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about it. The best way to prevent it is
to force interest in crime out of the minds
of children by putting something better
in its place.

. . . discussion of virtues . . .

ALBERT B. HINES, director. Madison Square
Boys' Club, New York

I AM not in favor of acquainting children
with the machinery of crime, but I see
nc objection to boys discussing their own
situation and why their friends got into
trouble. There is a play called "Fingers,"
published by the Big Brother Movement,
which our boys have done three or four
times and the effect has been good on
the boys themselves.

I should think a group of this age
would get a lot out of discussion on some
of our basic virtues such as honesty, in-
tegrity, loyalty and good sportsmanship.
A group of this type might be interested
in making a survey of community re-
sources as to the number of candy stores,
pool rooms, saloons, churches, recreation
centers, and so on. One of our group
clubs of this same age made a study of
boys on the streets in the afternoon, eve-
nings and on Sundays. Another group
made a survey of the games boys and



ijirls played on the streets. Under wise
leadership, these surveys can be inter-
preted and valued as to their character
building value and crime prevention pos-
sibilities.

. . . the positive approach . . .
JAMES E. WEST, Boy Scouts of America
BILLY'S letter asking for information on
crime and its prevention, which can be
used by his class at school, provokes a
great deal of thought. Like letters from
children which we have received, it indi-
cates that teachers are attempting to give
practical content to classes in civics.

We of Boy Scouts of America believe
that the best approach toward crime pre-
vention is the positive one, with leader-
ship and activities fostering normal living.
We go further, and attempt to increase
that group of people who have a regard
for, and desire to contribute to, the wel-
fare and happiness of others. Our experi-
ence has indicated that this mode of living
can be made attractive and challenging,
even in terms of childhood interests and
recreation.

Perhaps more should be done toward
sharing with children the problems of
crime and the loss which it causes to life
and society. I would insist, however, that
what is done should be handled so that
crime does not receive undue emphasis;
that it be presented without glamor, that
it bear no challenge to adventure. As
health education is presented positively,
rather than through the horrors of dis-
ease, so should the normal goal of good
citizenship be presented positively. As dis-
ease in health education receives minor
and indirect attention rather than empha-
sis, so may crime be treated in the edu-
cation of children toward active citizen-
ship and good character.

The school may foster the positive ap-
proach in the classroom directing the
child toward the teachings of his home
and church relationships which may
need cementing. The school, in recogniz-
ing the need for positive influences during
leisure hours, might well lend its encour-
agement toward membership in any of
the several organizations active in this
field.

It is at this point that our experience
in supplying to the boy who is a Scout,
the idealism of our Scout Oath or Prom-
ise and the Scout Law as well as the
ideals of service contained in the practice
of the daily Good Turn, has indicated an
effective and constructive approach to the
promotion of good citizenship among
boys. A host of case studies reveal how
potential delinquency has been translated
into desirable conduct through the posi-
tive force of these ideals.

In this process, the influence of the
gang, as Thrasher and Puffer and many
other students of boy life have pointed
out, is a potent force. When that gang is



APRIL 1938



109



a Boy Scout Troop or Patrol, operating
under the leadership of a man of charac-
ter, with the Scout ideals as a pattern
upon which "the gang" bases its tradi-
tions, then indeed constructive citizen-
ship is the outcome.

Obviously, it must not be inferred that
unless a boy belongs to such an organiza-
tion as Boy Scouts he will become a de-
linquent; but certainly it can be main-
tained, in answer to Billy's question, that
participation in such a program, supple-
mentary to the home, church and school,
offers one of the best assurances of the
production of citizens who not only live
within the law but more than that, have
the capacity to care about others.

... be a square guy . . .

WINTHROP D. LANE, director, New Jersey
Juvenile Delinquency Commission

DEAR BILLY: Is your grade just studying
the subject of crime and its prevention
among children, or do you yourself want
to help actively to prevent crime among
children?

