
Bell, assistant director of the association,
is a compilation of the papers given at
the last annual probation conference, with
a few selected additions. Subject fields in-
clude: community cooperation for social
welfare, trends in probation and parole
administration, case work with adult and
juvenile delinquents, juvenile court juris-
diction and function, the psychiatric ap-
proach, camps for youth, and a legal di-
gest. Price, paper $1.25, cloth $1.75, from
the association, 50 West 50 Street, New
York. ... In a new 42-page pamphlet,
Decisions Interpreting the Federal Pro-
bation Act, Richard A. Chappell, acting
supervisor of the probation system of the
U.S. courts, cites and summarizes the
accumulated court action which affects
the operation of the law. The compilation
will be valuable to probation workers,
judges and attorneys. From the author,
Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department of
Justice, Washington. ... In response to
many inquiries the Buffalo, N. Y. Coun-
cil of Social Agencies has published,
(mimeograph) a summary of the discus-
sion at the two-day conference on crime
prevention which it sponsored last year
with the active cooperation of more than
a hundred local organizations of varied
types and complexions. Price 50 cents
from the council, 70 West Chippew*
Street.

Money At Work

DECENT gifts of $8 million from
Edward Harkness, president, have
brought the total endowment of the
Commonwealth Fund to just over $50
million. Grants from current income
during 1937 amounted to $1,800,000.
While Commonwealth money is dedica-
ted to general philanthropic purposes
without permanent restrictions, the in-
come in recent years has been spent
chiefly for "the betterment of health, par-
ticularly through the provision of rural
community hospitals, encouragement of
rural public health service, improvement
of medical teaching, medical research and
professional education generally." Alto-
gether, 74 percent of the total 1937 ap-
propriations went for purposes related to
physical or mental health.

Already ten community hospitals serv-
ing rural districts have been built or are
in process. In the vicinities of the first
six to be built, some fifty young doctors
have settled, a development which the
fund hoped for and is encouraging. The
fund has provided more than four hun-
dred fellowships for older men now in



MARCH 1938



87



practice who wish to brush up on cur-
rent medical information by means of
courses of from one to four months at
medical colleges.

More Foundations A New Nation-
al Foundation for Infantile Paralysis
was incorporated in New York in Janu-
ary. It is the legal creation of the organ-
ization sponsored by President Roosevelt
to attack infantile paralysis in all its
phases. . . . The Virginia Randolph
Fund, first announcement of which was
made at a recent meeting of the South-
ern Education Foundation, is said to be
the first permanent endowment fund of
a general nature to carry the name of a
Negro. It will have resources of ap-
proximately $3 million, through consoli-
dated management of the Slater, Pea-
body and Jeanes funds for Negro educa-
tion, and will receive funds raised by
some 470 teachers now working under
the Jeanes fund. Already southern
Negroes have contributed more than
$9000. Miss Randolph, for whom the
fund is named, the first Jeanes teacher
to supervise Negro rural educational
work, still is working actively.

The new Charles Hayden Founda-
tion with resources of some $50 million
made its first grants in the form of
Christmas gifts, totaling about $175,000
to New York and Boston social agencies
to which the late founder had been a
regular contributor. . . . The Alfred P.
Sloan Foundation for economic research,
incorporated July 1937, recently defined
its purposes as "the advancement in any
proper way of the interests of the com-
munity at large ... to concentrate on
a single objective, i.e., the promotion of
a wider knowledge of basic economic
truths ... as well as a better under-
standing of economic problems. . . ." It
will give preference to encouraging
"through financial grants and otherwise"
useful agencies already existing, and will
limit its fields to education and research.
... A non-profit organization known as
Consumers Foundation, Inc. recently
was announced by William Trufant
Foster, chairman with the purpose of
"promoting the consumer interest, with
special attention to low income fam-
ilies." It will function through endow-
ments and grants for consumer educa-
tion and research.

Gifts and Givers Carnegie Corpo-
ration of New York has announced a
gift of $200,000 for endowment of the
School of Public and International Af-
fairs of Princeton University. The school
was founded in 1930.

