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Check-ups, 323
Dental work, 323
Discontinued workers, 327
Education program, 288
Funds, 355
Hopkins' report, 50
Housing and, 49

Nature of employment in Pennsyl-
vania, 199, 200 (table)
Industrial instruments and, 386
New appropriation for, 79
New program, 239
New York City, 50
Off and on, 356

One chimney smoking (cartoon), 338
Politics and, 140, 198
Program, 114

Recreation enterprises, 295
Rehabilitation, 291
Relief and, 322
Research, 356

School health program, 325
Splits, 355

Statement and forecast, 195
Unemployment compensation and, 50
Value of the worker, 355
Workers Alliance and other move-
ments, 355

World's Fair, education exhibit, 288
Medical preparation, 326
Medicine and public health exhibits,


Trailers, 326

Wrights' How to Be a Responsible
Citizen, 365

Washington Commonwealth Federation, Wrightstone, J. W., 389

9 Wyatt and Wandel's The Social Secur-

ity Act in Operation, 94

workers, 199
Teller, S. A., 110
Tennessee, compensation, 118

Prisons, 390
Texas, relief, 342
Thompson and Wise's We Are Forty

and We Did (let Jobs, 396
Tigcrt, J. J.. 379
Tittman, A. L., 294
Towley, Louis, Institution libraries in

Minnesota, 311
Townsend plan, 384
Toys, 256, 324
Trachoma, 246
Trade unions. See Unions
Trailers. 326

World's Fair, 326
Training schools, 236
Transciency, 295
Transients, irresponsibility, 27

New York State, 294
Travelers Aid, change of name, 29s
Trenton, N. J.. 244
Tubercular trailers, 326
Tuberculosis, 358

Jewish committee. New ^ ork, 392

Nation-wide program. 239, 246

Technical terms. 293-294

Yale Community Council, 268
Yantis, George, 231

Watson's Economic Backgrounds of the

Relief Problem, 30
Weeks's The Big House of Mystery,

Wembridge, E. R., letter to Billy Cogs- Yearbooks, 9~3 '

well on crime prevention, 10 Yonkers, 244

West, J. h.. letter to Billy Cogswell on Youngaah |, B. E. 229

crime prevention, 109 YWCA fellowships, 268

West, Mrs. Walter. 119 Vouth 53 94 m 2 67, 354, 388. 397
Westchester County, 266 Education and, 209

Budget, 119 Harvard study of normal young

Medical Society, 79
Whipping post, 291

Whipping post, 291

White, M. B., comment on Mrs. 1-ar-

low's article, 183
White, R. C., 379
White, William Allen, 345
Whitson, W. W., portrait and note. 161
Wichita, Kan., 213
Wieman's The Modern Family and the

Church, 221

Wile's The Man Takes a Wife. 127
Williams, Aubrey, 199, 231
Williams, E. A.. 80
Wilson's The Role of the Library in

Adult Education, 94
Wilson and Levy's Industrial Assur-

ance, 61

Education and, 209
Harvard study of normal

men, 354
Jobs for, 242
Labor market and, 389
Minnesota, unemployed, 206
Mortality, 214
NYA, 86
Negroes, 54

Placement and guidance, 354
Record and report, 267
Second World Congress, 286
Vocational aid, 118
Youth Education Today, 201

Zahniser's The Soul Doctor, 300
Zook, G. K., 379



Publication and Editorial Office:
112 East 19 Street, New York, N. V

M KM Y \I1I>MO\TH1.Y Monthly $3 a year

Sl'RU.Y GRAPHIC Monthly $3 a year


R. EASTMAN, president; JULIAN W.
. vice-presidents; ANN REED BRENNER, sec-


LEON WHIPPLE, associate editors; RUTH A. LER-
mco, HELEN CHAMBERLAIN, assistant editors.

tributing editors.

WALTER F. GRUENINCER, business manager;
MOI.I.IE CONDON, circulation manager; MARY R.
AXDF.RSOX, advertising manager.