The editor of the Survey Midmonth-
ly seems to think that you and your
classmates want to do something active
to help prevent crime among children.
Personally, Billy, I don't believe that
there is very much you can do except to
be a square guy yourself, keep out of
serious mischief, and act toward other
boys and girls in the same decent and
loyal way you would like them to act
toward you. Your good example will
count for more and have more influence
than almost anything else you can do.
Keep your word; try to understand other
people and their troubles and character-
istics; and have a good time without try-
ing to get it in ways that interfere with



the rights and happiness and property of
other people. You are old enough to do
all this.

As you grow older, try to learn more
and more why people do the things they
do. Delinquency and crime, you know, are
only ways of behaving or acting; and
there are reasons for all ways of behaving
or acting. One of the exciting things
about being alive today is that we are
learning more and more about why
people do the things they do; and of
course that makes it easier to prevent bad
behavior from the beginning. As you
grow up remember to do all that you can
to make sure that children have the things
they need in childhood, and have a real
chance for a full, happy life. Some of the
things they need are love, understanding,
sympathy, friends, a good time, play, good
food, clothes they are not ashamed of, a
good place to live, and some grown-ups
to give them all the help they need. So
don't be too quick to condemn people who
do wrong things and get into trouble, but
try to keep on learning how you can
help to give all children a chance to get
the right kind of start.

If you and your classmates just want
to study crime and its prevention, why
not invite a probation officer, a juvenile
court judge, a teacher (one from a col-
lege, maybe) or a social worker to come
over from Dallas or Fort Worth and
talk to you and your classmates? Those
cities are not far from Sherman, and they
are big cities and there are people in them
who could be very interesting to you.
Perhaps your teacher could invite a doc-
tor or a psychologist or a psychiatrist
if you don't know what those words
mean, ask somebody to come and talk to
you. You might have several kinds of
talks one from a chief of police, one



from a judge, one from a social worker,
one from a psychiatrist, and so forth.
These people could not only talk to you
about crime and its prevention, but they
could tell you things that are going on
right in Texas, and in your own part of
Texas, that would help you to under-
stand just what they mean. Perhaps there
are people right there in Sherman who
could talk to you in the same way.

If you have a juvenile court or a pro-
bation officer in Sherman why not ask
the judge or the probation officer to come
and tell you about some of the people who
commit crimes and how they treat them.

The trouble with almost all books
about crime is that they are written for
grown-ups and most of them are either
very dull or too hard even for grown-ups.

Still, you might try some of the chap-
ters in Life and Death in Sing Sing, by
Warden Lewis E. Lawes. If you don't
like it, try it again when you are a fresh-
man in highschool. Write to Miss Kath-
arine F. Lenroot, chief of the Children's
Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D. C. for a pamphlet called
Facts About Juvenile Delinquency, Its ',
Prevention and Treatment; you can get
as many copies as you want for 5 cents
per copy. Write also to the National
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 50 West
50 Street, New York City, and ask them
to send you some of their pamphlets. But
better yet, get some of those teachers
and social workers from Dallas and Fort (
Worth to come over and stand right up
in front of your class where you can
put them on the spot and ask them all
the questions you want.

P. S. Earl R. Parker is the chief pro-
bation officer of the Dallas County Ju-
venile Court, and can be addressed inij
care of that court, Dallas, Tex.




HANDMADE WAR AND PEACE

Boys of the Cougar Club of the Irene Kauffman Settlement, Pittsburgh, Pa., made a
little war and peace of their own. Using orange crates, furniture boxes, plaster of paris,
sponges and a little paint, the "cougars" built a before and after village, '.hereby gaining
by the handcraft method a notion of one of the things that war means. The project cost
about $5 and well worth it, say Sidney A. Teller, settlement director, and Harry
Ratner. father of this idea, to which some 300 "cougar-hours" of time were given.



