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League of Municipalities and State As-
sociation of Chosen Freeholders in call-
ing upon local units of government to
organize town meetings for discussion of
relief and public welfare.

Higher Training Four educational
institutions, Harvard University, the
National Institute of Public Affairs,
Radcliffe College, and the University of
Minnesota will have fellows and scholars
in the field of public administration dur-
ing the next academic year.

In the new Graduate School of Pub-
lic Administration at Harvard, fifteen
graduate students of public administra-
tion and persons now in government
service will be awarded stipends of $1500.
Applications closed last month.

The 1938-39 internship training pro-
gram of the National Institute of Pub-
lic Affairs has been enlarged from thirty
to fifty appointments. Senior students
and graduates of accredited colleges and
universities who have high scholastic
standing and exceptional aptitude will be
placed in departments of the federal gov-
ernment as full time, non-salaried as-
sistants. At weekly seminars general
problems are discussed and outstanding
authorities address the group. Here, too,
applications closed in February.

Radcliffe College offers a training
course in personnel administration de-
signed to prepare students for positions
in college placement offices, industrial
personnel departments, and government
departments. The eleven months' pro-
gram begins July 5. Two fellowships of
$500 each are available to applicants who



have had at least two years of practical
experience subsequent to A.B. degrees.

The University of Minnesota invites
applicants who can obtain a leave of
absence from present government posi-
tions for its In-Service Fellowships in
Public Administration. Stipends vary in
amount from $1000 to $1500. Candidates
must have been graduated from college,
had three years' experience in public
service, and be under thirty-five. The
closing date for applications is April l.j

Under the Institute of Local and State
Government established last year in the
University of Pennsylvania with funds
from an anonymous donor, fifteen ap- i
prentices have been chosen from candi-
dates who are third and fourth year
students of the university to study gov-
ernment through first hand service in
agencies of the community and state. Ap-
prentices will be required to give a mini-
mum of fifty hours a month to a practi-
cal research agency and will receive a
monthly stipend of $25. Later, wherever
possible, they will gain experience in ac-
tual problems of administration through
service in a government office. Besides
their service "on the job" they will at-
tend seminars and lectures, all under
direction of the institute staff.

New York University has announced
for its spring term an extensive curricu-
lum in government administration, public
welfare and public management, a branch
of the university's work inaugurated this
year through its division of general edu-
cation. Some of these courses are given
in cooperation with administrative de-
partments of state and city government.
According to the catalogue, "all of these
courses will be given due credit by civil
service commissions in their examina-
tions."

In Service Shortage of trained work-
ers in the public welfare field has led
the Minnesota State Board of Control
through its Public Assistance Unit to
inaugurate an in-service training pro-
gram. This education on the job will be
brought by an itinerant teacher to all
county staffs requesting it. Content of
the training will be adjusted to suit the
individual county's needs and prefer-
ences. The training will cover work in
old age assistance, aid to dependent chil-
dren, aid to the blind, child welfare, di-
rect relief, and various service functions
performed by county welfare offices. Be-
cause many of the staffs are small, cer-
tain groups of counties will join in meet-
ings. The response is enthusiastic.

Contest The National Civil Service
Reform League has announced a reward
of $50 for the best slogan for the merit
system '"a slogan as terse and telling as
the spoilsmen's slogan, 'to the victor be-
longs the spoils.' " The prize is offered
bv Charles G. Morris of New Haven,



90



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY




Conn., a member of the league's execu-
tive committee and vice-president of the
Conm-cticut Merit System Association.
The slogan must be "positive rather than
in negative terms, 'snappy,' and must con-
i complete idea." It is open to all
citizens of the United States. Contest
Mi^rstions must be in the office of the
league, 521 Fifth Avenue, New York,
on or before April 25; the award to be
made May 15.

People and Things

T.\RL DE SCHWEINITZ, who in January
*^ resigned as secretary of the Penn-
-.ylv.mia Department of Public Assistance
in protest against the infiltration of poli-
tics into relief [see
Survey Alidmonth-
ly. February 1938,
page 51], has been
called back to his
earlier post of di-
rector of the Penn-
sylvania School of
Social Work affili-
ated with the Uni-

versit y of Pennsyl-
vania. Mr. de
Schweinitz was "lent" by the school more
than two years ago to serve as executive
of the State Emergency Relief Board,
but continued as titular director until
his appointment last summer to the new-
ly created Department of Public Assist-
ance. Even then he retained a place on
the faculty as the William T. Carter
Professor of Child Helping. During the
entire period of his absence Virginia P.
Robinson has been the acting director of
the school.

