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counties will be developed from the
SCAA's pre-existing citizen committees
on child welfare, Homer Folks, secre-
tary, pointed out that the plan is directly
in line with the association's methods
during all of its sixty-five years.



Certain staff organization changes
within SCAA have been made to facili-
tate the new program. James T. Brunot,
a regional field representative for the
bureau of public assistance, Social Secur-
ity Board, heads the new set-up, which
will be known as the public welfare de-
partment. With it will be merged the
present work of the county children's
agencies of the SCAA. H. Ida Curry,
who has been superintendent of the chil-
dren's agencies department is consultant in
the new division; Helen Van Orden Kerr
is field supervisor; Bess Williams and
Kathleen Hambly, regional secretaries.

Against Crime

(^EORGIA'S well but not favorably
known "chain gangs" were officially
relegated to the past by legislation passed
during the recent session of the state's
general assembly. Governor Rivers some
time ago invited the Prison Industries
Reorganization Administration to study
and report on prisons and prison labor in
Georgia. Acting on a PIRA report, pre-
pared with the cooperation of state pris-
on officials and legislators and presented
to the governor last fall, the assembly
took up the whole question of necessary
legislation for penal reorganization. Aus-
tin H. MacCormick, New York City
Commissioner of Correction, recently
was called in as consultant to help in
making new legislation effective.

As one result of the assembly's action,
the chain gangs, press reports say, will be
converted into "public work camps" for
"honor" prisoners, with a policy of "no
more shackles, whipping or sweat boxes."
Incorrigibles will be sent to stone quar-
ries.

The recommendations presented by the
PIRA included: establishment of a new
receiving unit and adequate facilities for
classification at the new penitentiary at
Reidsville; initiation of a new vocational
and educational training program ; de-
velopment of state-use industries (at
Reidsville) ; revision and strengthening
of probation and parole laws to provide
a modern system with a staff selected on
a merit basis; provision of a new central
penal board; retention of the present
Prison Commission as a parole board;
provision that all prisoners be under
state control and not distributed in coun-
ty camps; building of a new penal insti-
tution of the cottage type for women.

Self-interest Appeal The Women's
Prison Association of New York, in re-
counting its ninety-third year's accom-
plishments, stresses the physical improve-
ment which has been gained through ap-
peal to the "intelligent self-interest" of j
girls who come to the association for
help. "We explain to each new case ex-
actly what her problem is in obtaining



116



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



adequate sale treatment and how we
propose to help her solve that problem,"
Dr. Adele E. Streeseman, medical direc-
tor, reports, referring particularly to ef-
forts to combat syphilis. "Even in this
group in which a number of recalcitrants
might reasonably be expected, we have
never had a girl who refused treatment,"
she says, adding that these cases show
better than average persistence in the
long course of syphilis treatment and
usually continue until discharged by clin-
ic doctors.

News Briefs With the appointment
of a series of citizen committees, Harold
li. t/ampbell, New York City's superin-
tendent of schools recently launched a
"concerted attack on juvenile delinquency
and maladjustment." The plan grew out
of a recent report submitted by the
boards of education and of superinten-
dents. Each committee will concentrate
the attention of a well-qualified member-
ship, including many prominent social
workers and educators, upon a specific
problem of delinquency. . . . The research
department of the Washington, D.C.
Council of Social Agencies, taking a sta-
tistical look at the population of Lorton
Reformatory in the district, discovered
that of 1572 inmates sharing the institu-
tion's hospitality, 359 or every fourth
prisoner was a non-resident. Largest
numbers of outlanders came from North
Carolina, Virginia and Maryland. ... A
ten-lesson "course" for highschool boys,
which includes special attention to police
work, court procedure and criminal de-
tection, has been inaugurated in the schools
of El Paso County, Tex. The object is
not to train policemen, but to give the
boys and their companions a better un-
derstanding of police problems and meth-
ods, and incidentally to point out that
"crime doesn't pay." . . . Salt Lake City's
chief of police is working on a plan to
reduce the high incidence of juvenile
crime in that city by a method which re-
sembles the now famous Los Angeles
plan of city-wide coordinating councils.
. . . The bulletin of the International As-
sociation of Chiefs of Police recently re-
ported that the Los Angeles County Crime
Prevention Division, responsible for ap-
plying preventive or curative treatment
in all matters pertaining to delinquent
children, gives 24-hour emergency ser-
vice to all cases of crime or dependency
affecting children. Subdivisions include a
liquor detail, which checks nightly on
liquor-sale violations involving minors; a
juvenile missing persons detail which
last year located and aided nearly 8000
runaway boys and girls; a juvenile traffic
detail; a "pre-delinquent detail," to check
on juvenile loiterers found in suspicious
situations. ... A good library was rec-
ommended as an indispensable aid to rec-
reation and education in the program of
any penal institution when Austin H.