Frontispiece 2

Working Girl's Budget BEULAH AMIDON 3

The Case of the Category RUTH A. LERRIGO 5

A Parole Officer's Day CHARLES j. DUTTON 7

Old Folks Go Union SELDEN c. MENEFEE 9

Cousins Indeed BLANCHE HALBERT 10

Social Agency Boards and How to Serve on Them

III The Necessary Executive CLARENCE KING 12

Down a Shabby Street JOHN STORES 13

The Common Welfare 15

The Social Front 17

Relief Compensation Public Welfare Old Age In-
surance The Public's Health Syphilis Campaign
Chests and Councils Professional People and Things

Readers Write 27

Book Reviews 28

The Pamphlet Shelf ' 32

Survey Associates, Inc.

Poetry is the most trodden upon art in
this country. EDGAR LEE MASTERS, poet.

Marriage should almost be insisted upon
as a requirement for a teaching license.
PROF. ALONZO F. MYERS, New York Univer-

Public opinion in the United States will
never be satisfied until Judge Lynch receives
his death sentence. SENATOR ROBERT F.

., AVit York.

It is alarming to realize how many mis-
interpretations are possible when people are
asked to read and write. ROSEMARY REY-
NOLDS in The Compass.

Science cannot smugly wave aside its re-
iponsibility for the world it has helped to
make and the somber shadow of insecurity
cast around the globe. PROF. CHARLES E.
MERRIAM, University of Chicago.

A social security that claims to make
everything safe for all through life would not
be social security because it would ruin the
chance of advance for society. JAMES TRU-
SLOW ADAMS fn Barren's Weekly.

It may be significant to recall that never
in our history has there been a turning back
from obligations of the character of those
appearing in the social security act. ANNA
M ROSENBERG, regional director, Social Se-
curity Board, Nets York.

Jumping to a conclusion, not knowing from
what point .one started or over what one has
soared, conscious only of emphatic arrival, is
one of the most exhilarating forms of mental
gymnastics. GEORGE E. VINCENT, PH.D., to
the Alumni Council, Amherst College.

So They Say

The mass mind is not, perhaps cannot be
a rational mind. PROF. HARWOOD L. GUILDS,
Princeton University.

It is better to go without security than to
sacrifice our intelligence and liberty. THE

Brushing the teeth is like buttering the
baby's heel; it cannot do any harm and it
may do some good. PROF. EARNEST A.
HOOTON, Harvard University.

The world moves best by pervasive excel-
lence in the whole texture of life, rather than
by spectacular gestures of undisciplined vision-
aries. ARTHUR E. MORGAN in Antioch Notes.

If a college assumes that it has found the
perfect answer to the baffling problems of the
higher education, it is a sure sign of its decay.

An idea is deathless, and if it does not
find a fair chance for life in its established
place it has a way of cropping up in other
semi-respectable or non-respectable places
where it has been recognized and welcomed.
ROLLO WALTER BROWN in Harpers Magazine.

Government is becoming increasingly a
matter of facts and figures, maps, graphs and
mathematical formulas. Men must govern and
be governed by their eyes and intelligence,
not by their mouths and viscera. READ
BAIN, Miami University, in American Socio-
logical Review.

I decide, I do, me, right here ... I am
the law. MAYOR FRANK HAGUE, Jersey City.

I find that as an artist I prefer to do things
well rather than to do people good. ROBERT
FROST at the New School for Social Research.

i suppose the human race is doing the best
it can but hells bells thats only an explana-
tion its not an excuse archy the cockroach,
per the late DON MARQUIS.

The greatest destroyer of ideals is he whc
believes in them so strongly that he cannot
fit them to practical needs. THURMAN
ARNOLD in The Folklore of Capitalism.

In the present state of medical knowledge,
money now spent to support the sick would
prevent their sickness. DR. THOMAS PARRAN,
surgeon general, US. Public Health Service.

Oratory is the art of making pleasant
sounds which cause the hearers to say "Yes,
yes," in sympathy with the performer, with-
out inquiring too closely exactly what he
means. SAM TUCKER, columnist, Decatur

Social security is contrary to the laws of
God and of nature and foils the challenge of
ingenuity and ambition. We need insecurity
to spur us to do our best. THE REV. DOUG-
LAS BUCHANAN, South Presbyterian Church,
Yonkers, N. Y.

In essence the fight for the establishment
of a national law for minimum wages and
maximum hours is the same as the old slavery
fight. The nation cannot continue to exist half
sweat-shop and half decent-shop. HENRY EL-
LENBOCEN, member of Congress, New Jersey.