The recently issued Duke Endowment
Yearbook records twelve years of con-
tributions, which it is estimated, have
reached directly some 2,795,000 persons,
over 50 percent of the population of
North and South Carolina where the
endowment's program centers. During



this period the endowment gave $7,-
743,843.95 to 149 hospitals for free-bed-
days in addition to aid to students, to
children's institutions and to rural
churches and superannuated preachers.

In a six-year review of its activities,
the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, which
is concerned with the broad task of
health care, reports that since its in-
corporation in December 1936 it has
made 324 grants totaling $806,681 to
thirty-four universities and twenty-seven
other research agencies for definite proj-
ects. Its specified fields of concentra-
tion include: psychosomatic problems;
growth, development, maturation and
ageing; social research concerning health
and sickness; medical education. Among
well known projects which the founda-
tion has supported are: the Committee
on the Costs of Medical Care; a study
of chronic illness in New York, by Mary
C. Jarrett of the New York City Wel-
fare Council; the Hospital Survey of
New York, by the United Hospital
Fund; attempts to help clarify the field
of social work education through work
of the American Association of Schools
of Professional Social Work.

Compilations of the John Price Jones
Corporation for its annual "index of
philanthropy" show a substantial in-
crease for 1937 in what the corporation
calls the "standard of giving." Accord-
ing to preliminary figures a total of
gifts and bequests made in New York,
Chicago, Washington, Philadelphia, Bos-
ton and Baltimore in 1937 reached more
than $148 million, compared with a 1936
total of $105,910,706.

The Public's Health

FEDERAL backing for a long-time, na-
tion-wide extension of the campaign
for control of syphilis and gonorrhea now
is in prospect. A bill, approved by the
Senate Commerce Committee, would ap-
propriate $9 million for use in the next
two fiscal years to aid "states, counties,
health units and other public subdivisions
of the states in establishing and main-
taining adequate measures for control of
venereal diseases." The committee has
asked the Senate to enact legislation per-
mitting such a drive under the U.S. Pub-
lic Health Service. Press reports say that
the proposed program is based on enlist-
ing the cooperation of private physicians,
possibly under direct financial grants to
states, counties and cities.

Autonomy The New York Diabetes
Association really began in 1934 as a
demonstration project under the aegis of
the New York Tuberculosis and Health
Association, with funds given specially
for that purpose. Now it steps out on its
own, with offices at 22 East 40 Street and
its independent title, the New York Dia-
betes Association. Results during the ex-
perimental period far exceeded expecta-



tions and the new arrangement is made
in recognition of the nation-wide growth
of interest in the subject and of the de-
sirability of separate status to sharpen
the focus of public interest. The associa-
tion is embarking on an expanded pro-
gram for 1938.

Handicapped Children - - To a

greater or less degree every community
has a problem in the inadequacy of its
facilities for the treatment and care of
mentally disordered children, especially
those suffering from the sequellae of dif-
ferent types of encephalitis popularly
known as sleeping sickness. Usually the
problem is not large numerically and is
therefore pushed aside. Only three states,
New York, Pennsylvania and New Jer-
sey, make special provisions for segregated
treatment in connection with their state
hospitals. Because the cases that do arise
are particularly serious and difficult the
Massachusetts Child Council, Inc., Her-
bert C. Parsons director, undertook a
study of their incidence in the state and
of the manner of handling them. The
study, made by Beatrice S. Stone of the
council's staff, brought together informa-
tion from all the public and private agen-
cies and institutions of mental hygiene
and child care. Cases, originating in the
past six years, were found scattered
through a variety of state institutions for
the mentally ill and defective. Their
treatment in the general institutional
population left much to be desired while
their care constituted a real institutional
problem.

The study concludes that the primary
requisite at this time is for the construc-
tion of a separate unit within the state
hospital system for the treatment and
care of all children who require institu-
tionalization because of mental disorder.
The special facilities and methods of care
and instruction for post-encephalitic chil-
dren might be developed from within
such an institution. Details of the study
may be secured from Miss Stone at the
council, 41 Mt. Vernon Street, Boston.

