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dered a real service in bringing together
an unusual array of facts bearing on
these problems. His study, which has cov-
ered practically every civilized nation in
In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MJDMOXTHLY

93



the world, shows that undoubtedly there
is a great amount of unemployment of
persons trained for the learned profes-
sions. The analysis of his data reveals a
situation differing greatly between coun-
tries. What may seem chiefly an educa-
tional problem is affected by differing
political, social and economic factors:
in some instances an oversupply of gradu-
ates of professional schools, in others by
a maldistribution of such graduates as
between city and country, between home
countries and colonies, and by a decided
underconsumption of the services of pro-
fessional practitioners as a result of de-
pression conditions.

With his world-wide study of the
problems involved, the author makes out
an impressive case for the importance of
this situation, not only to the individuals
whose interests are at stake but to the
continuance of the very society in which
they live. His analysis of the methods
employed in various countries to control
student enrollment, particularly his re-
port of the methods Germany has adop-
ted, gives convincing evidence of how
not to solve the problem of unemploy-
ment of professional workers.

He is not so clear in his suggestions
of positive treatment of the situation.
Certainly a guidance program that can
help young people make occupational
choices, with due regard to their own
abilities and the opportunities open to
them, will result in a better distribution
of youth as between the learned profes-
sions and other occupations. His proposal
to treat the problem by more rather than
less education is idealistic and attractive,
quite probably the real solution. Parts of
his plan are as yet in the realm of faith
and involve a number of important as-
sumptions not yet fully established of
changed social attitudes toward the rela-
tive values of different vocations and of
improvements in secondary education in
particular.

The book is significant because it deals
comprehensively with the world-wide un-
employment which exists among workers
of higher professional levels. It shows






the relation of this problem to other
social, political and economic problems
that affect our day; it points out the in-
adequacy of many attempts to deal with
it; and presents a sane, constructive and
hopeful basis for solution.
Executive Secretary J. H. BENTLEY
VMCA, New York

One Out of Five

THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY IN ADULT
EDUCATION, by Louis R. Wilson. Univer-
sity of Chicago Press. 321 pp. Price $2 post-
paid of Survey Midmonthly.

/~\NE out of every five adults in the
United States, it is estimated, today
engages in some form of voluntary self-
education. The public library's respon-
sibility to this group of 22 million people
and to the adult education movement as
a whole was discussed a few months ago
at an institute held at the University of
Chicago, made possible by a grant from
the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Louis Round Wilson, dean of the Grad-
uate Library School of the university,
headed the institute and now makes
available the papers presented. These
deal not only with the philosophy and ob-
jectives of adult education as they relate
to libraries but also with adult education
programs of such institutions as the pub-
lic school, Works Progress Administra-
tion, the American college, the National
Congress of Parents and Teachers, the
agricultural extension service, the youth
movement and city councils of adult edu-
cation. Radio in education and educa-
tional films also are considered. A read-
ing list on the subjects covered will be
useful for those wanting further infor-
mation. BEATRICE SAWYER ROSSELL

American Library Association, Chicago

It Might Be Worse

RURAL TRENDS IN DEPRESSION YEARS:
A SURVEY OF VILLAGE-CENTERED AGRICULTURAL
COMMUNITIES, 1930-36, by Edmund deS. Brun-
ner and Irving Lorge. Columbia University
Press. 387 pp. Price $3.25 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.



is a continuation of studies, be-
gun in 1924 and resumed in 1930, in
140 village-centered communities in four
regions of the United States. The
authors, aiming to discover what depres-
sion has done to the villages examined
earlier, have turned up a great deal of
information that clashes with most pre-
conceived opinion. For one thing, they
found that in about 10 percent of the 140
communities nothing has happened, for
the simple reason that there has been no
depression that is to say, these com-
munities were not affected by it to any
important extent. Even in those which
were pinched, the effects are not always
what uninformed persons would suppose.
For one thing, the rural regions have
been gaining in population. For another,
despite drastic reductions in school bud-
gets, "never before, in the twelve-year
study of these communities have children



and taxpayers been getting more and
better education at less cost." For a third,
the depression and its attendant discus-
sion of national economic problems have
broadened the intellectual horizons of
rural dwellers, sharpening interest in
national and world affairs. The whole
picture presented is a somber one, but
far indeed from being as hopeless as
many city dwellers have imagined. It is
a picture of people under economic stress,
but with a new alertness and awareness
that, under favorable conditions, may be
productive of values greater than all
that has been lost.
Baltimore, Md. GERALD W. JOHNSON