MacCuniikk, Nr\v Yurk City's commis-
sioner of correction, spoke to a recent
meeting of the American Library Asso-
ciation. Mr. MacCormick also expressed
his belief that books and public library
reading rooms as sanctuary for under-
privileged youth in American cities are
important factors in crime prevention.

Prison Miracle Long-termers in the
.Minnesota State Prison at Stillwater had
a "revelation" last fall when for the Hrst
time they were allowed to listen to a ra-
dio broadcast. Said a "lifer" who has
spent thirty-nine years in prison, "I can
hardly believe it. It's wonderful. It's
beautiful. If I could have one of those
things in my cell I could be happy for my
remaining days."

Schools and Education

EXPERIMENTAL projects in the
guidance, placement and occupa-
tional adjustment of youth were started
last month by the American Youth Com-
mission and the U. S. Employment Ser-
vice, in cooperation with the schools and
industry. Various techniques and meth-
ods will be tried in the different locali-
ties in an effort to devise better types of
organization and administration, and to
improve the relationships of the groups
concerned. The four cities already chosen
for experimentation are Baltimore,
Providence, St. Louis and Kenosha, Wis.,
with the Baltimore program already
under way. Rural communities selected
are Frederick and Carroll Counties,
Md.; St. Charles County, Mo.; Jeffer-
son County, Wis. At the end of the sev-
enteen-month experiment, the commis-
sion will make a critical evaluation and
publish a report.

Propaganda The new Institute for
Propaganda Analysis, 132 Morningside
Drive, New York, offers an experimental
unit of study materials in propaganda
analysis for use in junior and senior
highschools. Though it is planned as a
"teacher's guide to encouraging a scien-
tific study of propaganda among young
people" its usefulness is by no means
limited to the classroom. The materials
were largely developed in the course in
education and public opinion at Teach-
ers College, Columbia University. The
institute is a non-profit corporation or-
ganized "for scientific research in meth-
ods used by propagandists in influencing
public opinion."

Progressives Win A year ago 941
citizens of Roslyn, L. I. signed a petition
demanding that the local schools modify
or abandon their progressive methods
and put more emphasis on the "Three
R's." Last month, the report of an in-
vestigation of the Roslyn schools made
by the State Department of Education



u ;i* read to the taxpayers. The report
showed that in these schools, where the
teachers use no basal textbooks or rely
on them only as source books, the pupils
attend class eagerly, truancy is min-
imized, and the work of the children is
up to the level of their capacity. On the
other hand, the report pointed out the
need for a systematic plan of evaluating
the work of the pupils, for an adequate
record of pupils' attainments, and for
coordinating working relations of schools,
homes and community. Many parents
attending the meeting at which the 57-
page report was discussed were shocked
by the findings as to the capacity of the
Roslyn pupils. "It is evident," the re-
port stated, "that on the whole the chil-
dren of Roslyn are performing up to
their intellectual ability, but it is also
evident, when comparing the median
achievement of Roslyn with the norm,
that they are considerably below the
average of expectation. Obviously great-
er average achievement should not rea-
sonably be expected of them."