110



German Emigres Help Each Other



ByTONI STOLPER



OK all the problems which Hitler has presented to
the world, one of the harshest is that of the refu-
gees. The "unbloody revolution" of totalitarian-
ism has \iprooted from the home soil an unholy harvest of
human lives, to wither as they may. There have been other
mass emigrations in history, but never before have emi-
grants, before leaving their homeland, been stripped of
their personal belongings by that modern invention, ex-
change restrictions; never before has a body of emigrants
been expelled from such a highly specialized industrial
sty as that of Germany. Never have emigrants faced a
world more reluctant to receive new men, new problems,
new unemployed.

Most countries in Europe and many overseas have shut
their doors firmly against German emigrants. Some coun-
tries have permitted them to cross frontiers, but have denied
them the legal right to work, thus pauperizing them or
compelling them to move on. All degrees of rigidity exist
in the details of anti-emigrant practices. Taken together
they constitute an appalling human tragedy.

In its treatment of the problem the United States has
conducted itself in a manner worthy of its best traditions.
The authorities have contrived to be humane even when
complying with restrictive post-war immigration regula-
tions. If the prospective immigrant could show guarantees
against becoming a public charge, he and his family were
admitted with rights and privileges wholly comparable to
those of the American born. And now, in this sixth year of
Hitler domination, the first of these immigrants of Ger-
man extraction will take the oath of allegiance to Ameri-
can ideals.

As the country itself maintained its honorable traditions
toward these tragic emigres so too did the American philan-
thropic spirit. Promptly in 1933 Jewish and Christian com-
mittees were formed to aid German refugees with the
promise that not one refugee on American soil should be
without food, shelter or counsel. Large sums of money were
raised, and are still being raised, to fulfill that self-imposed
pledge.

In this atmosphere of humane generosity the first few
hundreds among the approximately eighteen thousand Hit-
ler-immigrants in America began to lift their heads above
their personal needs. From the outset of the German exo-
dus, of course, friends have been cooperating closely in
mutual aid. Presently it appeared that this cooperation
might be organized as a form of self-help made available
wherever the need was greatest. At the end of 1936 a few
do/en persons in New York and New Kngland not in
any wax outstanding by reason of their names, position or
means came together and worked out a system of self-
taxation. It was not a charity in the usual sense. From
the beginning publicity and overhead expenses were exclu-
ded rigorously. Men and women approached their emigre .
friends for contributions and as every contributor became
In that fact also an organizer, the group spread over the
country somewhat in the manner of a chain letter. Nothing



was needed to unite them but a very clear statement of very
simple principles in form, only a single typewritten sheet.
Clear principles are a potent means for setting people to
doing something.

However simple, these principles were somewhat unusual
in these days of increasing denominational egotisms. The
proponents refused to take their cue from Hitler in divid-
ing up German men and women into mortal enmities. This
was to be a self-help effort by and for German emigres
irrespective of political or religious creed, denominations or
race. With humanitarianism as a paramount principle, a
simple, swiftly working scheme was set up in the United
States as a supplementary activity to the work done by the
American committees. Help is given only where some ur-
gent need arises before the committees are able to act and in
a few instances where cases are not eligible for the denom-
inationally organized American aid.

THE urgent task of the German self-helpers was outside
of this country. Small committees of trusted friends
were set up in the European centers of German refuge
where day by day a great variety of "cases" cropped up
for whom no quick, adequate and impartial help was avail-
able from local resources. In Paris, Prague, Zurich, Gene-
va, Brussels, Amsterdam, Vienna (until recent events made
German refugees German victims once more), these cen-
ters operate. Here regular monthly contributions in increas-
ing amounts are aiding great numbers of destitute and
despairing individuals, frequently of the highest cultural
standing. In Prague, for example, $5 to $10 a month will
save families from literal annihilation until they may be
set to thrive in some better soil. In countries all over the
world money raised regularly by this self-help appeal has
aided individual cases. This aid, offered in the spirit of
understanding friendship, has served as an effective support
to the morale of many a hapless and helpless victim of
blind hatred.