Social Security Work-book

THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT IN OPERA-
TION, by Birchard E. Wyatt, and William H.
Wandel, with the collaboration of William L.
Schurz, Graphic Arts Press. 382 pp. Price
$3.50 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

'"pHIS book well justifies the claim of
its subtitle "A practical guide to the
federal and federal-state social security
programs." A factual account of the
terms of the security act and of the
processes involved in administering it,
it was written by two of the chief tech-
nicians associated with day-to-day opera-
tions. Partly for this reason, the analyses
are at critical points diplomatic if not
"official," but the handbook is most time-
ly and particularly welcome in presenting
briefly and concretely what the student
and the interested citizen need for fur-
ther investigation or reference.

For this purpose a great many more
titles and subtitles would have made the
volume even more readily informative.
Likewise the index should have been
more detailed as, for example, by the
inclusion of names of states with page
numbers for points mentioned concerning
them. But the book will be of service as
it is, and the need for reprinting it will
permit changes and the addition of more
appendices dealing with source material.
HERMAN FELDMAN
Dartmouth College

Dictionary of Today

FUNK AND WAGNALLS NEW COMPREHEX.
SIVE STANDARD DICTIONARY FOR
AMERICAN YOUTH, edited by Frank H.
Vizetelly and Charles Earle Funk. Funk and
Wagnalls. 1008 pp. Price, plain, $1.75; indexed
$2.25, postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

DLANNED for the school and home
use of young people, this new diction-
ary defines more than 50,000 words. In-
evitably it will be compared with the
Thorndike Dictionary, which for the past
two years has proved the usefulness,
for elementary and junior highschool
pupils, of dictionary definitions written
in clear and simple language. The new
dictionary has similarly held its defini-
tions within a non-technical vocabulary
though it has not wholly broken with
the usual rather ponderous "dictionary
style." It has gone beyond the Thorndike
experiment in giving the etymology of



words, and in offering some 5000 syno-
nyms. It is an admirable example of
modern bookmaking, with clear type,
pleasant paper and binding, and numer-
ous illustrations, many of them repro-
duced in halftone. In definitions and in
the range of proper names, and of me-
chanical and scientific terms included,
the new dictionary is unmistakably a
1937 publication. BEULAH AMIDON

Scoop for History

FIRST ACT IN CHINA: THE STORY OF THE
SIAN MUTINY, by James M. Bertram. Viking
Press. 284 pp. Price $3 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.

I_JERE is an illustration of journalism
at its best. Not only does the author
record a "scoop," having been the first
to reach the ancient capital where the
head of China's government had just been
held prisoner, but he adds to the known
facts new information needed to make
the events understandable. He corrects
false impresssions about movements and
personalities, gives a sense of the milieu
by recording his own experiences, and
transmits the whole in a narrative of
literary merit. Here is drama to enrich
the repertory of the professional Chinese
story teller; but here also is shrewd ob-
servation and discriminating comment for
the student of current history.

BRUNO LASKER

Grim Indictment

HOW FARE AMERICAN YOUTH? by Homer
P. Rainey and others. Appleton-Century. 186
pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

' I *HE richest country in the world
fails to provide the minimum essen-
tials of self-respecting existence for the
majority of its youth. That, in essence,
is the grim indictment which this pleas-
antly written report to the American
Youth Commission succeeds in drawing.
The country over, neither jobs nor edu-
cation nor health service nor wholesome
recreation nor secure home life are avail-
able in satisfying measure for the bulk
of our sixteen to twenty-four-year-olds,
of whom our population includes up-
wards of twenty millions.