New Jobs Newcomer to the staff of
the Welfare Council of New York City
is Hiram Motherwell, recently appointed
director of the department of public in-
formation and education, a post held by
Louis Resnick before he went to the
Social Security Board. Mr. Motherwell
has had extensive newspaper experience
and has been a frequent contributor to
magazines including Survey Graphic. He
was the first editor of the Theatre Guild
Magazine and for the past two years has
been associated in an administrative ca-
pacity with the WPA Federal Theater.

Helen Glenn Tyson is settling into a
new position as secretary of the family
and child welfare division of the Public
Charities Association of Pennsylvania, a
post left vacant when Arthur Dunham
resigned in 1935 and went to professorial
duties a* the University of Michigan's,
Institute of Public and Social Adminis-
tration, in Detroit. Mrs. Tyson has held
a series of responsible positions in state
welfare work in Pennsylvania during
the past decade and for years has been
'!> interested in the PCA.

Sara D. Porter is the new director of



Reid Hall, the Paris center for Ameri-
can university women. She succeeds Dor-
othy F. Leet, now secretary of the For-
eign Policy Association in New York.

Susan Faherty has been appointed ex-
ecutive secretary of the Catholic Social
Service of Arizona, at Phoenix, succeed-
ing Eileen Ward, who recently joined
the faculty of the St. Louis University
School of Social Work. . . . Hazel Hal-
loran has been named director of the new
social service department of St. Vin-
cent's Hospital, New York. . . . Eliza-
beth Lloyd, formerly with the Catholic
Charities of Seattle, Wash., now is on
the staff of Loyola University School of
Social Work, Chicago.

Brigadier James Asher, twenty years
a Salvation Army officer and for the last
eight in the District of Columbia, re-
cently was made commander of the Ala-
bama-Mississippi and western Georgia
division of the army.

The Children's Welfare Federation of
New York now has as director Helen
Foley Leighty; associate director, Eliza-
beth Morgan Lappin; assistant director,
Esther Skelley. . . . Mary Arnold, for-
mer director, now is with the New York
City Department of Health.

For Spain Emily S. Parker, of Rich-
mond, Ind., has sailed for Spain under
the auspices of the American Friends
Service Committee to aid in child colo-
nies as a recreation instructress. She will
join the staff of Esther L. Farquhar in
southeastern Spain.

The Ethel Taylor Memorial Home in
El Perello, a refuge for besieged chil-
dren from Madrid, will be dedicated
March 18. Responsibility for its support
has been undertaken by the New York
Chapter of the Social Worker's Com-
mittee to Aid Spanish Democracy.

Nurses Arabella R. Creech, first gen-
eral secretary of the New Jersey State
Nurses Association, has retired. During
a busy professional career she has been
active in many fields and activities con-
nected with nursing, as well as in the
League of Women Voters, Consumers'
League and the Committee on the Cause
and Cure of War. ... A newcomer to
the faculty of the College of Nursing at
Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis.,
is Caroline di Donato, since 1936 em-
ployed by the New York City board of
education as a visiting teacher.

Elected The Massachusetts Confer-
ence of Social Work, at its annual meet-
ing, chose as officers for 1938: president,
Cheney C. Jones; vice-presidents, Mrs.
James G. Gilkey, William A. Bryan,
Ethel W. Dougherty. ... In recog-
nition of his work as an educator, Dr.
Frank J. O'Brien, director of the bu-
reau of child guidance of the New York
City board of education, has been unani-
mously elected to the scientific adminis-



tration committee of the National Com-
mittee for Mental Hygiene. . . . The
new president of the American Arbitra-
tion Association is Franklin E. Parker,
Jr., the first practicing lawyer ever to
fill that post. He succeeds Lucius R.
Eastman who became chairman of the
board after the death of Felix M. War-
burg.