"Fit to Teach" The Ninth Year-
book of the Department of Classroom
Teachers of the National Education As-
sociation analyzes the health problems of
teachers and brings together a series of
practical suggestions with respect to the
conservation and promotion of teacher
health. The study aims to show how the
school environment and factors outside
the school influence the teacher's health;
what the responsibility of the community-
is in the promotion of teacher health;
how teachers' professional organizations
may promote the health of their mem-
bers; the duty of teachers' colleges to
familiarize their students with subject
matter relating to health and to guide
them in health habits. The study shows
that among teachers the habits which
particularly undermine health are: tak-
ing too little exercise, not eating a bal-
anced diet, sleeping too little, confining
interests to a narrow range. Every day,
the report brings out, 300,000 pupils are
taught by substitutes because their regu-
lar teachers are ill. More than 5000
teachers in urban, village and rural
schools cooperated in the study on which
the yearbook is based.

Policies The Educational Policies
Commission, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W.,
Washington, D. C., states that it will
attempt to complete three major pro-
nouncements, as well as certain other
reports during the current year: a re-
statement of the purposes of education,
bringing up to date the "seven cardinal
principles" of twenty years ago; the
economic basis of education, an inquiry
to determine the amount of education
necessary to ensure maximum national
productivity; a comprehensive statement



APRIL 1938



117



on the structure and administration of
public education in the United States;
social services and the schools; the im-
provement of teacher education; the
commission's annual summary of delib-
erative committee reports in education.

Guidance The newly formed na-
tional placement committee of the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin Alumni Association
has published a booklet giving "ten def-
inite steps which every person seeking a
job must take." ... A "vocational first-
aid for the puzzled youth" is offered by
the Association Press, 347 Madison Ave-
nue, New York, price 35 cents. Written
by J. Gustav White, professor of applied
sociology at Whittier College and di-
rector of the Personnel Counseling Ser-
vice, Los Angeles, this booklet on Find-
ing Your Work aims to provide practical
suggestions for inexperienced youth.

Meetings Educational Significance in
Adult Activities will be the subject of
the annual meeting of the American As-
sociation for Adult Education, to be held
at the Berkeley-Carteret Hotel, Asbury
Park, N. J., May 16-18. The meeting
will be limited to members of the as-
sociation, their families and invited
guests. . . . The Stanford Education
Conference for 1938 will be held at
Stanford, Calif., July 6-10. Social Edu-
cation will he the theme of the meeting.
Forum sessions will be devoted to dis-
cussion of experiments, investigations,
and programs in social education and
social control ; to appraisal of practices
and trends in the field; and to interpreta-
tion of the educational implications of
American culture.

Record and Report Food for Fo-
rums, a mimeographed bulletin issued
monthly by the State Education Depart-
ment, Albany, N. Y., provides short sum-
maries of current researches, reviews of
timely articles, books and pamphlets for
the use of forums, study clubs, program
committees, schools and civic agencies.
. . . The February issue of School Life,
official organ of the U. S. Office of Edu-
cation, tells in text and pictures what the
office is, how it works, its functional
services, its recent developments and de-
scribes "some needed additional services."

Compensation

\X/"OMEN who lose their jobs he-
cause they marry or smoke cig-
arettes may collect unemployment
compensation in Pennsylvania, under a
ruling announced by Ralph M. Bashore,
secretary of labor and industry. . . .
Massachusetts also has ruled in favor
of brides dismissed from their jobs be-
cause of a company policy against the
employment of married women, who
"meet other requirements of the law."



Amendments Amendments intended
to strengthen existing state unemploy-
ment compensation legislation are being
considered by a number of the state leg-
islatures now in session. Georgia has
amended its law, advancing the date of
benefit payments from July to January
1939. New York has broadened its cov-
erage to include the first $3000 of the
salaries of workers earning over $3000
a year. In these two states, as well as in
Kansas, Kentucky and Massachusetts,
various technical difficulties in the legis-
lation have been corrected.