It is in rural areas that conditions
are worst and favorable outcomes hard-
est to envisage. The depression years
have left some two million more youth
on the farms and in rural non-farm
homes, than would have remained there
if the previously normal tide of cityward
migration had continued. There is noth-
ing for these millions to do. "An acre of
wheat can be grown now with about 25
percent as much labor as in 1919." Only
the few in the higher economic brackets
can continue in education. "One of two
alternatives seem to face youth re-
maining in poverty or wholesale migra-
tion. . . ." And where, one asks, are they
to go?

Here are problems enough for states-
manship. The several authors of the re-






94



port do their best to nivc credit where
it is due to CCC and \VPA, to Hi-Y
.mil 4-H; hut in the concluding chapter
on Truth and the Larger Citizenship,
one senses the exasperation of soul of
the man who, with firm faith in the
capacity of youth for loyalty to worthy
ideals, sees it confused, betrayed, and
finally embittered by the contrast be-
tween preachment and practice, between
what its elders and betters pretend to
be and what they really are. It would
appear that the moral rehabilitation of
youth must begin with a purging of the
Temple. JOHN R. P. FRENCH

Cambridge School, Kential Green, Mass.

It All Happened to Bertha

SISTER OF THE ROAD. The autobiography
of Box Car Bertha as told to Dr. Ben L. Reit-
man. Macaulay. 3M pp. Price $2.50 postpaid
of Survey UUmonlUy.

""THIS is the story of a girl who was
"born in the shadows of a railroad
yard, of a wandering mother who took
her lovers where she feund them, and a
father who was unconscious of her ar-
rival in the world. . . ." In fifteen years
of wandering she became, according to
the book jacket, "a hobo, member of a
gang of shoplifters, a prostitute working
in a Chicago brothel, mother of a child
of an unknown father, and a research
worker of a New York social service
bureau."

We do not know who Bertha was or
how much she is contributing to the New
York social service bureau, for which
she is supposedly working at the present
time, but assuming that even half of the
incidents told in the book are true, she
certainly has "seen life."

The book has so much in it regarding
the seamy side of life, that after a few
pages one becomes tired and disbelieving
not so much shocked as wearied.
Eventually one gets to doubt the whole
thing in spite of the appendix which con-
tains an unorganized series of adjectives
describing various conditions among
women of the underworld. The redeem-
ing feature of Box Car Bertha's story
is that she never pretends she was the
victim of too many circumstances. Her
service to the Chicago brothel while brief
was caused not by any economic pres-
sure, but by the mere fact that a man
who had other women working for him
exercised a strange power over her.

During her first day's work, incident-
ally, she earned a total of $133 and even
after paying protection and several other
things, including 50 percent to the house,
had a net of about $40 or $50 consid-
erably above standard social work scale.

For those who yearn for life in the
raw, this book may be interesting. It
would have more force if less happened
to Bertha ; in fact she seems to be the
life prototype of the Hollywood star
"everything happens to me."
St. Paul, Minn. THOMAS MINEHAN



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agency. 7494 Survey.



Woman, twenty years experience as field agent
and supervisor, desires position In Children's
Agency. Member A.A.S.W. 7498 Survey.



WOMAN, vocational counselor equally interested
in Rroup and individual work. Ph.D., executive
ability, to organize and develop new program
In public or private agency. 7491 Survey.



Versatile woman (born English), fortyish ; secre-
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This is the counseling and placement agency
sponsored jointly by the American Associa-
tion of Social Workers and the National
Organization for Public Health Nursing.
National. Non-Profit making.




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SUPPLYING INSTITUTIONAL TRADE

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LITERARY SERVICE



Special articles, theses, speeches, papers. Re-
search, revision, bibliographies, etc. Over
twenty years' experience serving busy pro-
fessional persons. Prompt service extended.
AUTHORS RESEARCH BUREAU, 516
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PAMPHLETS AND PERIODICALS

The American Journal of Nursing shows the part
which professional nurses take in the better-
ment of the world. Put it in your library. $3.00
a year. 50 West 50 Street. New York. N. Y.