Boston Business After careful study
by accountants and others, a special com-
mittee of the Community Federation of
Boston, Arthur G. Rotch, chairman,
recommended a plan for retirement al-
lowances for employes of the hospital
and social agency members of the federa-
tion, based on contributions by employers
and employes. The federation has de-
cided however that this is not a propi-
tious year to add to the community fund
campaign the $130,000 necessary to cover
the agency contribution, and has post-
poned action. The special committee
urges that the inauguration of the plan
should not be delayed unduly and re-
minds that "the employes of charitable
corporations should not be the last to be
protected through a system of retirement
allowance." Copies of the plan as recom-
mended by Mr. Rotch and his associates
may be secured from the Boston Council
of Social Agencies, 80 Federal Street.

The North End Union has been re-
opened after extensive remodeling of its
building following a fire more than a
year ago. Harry R. Clark is the new
headworker. . . . Marian Blackwell is
the new head of the International Insti-
tute. She comes from the Buffalo Insti-
tute where a few years ago her services
to the Polish people of the city were
recognized by a decoration from the Po-
lish government. ... A recent fire in
the building of the Young Men's Chris-
tian Union is counted not an unmixed
evil since the extensive repairs necessita-
ted will provide an enlarged and remod-
eled auditorium and other improved fa-
cilities. Gertrude Sharman is the newly
appointed headworker of the social ser-
vice department. . . . Major Chester
Brown, with a long experience in the
social work of the Salvation Army, re-
cently in New York, is now welfare sec-
retary in the Boston area. . . . The Bos-
ton chapter of the American Red Cross
has been given a handsome new home at
17 Gloucester Street. The building, a
spacious former residence, is the gift of
the Honorable A. C. Ratshesky, one-time
U.S. Minister to Czechoslovakia, and his
wife.

Death

HARRY L. GLUCKSMAN, of New York,
for nineteen years executive director of
the Jewish Welfare Board, from 1935-
1937 president of the National Confer-
ence of Jewish Social Welfare.



M\1:H 1938



91



Book Reviews



Answers From Life

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIAL
STUDIES, by Joseph K. Hart. Macmillan. 203
pp. Price $2 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

PHE troubled times of depression and
world war that face us cry out for
more popular education in the social
sciences. The average highschool student
gets only a half year or so of economics
or sociology in his senior year, none too
well taught at that. If the schools paid
half as much attention to the social
sciences as they do to "vocational train-
ing," our democracy would be much more
effective than it is now.

Joseph K. Hart of Teachers College,
Columbia University, is one of the grow-
ing school of educators who realize the
need for more attention to the social
studies and are doing something about it.
In his latest book he has given to the
preparatory schools a forward-looking
little text that introduces the various
social sciences.

The author keeps purely factual in-
formation at a minimum. His book is
a skeleton presentation of simple con-
cepts, including the community, the city,
the family, social institutions, social lag
and various social problems. His theory is
that the student can best supply his own
facts from the newspapers, radio, maga-
zines, books, and from the community
about him. Mr. Hart asks provocative
questions at the ends of the chapters with-
out giving the answers. The answers that
the student supplies, he says, "will prove
to be worth far more to him than any-
thing he can idly read in a book of in-
formation."

If the teacher who uses this book is
alert and well-informed, so that he can
lead class discussion rather than merely
listen to recitations, the author's hopes
may be fulfilled. Probably, however, few
teachers will be able to cope well with
this task; and Mr. Hart's language is so
general and abstract that without ade-
quate discussion the student will get
nothing very definite from the book. The
effect would have been better if many
examples and anecdotes had been scattered
through it.

Mr. Hart's book is intended mainly for
students expecting to enter the profes-
sions. This is a serious shortcoming. The
chapter on the social professions and
their obligations is excellent; but what
about the majority of students who leave
highschool to work in shops and factories?
Surely it is of paramount importance that
they learn a little about the labor move-
ment.

A few of the statements are rather in-
comprehensible, coming from an educa-



tional sociologist. For instance, Mr. Hart
says that the modern city has simply
"piled up," without order or plan. The
well-known urban pattern, vicious as it
may be in its social consequences, belies
this. The statement that monogamy was
considered queer or definitely immoral
until a thousand years or so ago is
hardly true. Even now, among such poly-
gamous people as the Eskimo, monogamy
prevails in 95 percent of cases. Obviously,
because of the balance of the sexes, most
men must be monogamous. Only a few
chiefs and rich men acquire more than
one wife. Again, the author tends to
blame such problems as corruption in city
government upon the carry-over of vil-
lage attitudes. A few quotations from
Lincoln Steffens would be more to the
point; political graft is certainly a part
of our whole economic system.

