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century and over, and is apparently with-
out counterpart in any other state of the
Union, if not in the world.

Let no one think that it has close rela-
tion to any up-to-date theories of pen-
sions, or to any modern conception of
preventing the break-up of the family.
The statute is based upon no scientific-
study; no experts in the care and treat-
ment of this class of the population have
been called in for consultation; no survey
of conditions to justify such provision has
ever been attempted. In the allowances
granted there has never been any particu-
lar investigation with respect to appli-
cants or recipients nothing that has sav-
ored of social case work. The matter is
left pretty much to the whim or discretion
or at best to the common sense of the
county judge, with the money turned
over to a "committee" of his designation
for the idiot beneficiaries. As can be
guessed, the system easily becomes a mat-
ter of political patronage and probably
it is this consideration that makes some
members of the legislature so averse to
interfering. The system never has had an
open defender; in point of fact, it is most
difficult to drag it out for public discus-
sion.

Incidentally, it may be added that the
$60,000 which the state so munificently
grants for this purpose would furnish a
handsome and tremendously needed sum
for work in behalf of the adult blind of
the state, including steps for the preven-
tion of blindness a need which a>
called to the attention of the state gov-
ernment, hut without avail. It was this
same legislature that refused to create
an agency to give some attention to its
blind citizens, though nearly every en-
lightened state of the Union has a more
or less extensive program in this direc-
tion. In all such programs the uppermost
thought is the initiation of measures to

APRIL 19.W



put an end to blindness an affliction of
which Kentucky has altogether too much
with too little being done about it.
I'nirrrtity of Kentucky HARRY BEST

Mobile Health Exhibits

To THE EDITOR: It is not that I object
to being put in with tax-supported health
departments because they are excellent
company. But the Wisconsin Anti-Tuber-
culosis Association is rather proud of its
traveling health exhibit which was men-
tioned on page 21 of your January issue
and can't help wishing that, when you
mentioned the trailer used for health ex-
hibits in this state, you had "tagged" it
as being part of this association's pro-
gram.

The present trailer is the third large
traveling exhibit we have put on the
road during the last five years. The first
was crated and shipped by truck or train ;
the second was merely transported in an
automobile trailer and set up in vacant
stores, schools and meeting halls ; the
third is an exhibit conceived and built by
us in a specially constructed trailer which
we designed. It contains its own electric
power unit to provide light and to oper-
ate the sound motion picture projector.

The Wisconsin State Board of Health
does have a trailer unit to take maternal
and child health information to expectant
mothers in rural districts.

GLENN V. ARMSTRONG
Wisconsin Anti-Tuberculosis Association
Milwaukee, Wit.

Confirmation of Faith

To THE EDITOR: I was delighted to read
Miss Colcord's ideas on categorical relief
in the Survey Midnionthly for January.
Believing so thoroughly in non-categori-
cal relief because of my own experience,
it gave me much pleasure to read that a
person who so thoroughly knows the
theory back of all social work should
advocate it.

I was interested in the comments on
the effect upon workers' skills and job
alignment. When non-categorical relief
first was proposed in the county where
I was employed, the workers were quite
opposed to it. I think much of the opposi-
tion was from fear of losing their jobs.
They were afraid they couldn't learn
other techniques quickly, and that better
trained workers would be brought in to
replace them. Now they are proud of
their increased knowledge and skill. I was
a horrible example of a worker, edu-
cated but inexperienced in welfare work,
starting as a non-categorical worker. I



found it a real pleasure to he able to
handle the family relief problems as a
whole. It also proved a great time-saver,
not only in mileage but in the time which
had been required in continually consult-
ing other workers on the family situation
as they saw it from their categories.

In the Department of Labor, division
of placement and unemployment insur-
ance, I believe there should be employes
who have experience in social work. Not
a week passes that I can't be of service
to some persons because of my social
work experience or get them more
quickly to the proper social agency. And
there is much more to be said in favor
of this subject.

From contacts with the rank and file
of social and employment workers, I
have seen too often a great lack of
mutual understanding. Since employment
service is such a fundamental need of re-
lief clients, I think employment practices
and theory should be dignified in social
agencies and should be given attention
equivalent to that given home economics
and medicine. One way would be to have
an adviser in the state social welfare de-
partment whose duty it would be to keep
suitable placement on jobs in the fore-
ground of social workers' minds, and to
strengthen cooperation with employment
agencies, especially the state service.

I have faith that in time government
agencies will work together better to help
the poor client; but I do get a bit im-
patient. KATHKRINK WOODRUFF
knnanlph, N. V.

With Pleasure

To THE EDITOR: As a member of the staff
of Travelers Aid I thought social work-
ers might like a few suggestions for vaca-
tion spots. I have compiled the following,
which I hope you will duly pass on to
your readers:

Intake, Montana
Case, Missouri
Work, Kansas
Hard Cash, .Mississippi
Relief, North Carolina

HELEN LASKER GII.MARTIN



\<-n York



So He Says



To THE EDITOR: The first thing I turn
to when I get my Surrey Midnionthly
is the half page. So They Say. I imagine
most people start right there and read
every paragraph before going on to the
rest. And that does not mean that the
rest is not just as good.