Finances Reports from unemploy-
ment compensation agencies of the twen-
ty-three states now paying benefits show
3,160,573 checks, totaling $32,066,881.76
issued through March 9. Payments in-
clude benefits for partial as well as
total unemployment, except in the three
states Massachusetts, New York and
Pennsylvania which make no provision
for partial unemployment. At the end
of February, the twenty-three benefit
paying states had a balance of more than
$450 million to their credit in the Un-
employment Trust Fund in the U. S.
I'reasury. The total amount on deposit
in the trust fund for all states was $741,-
290,594.33.

Complaints Delay in mailing out
benefit checks and errors in computing
the amount of benefits due have been
complained of in many states. The Min-
nesota officials responsible for unem-
ployment compensation administration
were summoned to Washington for con-
ference, because, according to the Min-
neapolis Journal, checks due the third
week in January had not been sent out
by early March. ... In California,
Governor Merriam has announced that
he "has called for a thorough investiga-
tion of the State Unemployment Reserve
Commission's delay in issuing unemploy-
ment checks to jobless Californians."
. . . The Maryland Unemployment Com-
pensation Board is trying a new pro-
cedure, paying two or more weeks' ben-
efits in one check "wherever that is nec-
essary to bring payments up to date."
. . . Pointing to the "top-heavy system"
rather than "lack of administrative zeal"
as the reason for complaints as to delay
and inaccuracy in benefit-paying states,
the American Association for Social Se-
curity urges "the setting up of flat rates
for contributions and benefits; the estab-
lishment of an integrated plan of protec-
tion which will provide adequate security
to the unemployed as long as they are
in need."

Fraudulent Claims Criminal ac-
tion will be started against persons in
Connecticut who have applied fraud-
ulently for unemployment benefits, ac-
cording to Helen Wood, executive



director of the Unemployment Compen-
sation Division of the State Labor
Department. She states that the divisio
has found more than 100 fraudulent
claims out of nearly 100,000 filed
workers. In some cases payment had bee
made. Refunds of the payments have bee
demanded. The fraudulent claims wer
discovered through the protests of for-
mer employers of the claimants. . .
In Tennessee three cases are pendin
based on the collection of insuran
checks by persons who had left their
jobs to accept other work. Labor Com- j
missioner Albert Gore announces that
prosecution of such cases will be pushed,
and that, if the practice continues, mis-
demeanor charges will be changed to
charges of taking money under fals
pretenses.

Interstate Plans Twenty-eigl

states, including a majority of the stat
now paying benefits, have formally
cepted the proposal for organization
an interstate benefit payment plan, ir
itiated at the national meeting of
Interstate Conference of Unemploymen
Compensation Agencies held last Octo
her. The committee of the conference,
authorized to develop a procedure, rules
and regulations which would apply to';
the payment of benefits to multi-state
workers, is meeting in Washington at 1
this writing. Pending inauguration ofi
the committee's plan, the New England
states have been operating a tentative in- j
terstate benefit payment plan of their
own, on a purely regional basis. A certain 1
number of the other benefit paying states
have been accepting claims of workers
who have benefit rights in other statesj
and forwarding them to the appropriate
agencies for payment.

The Public's Health

HP HAT there is need and occasionj

now, for development of a national
health program is stressed in the recent*
report to the President of an interdepart*
mental technical committee on medical
care which offers definite recommenda-
tions. Surgeon General Thomas Parran,
speaking to Congress apropos of the re-jj
port, urged provision "at whatever cost"
of health services for the poor and under-
privileged. The proposed program, as
summarized by Dr. Parran, includes four '
main points:

"For all citizens those community
measures of sanitation and disease pre-5
vention which are necessary if any of ti>
are to be safe.

"For the underprivileged third of our
population such specific measures of pre-
vention and treatment as good maternity
care, child health protection, the control
of tuberculosis, syphilis, pneumonia, can -
cer conditions which are too important



118



to the nation as a whole for us to permit
continued neglect.