But these criticisms are more than
compensated by the splendid sections on
the fallacies of individualism, the lag of
social institutions, and the incompleteness
of our democracy. Other books in this
field should be written with more factual
content material that will shock the
student and stimulate him to thought.
But the field is big enough for many types
of books, and some of the best teachers
of social science will find that this one
suits their needs quite well.

SELDEN C. MENEFEE
University of Washington

For Psychologists

PERSONALITY. A PSYCHOLOGICAL IN-
TERPRETATION, by Gordon W. Allport.
Holt. 566 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.

TN writing this book the author's pur-
pose is to define the new movement
in psychology the psychology of per-
sonality. His main emphasis is to re-
instate the human person who had
become practically excluded from legiti-
mate psychological investigation, and to
search for the units of personality and
for the dynamic principles which direct
the behavior of the individual. Personal-
ity is defined as "the dynamic organiza-
tion within the individual of those psy-
chophysical systems that determine his
unique adjustments to his environment."
The first half of the volume consists
of a review and re-formulation of tra-
ditional psychological contributions, with
the aim of expanding rather than de-
stroying these concepts, so that they will
include the direct study of individuality.
By this method the author clears the
way for a constructive theory of the
structure of personality. Among his chief
points of re-emphasis are the law of func-
tional autonomy of motives by which



instincts are supplanted by other motives
which act as drives changing with growth
and development; the theory of traits as
the fundamental psychophysical units of
personality.

The last part of the book is concerned
with a discussion of the panorama of
modern methods of analysis of person-
ality. The author suggests a pluralistic
approach rather than allegiance to any
one method and outlines fifty-two sub-
headings by which personality may be
analyzed.

It is interesting to find a psychologist
who accepts common sense as an ally
and who is not daunted by the compli-
cations that arise in the psychological
study of an individual. The book is writ-
ten primarily for psychologists and is dis-
tinctly not an oversimplified approach to
the understanding of personality for the
lay reader. RUTH E. FAIRBANK

Johns Hopkins University

Facts, Row on Row

DEPRESSION, RECOVERY, AND HIGHER
EDUCATION, a report by Committee Y of the
American Association of University Professors.
McGraw-Hill. 543 pp. Price $4.50 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

XI7ORKING with patient energy,

* members of Committee Y have
gathered great masses of fact about
depression, recovery, and higher educa-
tion, all of which are here carefully
sorted into well-ordered rooms for us
to walk among and think about.

According to the fashion of modern
scholars, the committee, for every conclu-
sion cautiously put forth, thrusts a dozen
questions at us: Is it wise for univer-
sities to give the national government
their most outstanding staff members in
time of crisis? Should great state uni-
versities expand during prosperity only
to be embarrassed when depression
strikes? Should the federal government
continue indefinitely to subsidize college
students (NYA)? If so, are students
of inadequate colleges to be helped as
generously as are those of superior insti-
tutions? And which are the superior in-
stitutions?

The committee investigated depression
changes in faculty size, salaries, promo-
tion, tenure; income and expenditures
of colleges and universities; student
financial problems; trends in enroll-
ments; the increasing role of the federal
government in higher education. It solici-
ted frank, personal reports from students
and instructors in order to discover psy-
chological disturbances which might be
attributed to the depression.

There is nothing particularly exciting
in these 543 pages. Indeed the general
impressions of college teachers might
not be far from what Committee Y dis-
covered through its laborious compila-
tion: that the median salary reduction
was approximately 15 percent; that in-
creases in rank were frequently substi-
tuted for increases in salary; that prac-



92



tically no buildings were erected, save
with federal money.