Fitzpatrick in the 5. Lout'j Post-Dispatch
All of Them in the Air

Pollock in the United Auto Worker
News Item: 5000 Extra WPA Jobs Allotted to Michigan



Fitzpatrick in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Missouri's Modern Success Story

Car-mack in the Christian Science Monitor
Wanted More Security for the Social Security Funds




Working Girl's Budget


ANEW yardstick against which to check the ade-
quacy of wage rates for women workers is now
available. Measured against its careful figures, the
"annual wage" of most American women workers will be
found woefully lacking. For this budget study shows that,
in New York State, a woman must earn $1058.31 annu-
ally if she lives as a member of a family, $1192.46 if she
lives alone, in order to insure a standard "of adequate main-
tenance and the protection of health." Elmer F. Andrews,
state industrial commissioner, comments:

That these figures are higher than the actual earnings of
many women employed in New York State may shock a great
many people who see them for the first time, but they should
quickly realize that it is ... the very existence of this situa-
tion which brought about such a demand for minimum wage.
. . . All that these figures do is to illustrate graphically how
much less than "enough for adequate maintenance" are the
earnings of great numbers of women wage earners.

The figures are based on the first complete, state-wide
analysis of the living costs of American women workers. It
involved months of study and consultation with authorities
on living standards, nutrition, housing, and so forth, fol-
lowed by a state-wide pricing of goods and services accepted
as essential. The purpose of the study was to supply infor-
mation to the boards set up to fix minimum rates for women
and minors under the state's new minimum wage law.

The New York law, enacted less than a year ago follow-
ing the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the Wash-
ington case establishes three criteria which the wage board
for each industry may take into account: the value of
the services rendered; wages now being paid in the state;
the cost of adequate maintenance and health protection, foi
a woman supporting herself in New York State.

The experience in the District of Columbia, California
and other states under the older type of minimum wage
law based on the cost of living, furnishes a dreary record
of haggling and appeals to prejudice over the question of
what constitutes "cost of living."

As Frieda Miller, director of the Division of Women in
Industry and Minimum Wage, stated at a recent meeting
called by the Consumers' League of New York :

Such a basis for wage determination seems like a distinctly

backward step. Though wages paid in an industry and the
practices of outstanding employers might be too narrow a basis
for wage setting, they are at least objective, reportable data
that can be ... discussed as fact, not as emotion. Could not
the new criterion of the law, this test of "adequate mainte-
nance" be particularized in the same way? Could not some
evidence based on disinterested research and objective tests
of adequacy be brought before the boards?

Analyzing this possibility, Miss Miller and her asso-
ciates decided that two steps were necessary in translating
the act's statement of public policy into specific information
for the use of minimum wage boards: first, to compile a
list of goods and services representing "adequate mainte-
nance"; second, to ascertain the price that would have to
be paid for these items in typical New York communities.

BEFORE beginning to list the items, one major decision
was made by the Labor Department: this mini-
mum budget was not to be a "charity" budget, nor a "tide
over" scheme. Rather, it must be so drawn that the wage
earner who is to live on it will be adequately provided for,
and that a minimum wage sufficient to cover the items in-
cluded would not need to be supplemented "by the pay-
ment of public moneys for relief or other public assistance."
As Miss Miller puts it, "self support must be possible
under its terms."

Further, it was decided to work out the budget in annual
figures, because, as Miss Miller realistically observes, "that
is the only basis on which anyone can live." True, one fifty-
second of that figure may take care of one week's expen-
ses. But with the seasonal swings of trade and industry, the
comparison between a pay envelope for a busy week and
living costs for one fifty-second of a year would be mean-
ingless in terms of establishing decent living standards.

Finally, it was early determined that the budget must
take into account the group, the time and the place for
which it was to be prepared.

Data already available showed that about 900,000 New
York women wage earners are covered by the minimum
wage law. Of these, 41.1 percent are engaged in clerical
occupation, 30.5 in manufacturing and mechanical indus-
tries, 28.4 percent in service, communication, trade. The





Clothing upkeep and personal care

Medical care

Insurance and savings

Leisure time activities

Other living essentials


At Home










Living in
Furnished Room







Minimum Annual Budget for a woman wage earner in New York State, based on a study by the State Department of Labor, Division of Women
in industry ana .Minimum Wage


Medium quality fur-trimmed coat, every third year

Wool spring coat, every other year

4 felt hats, two heavy, two light

8 dresses

2 cotton, for summer street wear

4 rayon, 3 fair quality, one inexpensive

1 wool dress, medium

1 rayon party dress

1 wool skirt

1 sweater, every other year

1 blouse

1 smock


2 undervests (rayon)