Maryland has a new service for crip-
pled children in the Children's Rehabili-
tation Institute at Reiserstown. Primarily
for the treatment of children suffering
from all forms of crippling from birth,
the new institute will not admit feeble-
minded children. It is intended rather
for those who may develop physically
and mentally through treatment. The
care given is not custodial in type and
the length of a child's stay is dependent
upon his continued progress. If his prog-
ress ceases or for any reason is interrupt-
ed, it is no longer the function of the
school to care for him.

The need for this particular combina-
tion of school and hospital grows out of
the fact that children of this type do not
fit into any existing type of institution in
the state but often are capable of making



88



remarkable development with appropri-
ate care. In the case of older children
an attempt is made toward vocational di-
rection. The institute has been chartered
as a non-profit making institution under
state law and receives some state and
federal aid.

Volunteer Service

I N it< issue of December 1937, the
Junior League Magazine reported
the answers of seventy-six Junior
Leagues to a series of questions pre-
pared by the national staff, on work re-
lief and the WPA. Questions asked
were: Has all federal aid been with-
drawn, and if so where has the relief
burden fallen? Was your local unem-
ployment eased noticeably this [last]
fall? Are more demands being made on
private charitable organizations than in
previous years? Are there many unfin-
ished WPA projects, the completion of
which will involve special (local, state,
county) legislation? Has the community
chest quota been increased noticeably
this year?

Replies to the questions exhibited a
natural diversity of tone and fact, but in
composite reflect the expected: continued
need for federal funds in some form;
increased demands on private charities;
great diversity in local unemployment
situations as of last fall. It is the hope
of the editors that this study will en-
courage local leagues to evaluate for
themselves current trends in human
welfare.

Progress In recent months central
volunteer placement bureaus have been
established by Junior Leagues of Brook-
lyn, N. V., and of Montreal, Canada.
The Brooklyn League has as its place-
ment secretary, Mary Frances Shel-
burne Parker, formerly on the staff of
the .New York Charity Organization
Society, and last year head of a volun-
teer service program of the Junior
League of Winston-Salem, N. C. On
its board of governors are representa-
tives of community, social and welfare
agencies. Mary Jennison, from the Fed-
eration for Community Service, To-
ronto, is executive of the new Montreal
bureau.

Junior League members in Williams-
port, Pa. have undertaken a study of
housing conditions under professional
supervision. ... In consultation with
the National Association of Junior
Leagues and the National Organization
for Public Health Nursing, the Junior
League of Birmingham, Ala. is con-
centrating on the establishment of a
Visiting Nurse Association. The new
agency starts with a small staff, a part
time supervisor and two nurses, who
will cooperate closely with the public
health department.



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Allied with the American Foundation
for the Blind and its field agents, the
collegiate sorority, Delta Gamma, will
make work for the blind its national
project with local chapters giving volun-
teer service and support to state and
local agencies for the blind.

Following the example of Junioi
Leagues in various other cities, the
Junior League of Brooklyn, N. Y., has
organized a central bureau to instruct
volunteers in social work and to place
them in appropriate agencies. The secre-
tary who is in charge of the bureau,
reports that in the first month seventy-
five persons registered, most of them
young married women with free after-
noons. Included, however, were ten men
and several students. All volunteers ac-
cepted for placement will be required to
take a lecture course on social work and
social resources to be given later in the
spring.



Professional



'TPHE U. S. Civil Service Commission
* reports that in the fiscal year end-



ing June 30, 1937 it examined more than
843,000 applicants, the largest number
in any year in its history and an in-
crease of 63,000 over the previous year.
In answering advertisements please mention STRVEY MIDMONTHLY

89



Entrance appointments totaled 44,484
against 42,121 the year before. Examina-
tions for administrative positions, re-
gional and district, in the social security
services attracted some ten thousand can-
didates. Examinations for various grades
of social science analyst were taken by
twenty thousand persons who had spe-
cialized in economics, agricultural eco-
nomics, sociology, social research, and
political science. An examination for per-
sonnel officer brought 2584 applications.