Occasionally throughout the volume
the scholarly automatons of Committee
V take on the emotions of humanity,
l-'nr, like all occupational groups from
bricklayers to the United States Chamber
of Commerce, they see grave dangers
ahead unless they band themselves to-
gether to study their problems and safe-
guard their rights. He who would re-
fute them should first take time to read
Depression, Recovery, and Higher Edu-
cation. DONALD HAYWORTH
Michigan Slate College

New Yearbooks

AMKKH'AN PLANNING AND CIVIC AN-
M'AI.. edited by Harlean James. American
Planning and Civic Association. 404 pp. Price
$3 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

HPHIS single volume collects some of
the best thought of specialists in the
field of planning, as expressed at confer-
ences and in special papers. Included are
accounts of recent events, up-to-date
facts and attempts to define current
trends and new objectives. The subject
matter is treated according to five types
of physical planning national, regional,
state, metropolitan and county and city.
Material was drawn from the joint plan-
ning conferences of the American Plan-
ning Institute, the American Planning
and Civic Association, the American So-
ciety of Planning Officials, and the Na-
tional Economic and Social Planning As-
sociation, and from two regional and one
national conference on state parks.

MUNICIPAL YEAR BOOK. 1937, edited by
Clarence E. Ridley and Orin F. Nolting. Inter-
national City Manager's Association. 599 pp.
Price $5 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

' I A HE coming of age of American cities
and the emergence of their new pub-
lic relationship with state and national
governments is the theme of the Munici-
pal Year Book, 1937. Twice as large as
the first issue two years ago, this volume
constitutes a vast storehouse of data
about all cities in the United States of
over ten thousand population. With a
thousand officials and a hundred or so
other authorities aiding in its preparation,
it offers an up-to-date authoritative sum-
mary of events and trends in municipal
government in the United States. Indis-
pensable to anyone dealing with munici-
pal affairs. L. D. L.



HOUSING OFFICIALS' YEARBOOK. 1937,
edited by Coleman Woodbury. National Associa-
tion of Housing Officials. Chicago, III. 213 pp.
Price $3 postpaid of Survey MidmonMy.



\\7TTH the passage of the Wagner-
Steagall act at the last session of
Congress, the United States jumped over-
night from being one of the most back-
ward countries, in low rent housing, to
one of the most progressive. The history
of the months preceding this momentous
shift is of great interest and significance
to students of housing. The National As-



BOOKS FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER



Just Published!

THE PUBLIC ASSISTANCE WORKER

Hi- Responsibility to the Applicant, the Community,
and to Himself : : : Russell H. Kurtz, Editor

"Offers great possibilities for in-service training programs and for individual
worker development." Public Welfare News

We gave this book the largest first printing in the Foundation's history
and it was nearly exhausted before publication day. Is your order in?

224 Pages One Dollar



RUSSELL SAGE

130 East 22d Street



FOUNDATION

New York



sociation of Housing Officials in its an-
nual publication ably provides a back-
ground of information.

Articles by seventeen experts range
from a description of the work done by
the housing division of the Public Works
Administration, the Federal Housing Ad-
ministration, the Resettlement Adminis-
tration, and the Federal Home Loan
Bank Board, to such detailed and spe-
cialized discourses as The Function of
Accounting in a Housing Program and
Toward More Effective Housing Inspec-
tion.

The seriousness of the housing situa-
tion is made evident by Catherine Bauer
in We Face a Housing Shortage. Even
with the housing accommodations to be
provided under the Wagner-Steagall act,
only a small proportion of wage earners
will be taken care of. Relatively soon
there will be a demand for much larger
funds than are thus far provided by the
government. Recognition of the impend-
ing shortage is responsible for the appear-
ance of various tenants' groups which
are entering the fight for better housing.
The Consolidated Tenants' League, the
City-Wide Tenants' Council and the
East Side Tenants' Union, all of New
York City, are typical. The emergence
of these groups, unfortunately not men-
tioned in the yearbook, is perhaps the
most outstanding development of 1937.

The book is supplied with an excel-
lent bibliography and glossary of housing
terms. ABRAHAM GOLDFELD

Lavanburg Foundation, New York

World-Wide Plight

I NKMI'I.OVMENT IX THE LEARNED PRO-
FESSIONS, by Walter M. Kotschnig. Oxford.
347 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of Survey Mid-
monthly.



A GREAT deal has been said and
* written about overcrowding in the
professions and in institutions of higher
learning. Professor Kotschnig has ren-



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