I wonder if you have thought of mak-
ing a pamphlet of So They Say or a
book. I believe it would be a best seller
and hereby subscribe to one if and when
published.
Kanias City. Mo. PAUL S. BLISS

123



Book Reviews



Social Security in Practice

THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL
GRANTS TO STATES, by V. O. Key, Jr.
Public Administration Service, Chicago. 388
pp. Price $3.75 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

*TPHIS volume is the first of a series of
studies on administration, in which
attention will be centered on problems
connected with the social security pro-
gram. It deals with a broader problem
than those which are to follow, but it
fills a long felt need. "Previous writ-
ings," says Joseph P. Harris in his fore-
word, "have been concerned generally
with the broad questions of policy, his-
tory, and with financial and legal aspects.
The administrative questions have large-
ly been unexplored." In concentrating
attention upon these, the present study,
financed by the Social Science Research
Council and very ably done, will be in-
valuable to administrators (federal and
state alike) to students of intergovern-
mental relations, to social workers, and
to laymen interested in the development
of the social security program.

The study begins with an analysis of
state plans and budgets, as developed in
connection with the various functions
for which federal aid has been granted.
Then follow discussions of federal in-
spection and field service, the audit, rec-
ords and reports, personnel, and so on.
Questions considered include: federal and
state organization for the administration
of such programs; division of costs be-
tween the federal government and the
states in the administration of federally-
aided activities; withdrawal of federal
cooperation. The role of associations of
federal and state officials is discussed. It
is shown that conferences held by such
groups frequently result in the formula-
tion of important legislative and admin-
istrative policies.

In the concluding chapter, the author
presents an analysis of the mechanisms
of federal control, the relation of the
grant-in-aid system to the broad consid-
erations of national policy, and the range
of utility of the subsidy plan. This sys-
tem, he finds, tends to mold existing state
activities in keeping with the national in-
terest, and to extend the scope of state
administrative service. In general, the
states have been strengthened rather than
weakened by it and local interest has
been preserved. There is little evidence
of any attempt on the part of federal
authorities to dictate to the states, but
the system functions best under fairly
definite federal supervision a factor
which has contributed materially to the
improvement of personnel standards and
of standards in state administration.



The narrow limits of some of the
grants raise questions as to their wis-
dom, but time has tended to broaden the
scope of such grants. The system has
been most used in connection with "ser-
vice" functions rather than with regu-
latory activities. "In all probability, the
functions promoted by it would not have
been performed on the same scale or
with the same degree of effectiveness had
the federal aid scheme not been devised."
No such summary, however, is adequate ;
the book itself must be read. One could
scarcely expect such a work to be light
reading, but it is interesting and well
written. It is more than a good book;
it is exceptionally good and constitutes
a substantial contribution to the litera-
ture on intergovernmental relations.
Temple University W. BROOKE GRAVES

Challenge to Clergy

SOCIAL WORK OF THE LONDON
CHURCHES, by J. C. Prinsrle. Oxford Uni-
versity Press. 291 pp. Price $1.7'3 postpaid of
Sitri'fy Midmonthly.

/COUCHED in terms of "good news"
this book celebrates a trend result-
ing from the acceptance in 1934 by the
London County Council of a report made
to it by one of its committees. This re-
port defines the psychological and spirit-
ual nature of the relation of the reliev-
ing officer to his client. It stands for a
non-mechanical, personal administration
of the poor law. Mr. Pringle's argument
is that a departure in poor law practice
should serve as a challenge to the clergy,
Anglican and Roman, and to the Free
Church ministers and Jewish rabbis.
They each need to realize anew the
"transcendental element" in their par-
ishioners' "daily struggle with pain, fear,
humiliation and need." Their role should
be that of interpreter as well as of col-
laborator with poor law officials and
with the whole body of voluntary social
workers.

The demand made on the clergy is that
they take seriously the call to treat their
parishioners as unique persons; that they
be prepared to meet the cost in expendi-
ture of time and energy of this process
of individualization. Church attendance,
forms of entertainment, instruction in
class and from the pulpit are of secon-
dary importance to the exacting task of
seeing the old and the young, the de-
feated and the elated as several person-
ages.

Mr. Pringle says that the clergy must
be prepared to deal with people at "a
professional level of proficiency." He
does not give indication as to the type of
training required nor the content of the
desired curriculum. His statement that



the Cure d'Ars was "the most effective
parochial clergyman of the last two cen-
turies, perhaps of all time" might be
taken to imply that his parochial ideal
can be realized by the clergy even if
they do not have the benefit of a school
of social work diploma.