In its first year, Self-Help for German Emigres, Inc.,
(Post Office Box 62, Station N, New York) raised $10,-
000, most of it in monthly instalments varying from 25
cents to $20. Contributors and income are constantly grow-
ing but still are desperately behind requirements. A major-
ity of the contributors are themselves so hard pressed and
struggling that their conscientious self-assessments and the
regularity of their contributions are a source of constant
amazement to the management. American friends are help-
ing to provide the small overhead costs.

The Nazi sweep over Austria is of course making new
and compelling demands on the resources of these commit-
tees wherever they are located. The need is poignant and
pressing as German refugees in Austria who hitherto have
contributed to the fund become, perforce, its beneficiaries.

As this is written, word comes that the seed of the self-
help movement of Germans for Germans has taken root
in England, and that an organization following the pattern
made in America is throwing out branches.



Ill



The Common Welfare



Relief Must Go On

SPRING sunshine has been powerless to dispel the dark-
est cloud that hangs over our national sky the prob-
lem of unemployment and relief. The changing season has
brought comfort only to the opportunists. "Before another
winter," they say, "we'll have time to turn around." But
turn around on what? On business and industrial recov-
ery? We turned on that a year ago, and look what hap-
pened. On a bigger WPA program? We have it now, two
and a half million people at work but with no certainty of
what will become of them when current funds run out at
the end of June. On the report, due this month, of the
Senate Committee on Relief and Unemployment? [See
Survey Midmonthly, February 1938, page 35.] Well, may-
be. But assuming that that report comes forth clothed with
the wisdom of Minerva it still would have to run the
gantlet of realistic political expediency. So where are we,
and where are the millions of hapless folk consigned to
depths of need unplumbed by WPA or neatly devised cate-
gories ?

Meantime every measuring rod sunk in what Edith Ab-
bott calls the "great relief pool" stirs up evidence of its
depths. An inquiry by the American Association of Social
Workers in representative areas in twenty-eight states dis-
closed "shockingly low standards" as a result of attempts to
spread resources over growing needs. In many places the
association reports :

Relief allowances, already below levels necessary to main-
tain life and health, have been further pared; relief has been
made hard to get and difficult to endure ; medical care and
clothing allowances have been eliminated ; administrative ex-
penses have been slashed arbitrarily; relief offices have been
closed periodically; new applicants are being refused.

No one holds that relief per se will solve the problem of
unemployment, but only an ostrich will argue that the se-
quellae of that problem, masses of helpless people unable to
sustain themselves, can be left to blind fate while states-
men, economists and politicians struggle for a solution. Re-
lief bigger probably, better certainly must go on until a
way is found to pass the miracle that will put people back
to work.

A Long Step Forward

NEW YORK, home of the "giant" insurance com-
panies, now has a law permitting savings banks to
write life insurance along the lines of the Massachusetts
experiment, launched thirty years ago under the dynamic
leadership of Louis D. Brandeis. [See Survey Midmonthly,
March 1938, page 78.] As an alternative to so-called "in-
dustrial" insurance, with its high costs and meager benefits,
savings bank insurance has been found to afford increased
protection and substantial economies for its policy holders.
The day after the favorable vote on the Livingston-
Piper bill, which had had the vigorous and effective sup-
port of Governor Lehman, three Brooklyn savings banks
announced that they would establish insurance departments
as soon as the law permits, January 1, 1939. These banks
were active in the campaign in behalf of the measure. In



general, the 134 savings banks in the state were opposed
to the bill, as were the Massachusetts savings banks when
the Brandeis bill was pending.

Like the Massachusetts plan, the Livingston-Piper bill
does not permit savings bank insurance departments to
employ salesmen or house-to-house collectors. Those desir-
ing insurance must come to the bank and buy it. Insurance
funds are to be kept separate from the savings deposits. The
measure requires legal reserves, and investments are limi-
ted to the conservative classes of securities which are al-
lowed for savings deposits. Further, each bank is required
to contribute to a general insurance guarantee fund.