3 knit rayon bloomers

2 panties, 1 rayon, 1 silk

4 slips, 3 rayon, 1 silk

2 corsets or girdles

3 brassieres

3 nightgowns, 1 cotton, 1 rayon, 1 cotton flannel
Flannel bathrobe (3 years)
Rayon kimona, every other year

2 pairs of medium quality street shoes

1 pair medium quality dress shoes

1 pair evening slippers, every other year

1 pair inexpensive white shoes

1 pair each
every other year

House slippers

20 pairs medium silk stockings

Umbrella, every other year

Raincoat, every 3 years

3 pairs gloves, 1 leather, 2 fabric

3 handbags at $1 each (or fewer and better)

Handkerchiefs, $1.50

modal age is between 20 and 24, with 54.8 percent under
30, 74.8 percent under 40. Of these workers, 64.7 percent
live in New York City, an additional 19 percent in cities
of 25,000 or over. The wage earners covered by the law
are thus predominantly a group of young city dwellers, the
majority engaged in occupations where personal appearance
is an important factor.

In laying out the study, the New York State Depart-
ment of Labor had the assistance of Prof. Hazel Kyrk of
the University of Chicago, as consultant, and advice and
suggestions from many other experts. Various standard of
living budgets were studied and analyzed. The staff of the
Division of Women in Industry and Minimum Wage final-
ly drew up a list of budget items, grouping goods and ser-
vices under seven headings: housing; food; clothing, cloth-
ing upkeep and personal care; medical care; leisure time
activities; insurance and savings; and "other living essen-

Pricing was an entirely separate procedure. The field
work was done by a staff of twenty-one which had had a
week of special training by an expert from the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics, an agency which has made a special
study of the construction of cost of living indices. The pric-
ing of the budget items, for each of which exact specifica-
tions had been worked out, was completed in a six weeks'
period, and all data were tabulated and weighted in the
State Labor Department. Then two parallel budgets were
constructed, one for women wage earners living alone in
furnished rooms, one for those living in family groups.

Perhaps some details about how one part of the budget
the clothing section was constructed will help make

clear the method and the attitude of this study. In consid-
ering clothing standards, the budget makers had no scien-
tific criteria of accuracy, as they had in the field of nutri-
tion. Their starting point they defined thus: "The woman
whose needs this clothing budget is to satisfy is a self-sup-
porting member of a modern community, and must meet
the standard of dress which is acceptable to the group of
which she is a member." The factors of age grouping, occu-
pational grouping and geographical grouping of the wage
earners covered by the law were "given due weight in set-
ting up the proposed budget."

Existing clothing budgets were studied and most of them
discarded as guides. Clothing allowances set up by public
relief agencies were found to be only "tide over" sums,
usually for "the woman at home." Private agency budgets
were often found to be drawn with no relationship to
the actual expenditures of women wage earners. The Na-
tional Industrial Conference Board, for example, allowed
in its 1926 budget, six pairs of stockings a year for the
woman wage earner, two pairs each of cotton, wool and
silk; two cotton dresses, one wool ($6.29) ; one silk
($8.32) ; one coat ($14.90) ; cotton vests and bloomers,
winter union suits, one sateen slip.

Three actual expenditure studies were found very help-
ful : budgets submitted in a contest arranged by the Bowery
Savings Bank and the Exposition of Women's Arts and
Industries, 1929; a study made by the Consumers' League
of Cincinnati, 1930; a study made by the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics in Richmond, Va., 1932. The average
annual clothing expenditure with prices adjusted to March
1937, was $206.40, representing between 20 and 30 per-


cent of the incomes of the women participating in the stud-
ies. The annual cost of the clothing allowed in the New
York budget is $196.81.

The budget wardrobe provides eight dresses, one of
them a "ra\on party dress." The report comments, "A
party dress was specifically included as a necessary and rea-
sonable part of a working girl's complete clothing budget."
The matter of underwear was considered in relation to
what women actually buy. "In the case of the panties and
also the slips, the practice was followed of allowing one
silk garment for dress-up wear."

Silk stockings loom as one of the major wardrobe essen-
tials in the three expenditure studies, and the budget allow-
ance is "minimum" not "generous."