TRAVEL and RESORT



SEATTLE CONFERENCE

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National Parks
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TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS

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MH 2-7588



REST HOME

Beautiful modern home, spacious grounds,
the ideal place for rest and convalescence.
Individual attention. Special diets. At-
tractive rates for weekends and holidays.
Reins tered Nurse in chartrv.

Circular on Application

THE ALBERT HOMESTEAD

Ouininr, New York Oss.ninc 2250



Special Train To Seattle!

IN cooperation with several railroads, arrangements have been made
for special through trains to carry social workers, their friends and
associated groups to the Seattle Conference in June.

THE first schedule permits a one-day visit to GLACIER NATIONAL
PARK, arriving at Seattle on the opening day of the Conference.
The second provides special cars for the use of Associate Groups,
scheduled to arrive at the Conference city at 8:00 A.M., Friday,
June 24th.

THESE two services offer an attractive opportunity to friends and
fellow workers to renew old friendships and make new acquaintances
while traveling through some of America's most fascinating scenery.

For particulars regarding the "SPECIAL" write Mollie

Condon, care of Survey Associates, 112 East Nineteenth

Street, New York.



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National Red Cross



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS

Administered through National Headquar-
ters in Washington, D. C., and three Branch
Offices in San Francisco, St. Louis and
Washington, D. C. There are 3711 local
chapters organized mostly on a county basis.
Services of the Red Cross are: Disaster
Relief, Civilian Relief, First Aid and Life
Saving, Home and Farm Accident Preven-
tion Service, Home Hygiene and Care of the
Sick, Junior Red Cross, Nursing Service,
Nutrition Service, Public Health Nursing,
Volunteer Service and War Service.



Industrial Democracy



LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY

Promotes a better understanding of problems
of democracy in industry through its
pamphlet, research and lecture services and
organization of college and city groups. Ex-
ecutive Directors, Harry W. Laidler and
Norman Thomas, 112 East 19th Street, New
York City.



Foreign Communities



NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF IMMIGRANT

WELFARE 1270 Sixth Avenue, New York.
A league of International Institutes, Citi-
zenship Councils and other local agencies
specializing in the interests of the foreign-
born. Gives consultation, field service, pro-
gram content to agencies engaged in any
form of constructive effort for the foreign-
born in local communities.



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Foundations



AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND,
INC. 15 West 16th Street, New York. A
national organization for research and field
service. Activities include : assistance to state
and local agencies in organizing activities
and promoting legislation ; research in legis-
lation, vocations, statistics, and mechanical
appliances for the blind ; maintenance of a
reference lending library. M. C. Migel, Presi-
dent ; Robert B. Irwin, Executive Director.



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Im-
provement of Living Conditions Shelby M.
Harrison, General Director ; 130 E. 22nd St.,
New York. Departments : Charity Organiza-
tion, Consumer Credit Studies, Delinquency
and Penology, Industrial Studies, Library,
Recreation, Social Work Interpretation,
Social Work Year Book, Statistics, Surveys.
The publications of the Russell Sage Found-
ation offer to the public in practical and
inexpensive form some of the most impor-
tant results of its work. Catalogue sent
upon request.



Health

MILK CONTROL, prepared by the Ameri-
can Municipal Association. Public Adminis-
tration Service series, No. 57. Price 75 cents
from the service, 850 East 58 Street, Chi-
cago.

Discusses municipal milk ordinances,
their administration and financing, ap-
pending the text of the U.S. Public Health
Service model milk control ordinance, now
adopted by about 700 communities.

A DISCUSSION PROGRAM ON DOC-
TORS, DOLLARS AND DISEASE, pre-
pared by Maxwell S. Stewart for the Public
Affairs Committee, Inc. Price 25 cents from
the committee, 8 West 40 Street, New York.

A full packet of information sources on
this lively subject together with a plan
worked out for club programs and similar



PNEUMONIA, ITS CARE AND PREVENTION,
by Dr. Frederick T. Lord, Life Conservation
Service of the John Hancock Life Insurance
Company, Boston, Mass.

A simple informative pamphlet of basic
information for the layman.

THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH
NURSE IN SERVICES FOR CRIPPLED
CHILDREN, by Naomi Deutsch, R.N. Re-
print from Public Health Nursing, 50 West
50 Street, New York, 8 pp.

Professional

PUBLIC SOCIAL SERVICES, (Total expen-
diture under certain Acts of Parliament,
presented by the Financial Secretary to the
Treasury, by Command of His Majesty,
November 1937.) His Majesty's Stationery
Office. Price 15 cents from the British Li-
brary of Information, 270 Madison Avenue,
New York.

Tabulation of expenditures for "some
of the principal forms of public social ser-
vice to the community," in England,
Wales and Scotland for selected years,
1900-1935, with some estimates for 1936.



THE PAMPHLET SHELF



STATE ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR
LOCAL RECREATION. WPA Technical
Series, N'o. 3, division of recreation projects.
From the division, 1734 New York Avenue.
NW, Washington, D.C.

Detailed information and discussion of
enabling grants to local governments for
iccreational purposes.

ADULT EDUCATIONAL AND RECREA-
TIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN GREAT-
ER BUFFALO, compiled by Herman J. P.
Schubert. Buffalo Council of Social Agen-
cies. 74 pp. From the council, 70 West
Chippewa Street, Buffalo, N. Y.

Compiled with NYA assistance this di-
rectory is designed to make easily accessi-
ble all sources of aids for adult education.
Its range is wide from picnic grounds, to
solaria, to workers education.

CHAPLAIN SERVICE IN A MENTAL
HOSPITAL, by John J. Humensky. Cath-
olic University of America, School of Social
Work. 178 pp. Monograph No. 3 from the
University, Washington, D.C.

Findings of a study of "pastoral service
and catechetical instructions," their thera-
peutic value for mental patients.

RESEARCH STUDIES IN CONTEMPOR-
ARY SOCIETY, by T. Earl Sullenger.
Municipal University of Omaha, Nebr. 48
pp. Price $1 postpaid of the university.

Summaries of selected research projects
carried out in Omaha; intended especially
for students of research method.

PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE TO THE

FUNCTIONING OF JUVENILE COURTS
ANT) SIMILAR BODIES. AUXILIARY
SERVICES AND INSTITUTIONS. League
of Nations Advisory Committee on Social
Questions. 50 pp. Price 40 cents from the
Columbia University Press, New York.

Fruit of more than ten years of investi-
gation of special aspects of problems of
neglected and delinquent minors, the
league committee's study report is impor-



tant for its bearing on juvenile courts and
its significance to wider problems of
education.

Social Action

HOW TO HANDLE GRIEVANCES, by
Glenn Gardiner. Elliott Service Company.
52 pp. Price 45 cents each, less in quantity;
from the company, 219 East 44 Street, New
York.

By a man who began as a laborer, rose
to leadership in industrial management
and personnel relations, this practical
booklet is presented as a working manual
for persons in supervisory positions in
business or industry.

4 FREE, 5 IN PRISON, by the Scottsboro
Defense Committee. Price 5 cents from the
committee, 112 East 19 Street, New York.

Presenting and summing up what the
press of the nation has said about this
famous case with "four free and five in
prison, on the same evidence."

International Affairs

AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PACIFISM,
edited by Aldous Huxley. Harper. 104 pp.
Price 50 cents direct from publisher, New
York.

Consideration, one by one, of virtually
every argument which can be advanced
in justification of wars.

CHANGING GOVERNMENTS, edited by
Ryllis Alexander Goslin. Foreign Policy As-
sociation, Headline Books, No. 11. Price 35
cents from the association, 8 West 40 Street,
New York.

A brief survey and "impartial appraisal"
of the present governments of France,
Italy, Germany, Russia and Denmark, all
in transition.

THE PROPOSED PARTITION OF PALES-
TINE, by Robert Szold. Hadassah, Wo-
men's Zionist Organization of America. 15
pp. From the organization, 1860 Broadway,
New York.



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96



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



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BEULAH AMIDOX. ANN REED BRENNER, JOHN



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