The Savings Bank Insurance League, headed by Wil-
liam Jay Schieffelin, is now undertaking an educational
program to inform the public as to the provisions of the
new law. With the encouragement of the New York vic-
tory, those interested in savings bank life insurance are al-
ready planning an active campaign on behalf of the plan in
other states, notably Rhode Island, Connecticut and Penn-
sylvania, where the state banking and insurance laws make
the scheme possible and provide the necessary safeguards.

Lands of Refuge

" T T is only fitting that the United States should take the
JL lead in an international movement to offer refuge to
persecuted minorities. From its earliest days this country
provided a haven for those who were forced to flee their
native homes because of religious and political oppression.
. . . Refugees have proved themselves through the years to
be our finest citizens. It would be cruel, illogical and en-
tirely out of keeping if we were to close our doors to them
now." These words of William Green, president of the
American Federation of Labor, aptly express the wide
commendation of the invitation of the United States to
nine European governments and all the American republics
to cooperate in a plan to provide asylum for oppressed mi-
norities from all lands. That invitation was this country's
first official pronouncement on the plight of those outlawed
by recent acts of despotic governments abroad.

It is not proposed to throw wide open the door of this or
any other country regardless of present quota restrictions
or of general economic conditions. It is proposed, however,
that all countries shall welcome refugees in such numbers
as their present laws permit, cooperating to care for the
maximum number. Ultimately, without doubt, an official
international body will be set up. Granting most generous
official cooperation, however, it must be remembered that
the cost of migration and settlement must be borne by pri-
vate individuals or agencies. Hence this gesture, which has
stirred the world, cannot be effective fully unless the chal-
lenge to potential donors is met.

A Housing Program

ORGANIZED a year ago with little publicity and on
the premise that any housing program to become ef-
fective must be the product of the joint wisdom of all inter-
ests concerned civic, social and business the Citizens'
Housing Council of New York began early in March a
series of public meetings on the preliminary reports of its



112



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



subcommittees. These staked out four points in a rounded

20-year housing program. Thr\ vailed tor the building ot

31,000 assisted and 53,000 unassisted units annually; and,

stop-gap, for the rehabilitation with public funds of at

least a part of the old law tenements. They looked to the

forthcoming State Constitutional Convention to open the

way for increased state and local financial aid to public

dousing authorities, for loans to cooperatives and to limited

dividend corporations, and for broadened powers for excess

condemnation and the acquisition of reserve lands. They

mmendcd complete and immediate revision of New

li Ciu'* /oning regulations and the development of the

city's residential areas into self-contained neighborhood

communities.

These reports, together with later ones dealing with
management and with the re-housing of tenants, will afford
the groundwork for a combined report which will be a
composite of the best thinking of experts.

Planned Parenthood

AFTER its signal advances in 1937, the birth control
movement in America is taking next steps. With legal
and medical sanctions largely established [see Survey Mid-
monthly, February 1937, page 48] extension of birth con-
trol facilities into the public health services is under way.
Already, more than a hundred birth control clinics receive
entire or partial support from public funds, some forty of
them connected with city and county health departments.
Several states have put such programs into operation but
nonetheless the newly organized Citizens' Committee for
Planned Parenthood points out that, "because of lack of
public understanding a human and social need has been
subjected to furtive and dangerous exploitation." The
committee, sponsored by the American Birth Control
League, is launching a nation-wide campaign. Its object is
to mobilize public opinion and provide means whereby sci-
entific birth control information can be made available to
every married couple needing it.

Hurdles to Hopes

THE public will watch it both with envy and with
hope," said Dr. Richard C. Cabot, a few months
ago, in characterizing a plan by which nearly five thousand
average citizens of Washington D.C. sought to secure up-
to-date medical services through a group plan. [See Survey
Midmonthly, December 1937, page 383.] Since last Octo-
ber, when the Federal Home Loan Bank Board invested
$40,000 in the Group Health Association to forestall its
own estimated annual loss of around $100,000 from sick-
ness of employes, this cooperative health-buying unit has
been a lodestar of public interest, most of it favorable.

But the District of Columbia Medical Society dissents.

Scarcely was the Group Health Association announced
hen the society opened fire. Today GHA faces hurdles,



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