An amount equal to 5 percent of the total clothing

budget is added for "miscellaneous items" scarfs, belts,

costume jewelry, shoe laces, collars and cuffs, etc., held

-cntial in an adequate budget, some for practical reasons,

others for equally important psychological reasons."

There is an allowance for sports clothes in the recreation
budget shoes, blouse, one pair of wool socks, three pairs
of cotton socks, all to last two seasons; a swim suit and
sneakers, considered good for three seasons; an annual
bathing cap and shoes. The amount included for these
items in the total year's budget is $6.35.

The idea of clothing upkeep and personal care was found
to vary widely in the expenditure studies. In the Cincinnati
$10-to-$15 wage group, the expenditure for this purpose
was given as $17.15. Richmond clerical workers spent

Since women workers living in furnished rooms and at
home, do most of their own washing and ironing, no laun-
dry allowance is included. Dry cleaning of coats once a
year, dresses twice a year, evening dresses once a year, and
one "extra cleaning," are covered. It is considered that shoes
should have two half solings, six heel lifts, three tips, with
a lump sum of $1 for both shoe polish and sewing supplies.

Holding to the standard of "a self-supporting member
of a modern community," as well as the actual expendi-
tures recorded by women wage earners, the budget makers
allowed not only for the purchase of cosmetics and toilet
articles but for one permanent wave every eight months;
four shampoo-fingerwave-manicure combinations "for spe-
cial occasions" during the year; six additional fingerwaves;
eight haircuts.

The budget makers point out in their report on the
clothing study, "The purpose of the proposed budget is not
to advise individual working women how to spend their
money or what clothes to buy, but rather to provide a rea-
sonable basis for estimating the cost of adequate clothing
for working women in general."

The Division of Women in Industry and Minimum
Wage plans to keep the budget up to date. Revision more
often than once a year is contemplated, to keep up with
changes in standard and in price. The budget is already
being used by the first board set up under the new law,
the laundry board. Other boards will soon be using it in
dealing with the wage problems of beauty parlors, candy
factories, retail stores, restaurants.

In looking at this effort to substitute facts for emotion in
the handling of industrial questions, many proponents of
minimum wage legislation will join in Miss Miller's hope
for the usefulness of a new tool, and the public's attitude
toward it:

Taken as a whole, it establishes a level which seems to
people who have been active in the fields of housing, of
dietetics, and so on, to provide adequate maintenance. That
is what the minimum wage law asks the industry boards
which are now to be set up to strive toward. May we hope
that they and those who are interested in their accomplish-
ment will take the effort we have made to give them a stand-
ard, as an impartial authoritative approach to adequacy, and
ask them to address themselves to the question of how close
they can come to that standard rather than to wrangle about
the number of silk stockings or the price of a hat.

The Case of the Category


THOUGH the rhetorical roll of "categorical relief"
may sound academic, actually these words are the
live wire topic of today in social work. Not that the
subject is new. In 1913 The Survey was publishing col-
umns on certain aspects of it, featuring as discussants C. C.
Carstens and the late Mary E. Richmond.

Always category relief, the special treatment of special
groups, has been a fighting topic. It is no less so at present.
At a meeting in New York last month, sponsored by Social
Work Today and the Association of Workers in Public
Relief Agencies, Local 9 of the State, County and Munici-
pal Workers of America, more than five hundred people
cared enough about categories to stay with them through
a five-speaker program and to call for a postlude. Hugh R.
Jackson of the State Charities Aid Association, outlined
the legal situation in the state, with its ten special catego-
ries of dependency, which now include: home relief, medi-
cal care (institutional and in the home), institutional care
for the aged and infirm, care for children away from their
own homes (dependent, delinquent and neglected), burial

relief, old age assistance, relief for the blind, veteran's re-
lief, aid to dependent children in their own homes (under
the boards of child welfare) and relief to the non-settled.

Harry L. Lurie, of the Council of Jewish Federations
and Welfare Funds, pinned on the colors of the category
system of relief and did battle in its defense. Joanna C.
Colcord, of the charity organization department of the
Russell Sage Foundation, announced her contribution sim-
ply as "Why I do not like category relief." Gordon Ham-
ilton of the New York School of Social Work, more or
less Olympian, saw something to be said on both sides,
viewed the effect of it all on the client and added the divert-

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 3 of 109)