Coming Events A conference on
world economic cooperation will be held
in Washington, D. C. March 23-26, for
delegates from National Peace Confer-
ence organizations and cooperating
groups and individuals in many fields.
Information from the Campaign for
World Economic Cooperation, 8 West
40 Street, New York.

The American Association for Adult
Education will meet in Asbury Park,
N. J. May 16-18. . . . The American
Home Economics Association will meet
in Pittsburgh, Pa. June 28-July 1.

A series of twelve lectures on modern
problems of real estate will begin March
22 at the New School for Social Re-
search, 66 West 12 Street, New York.
Charles Abrams, counsel to the Amer-



ican Federation of Housing Authorities
will give the course.

Plans are well under way for the
1938 session of the Summer Institute for
Social Progress to be held at Wellesley,
Mass., July 9-23. The program this year
centers around the question, "The Amer-
ican citizen what role can he play in
the world situation?", with emphasis on
efforts for peace. John Stewart Burgess
of Temple University will be chairman
of a faculty including many prominent
educators and public figures. Henry E.
Warren is head of the institute. Infor-
mation from Dorothy P. Hill, 22 Oak-
land Place, Buffalo, N. Y.

National Conference Traditionally
and constitutionally the National Con-
ference of Social Work meets only
where and when it is invited. But about
two years ago the executive committee
concluded that changing social work and
the increased size of the conference out-
moded this method. A special committee
was appointed to study alternative plans
and present a constitutional amendment
intended to modernize the method for
determining time and place. Under the
chairmanship of Paul T. Beisser of
Baltimore, this committee after eighteen
months of work evolved a plan which,
approved unanimously by the executive
committee, will go before the conference
membership for action at the Seattle
meeting next June.

Principal features of the plan include:

1. Rotation of the annual meetings
among five major sections of the country
according to a predetermined schedule,
with regular visits to the east coast,
east central section, west central, south
and west.

2. A recognized time and place commit-
tee, responsible to the executive commit-
tee, and working with the general secre-
tary of the conference to stimulate
invitations from acceptable cities.

3. Adequate clean housing and feeding
facilities for all delegates; adequate
meeting places open to all delegates with-
out discrimination; assurance that social
and civic agencies of a city wish to have
the conference; certain financial guar-
antees, with commercial interests rather
than social agencies carrying the major
financial load.

The committee reported widespread
favor for frequent visits to Atlantic
City, a possibility which is permitted by
this plan. The committee also recom-
mended: "That the conference, through
the process of selection of and negotia-
tion with each conference city, continue
its traditional practice to achieve prog-
ress in securing non-discriminating treat-
ment of all of its delegates."

Members of the committee, besides
Mr. Beisser, included Mary L. Gib-
bons, George W. Rabinoff, David Hol-



hrook and Eugene Kinckle Jones of New
York City; Albert H. Jewell, Kansas
City, Mo.; Rhoda Kaufman, Atlanta;
and Harold J. Matthews, Houston.

New Jersey Council In keeping
with its evolution of recent years from
a discussion forum into a body which
takes positive action, the New Jersey
Conference of Social Work has changed
its name officially to the New Jersey
Welfare Council.

The erstwhile "conference" increas-
ingly is concerning itself with legislation
and public opinion relating to welfare
problems of New Jersey, especally to
the relief system. To that end, a special
conference committee has given months
of study to a "plan for an efficient and
coordinated system for the administra-
tion of relief," and it is hoped that a bill
embodying these recommendations will
come before the present session of the
state legislature.

The council now hopes to widen pub-
lic attention beyond the recurrent fac-
tional fights over sources of funds to the
need for basic reorganization to do away
with the inefficiences and illogic which it
sees in the present system. As a practical
means of accomplishing this, the confer-
ence enlisted the cooperation of the



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 26 of 109)