"For areas without them, the physical
facilities for good health such as hospi-
tals, sanitoria and health centers without
which no national health program can
operate effectively.

"For those on relief and dependent
upon public funds for the other necessi-
ties of life, a minimum standard of
general medical, dental, nursing and
hospital care."

In referring" to specific needs, the re-
port of the Public Health Service com-
mittee lists: reduction of mortality rates
in maternity cases; reduction of infant
mortality; further application of preven-
tative and curative measures in the acute
communicable diseases of childhood ;
more general distribution of modern
therapeutic methods; reduction of tuber-
culosis deathrates; special attention to
the need for control of malaria; control
of syphilis; a concerted attack on the
cardio-vascular-renal diseases, cancer,
and diabetes ; increased industrial-hygiene
activity; consideration of the health prob-
lems of the low income and dependent
families; national and regional planning
in the field of hospital expansion and
construction.

The report stated the committee's con-
viction that "current activities are inade-
quate to assure the population of the
United States such health of body and
mind as they can and should have." It
recommended that appropriate arrange-
ments be made to spread medical costs,
"among groups of people and over pe-
riods of time." Both social insurance and
general taxation were suggested as means
to further this aim.

On the Air As a special observance of
National Child Health Day. May 2, the
American Heart Association has ar-
ranged an international broadcast to be
heard over WEAK at 7:30 P.M. EDS
time. The broadcast, said to be the first
international hook-up on any health sub-
ject, will take the form of a conference on
rheumatic heart disease, great menace to
child health. Lord Thomas Jeeves Hor-
der will speak from London; Dr. Homer
F. Swift of New York and Dr. T. Duc-
kett Jones of Boston will speak from
Atlantic City: and Dr. William J. Kerr.
president of the American Heart Asso-
ciation, from San Francisco.

For Mental Health A report .review-
ing five years of work has been published
h\ the Institute for Psychoanalysis of
Chicago, Alfred K. Stern, president. Ac-
tivities in professional training, research
and in cooperation with other professional
groups are covered. There is also a crit-
ical statistical analysis of therapeutic re-
sults during the period. Since the opening
of the institute. 122 psychiatrists, stu-
dents and graduates of medical schools

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have applied to the institute for training
in psychoanalysis, forty-one of whom
have received training in the institute.
During the five-year period, 745 persons
came to the institute for consultation;
595 received some form of therapy or
advice. Altogether, 226 analyses of pa-
tients were conducted or controlled in
the institute, some of which have not been
completed. Of the 226 patients, fifty-six
paid a dollar or less per session. The
highest range of payment was $15 to $25
per session, received from thirteen pa-
tients.

News in Brief A renewed and in-
tensive effort to extend the educational
campaign against tuberculosis was
launched on April 1 by the National
Tuberculosis Association with the aid of
schools, health departments, physicians
and state and local tuberculosis associa-
tions. An important goal is to make tub-
erculin testing and X-ray chest examina-
tions a standard principle of all school
health programs. Hundreds of thousands
of special charts and pamphlets contain-
ing suggested school projects on tubercu-
losis study have been distributed. "Tub-
erculosis undiscovered endangers you," is
the watch-cry of the new effort.

National Health and the Medical Pro-



fession is the subject of the February
1938 issue of Plan Age, produced by the
National Economic and Social Planning
Association. Comprehensive articles by
authorities are brought together in the
booklet to make a well-rounded sum-
mary of problems in medical economics,
as they concern the doctor, the public and
the general welfare. Price 20 cents from
the association, 1721 Eye Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.

Citizen Service

O TRUCK by the general lack of in-
formation on the real meanings be-
hind a public welfare budget, a group of
Westchester County, N. Y. women, head-
ed by Mrs. Walter West, have set out
to study their county's budget. It all be-
;an when Mrs. West sat in on a budget
hearing and noted only one refrain,
"Wonderful job; cut." In other words,
the county board of supervisors, full of
appreciation but not of comprehension of
the work done by the county welfare



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