The reader is indebted to Mr. Prin-
gle for his stimulating call to the volun-
teer, and is grateful for again being
brought into company with the "clerk"
who, though his "parisshe was wyd and
houses fer a-sonder"
". . . . ne lafte nat, for reyn ne thonder,
In siknes nor in mischief, to visyte
The ferreste in his parisshe, muche and

lyte."
New York MARY WILLCOX GLENN

Suffrage or Sufferance

THE AMERICAN WOMAN: THE FEMININE
SIDE or A MASCULINE CIVILIZATION, by Ern-
est R Groves. Greenterg. 438 pp. Price $
postpaid of Survey Midmonthly-

STARTING from the sound premise
that the lives of men and women can-
not be separated, the author of this
scholarly book traces the emergence of
woman against a background of the
whole evolution of American life social,
political, educational and industrial.
Wholly sympathetic to the advance of
woman into all these fields, he insists
that her progress has been hindered not
by any conspiracy against her, nor, except
in rare instances, by masculine opposi-
tion, but solely by the mores and sys-
tems of thought of society as a whole.
Foremost among these he ranks Chris-
tianity with its ascetic ideal which saw
in woman man's "chief spiritual hazard" ;
and he is at considerable pains to find
excuses for St. Paul's personal contribu-
tion to this attitude.

After a brief survey of the cultural
background of the American settlers and
of the ways in which the mores of
Europe were modified in the colonies,
Professor Groves deals in separate and
carefully documented chapters with the
women of the industrial North, the agri-
cultural South and the pioneering West.
In New England, textile mills first offered
to single women a means of self-support
outside the home. If their wages were
pitifully small and their hours of work
from twelve to fifteen daily, these only
paralleled the conditions of women who
stayed at home. The wife of the western
pioneer, sharing the dangers and hard-
ships of her husband, developed an inde-
pendence and self-reliance which laid the
basis for a more equal relation of the
sexes; and it was here that coeducation
was first established and that the cause
of woman's suffrage won its earliest vic-
tories. Turning to the South the author
writes at length and with great sympathy
of the mistress of the plantation whose
life within the home offered her both a
career and social prestige; but he dis-



124



mir> in a paragraph the "multitudes of
men and women" whose standards of
living were totally different.

Professor Groves points out the influ-
ence of the Civil War in opening to wo-
men the fields of nursing and medicine.
He pays tribute to the woman's club
movement and to the Grange that "first
secret order to admit women as well as
men" which gave to rural women an
opportunity for self-expression without
any xex consciousness and immensely ad-
vanced the idea of suffrage in country
communities. In the actual winning of
suffrage for women he is inclined to dis-
count the part played by aggressive lead-
ership and to see it as an inevitable re-
sult of the advance in woman's status
along all lines and particularly of her
gain in economic independence.

Being a sociologist, Professor Groves
everywhere stresses environmental influ-
ences to the practical exclusion of psy-
chological ones. His conclusion is that in
large measure woman's advance has been
the result of economic changes; that the
greater part of her progress, especially
in the realm of public affairs, came from
openings she found in alliance with men ;
and that her present status of near-
equality with men is "highly transitional,
experimental and possibly probationary."
MARGARET NORDFELDT, M D
Xrw York

Down to Essentials

A PRIMER OF BOOKKEEPING FOR CO-
OPERATIVES, by Werner E. Regli Director
of the Accounting Bureau of the Cooperative
League of the United States of America. 40 pp

""' L' om "" Ifa ue - I67 Weit 12
oirect, w cw York,

"gOOKS are written to tell a story."
Thus Mr. Regli heads the first
section of his forty-page brochure on
bookkeeping. Surprisingly enough, this
little book does tell a story and tells it
well.

It is the story of the cfeation and de-
velopment of a bookkeeping system for
cooperatives. Mr. Regli has succeeded in
devising a method which gives an accu-
rate and clear-cut picture of the con-
dition of a business and which lacks the
superfluous details which often seem only
to confuse the student of bookkeeping
or the man intent on reading his finan-
cial statement. In explaining the purpose
of a set of books Mr. Regli says: "Books
are devised and set up to furnish the in-
formation desired. The setting up of such
books may vary greatly. ' Bookkeeping
knowledge, bookkeeping training, the type
of management, and the business itself
will determine the kind of books to be
kept. It is the accountant's duty to strike
a balance: a business must not be over-
burdened with its accounting system, and
yet it must have records adequate to fur-
nish essential information."

The fundamentals of bookkeeping are
set forth and explained by means of

In atifivtrinri



BOOKS FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER



SOCIAL CASE WORK and other Bibliographies

FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER who wishes to track down books,
pamphlets, magazine articles, and reports on special subjects, first aid is
available in the bibliographic Bulletins published bi-monthly by our
Library. Available by annual subscription at 50 cents, or by separate titles .
at 10 cents except as noted. Recent subjects



Books of 1937

Costs . . . and Standards of Living

Foster-Family Care

Group Work (20 cents)

Negro Housing



New Leisure, The
Social Case Work (20 cents)
Social Work Interpretation
Standards in Social Work
Youth Movements (20 cents)



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION

130 East 22d Street New York, N. Y.



Training for Social Work by Lucian L. Lauerman

Social Security and Its Challenge to Social Workers by Louise
McGuire

In the Current Issue of

THE ALUMNAE NEWS BULLETIN

Published by The Alumnae Association

National Catholic School of Social Service
2400 Nineteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D.C.

Twenty-five cents a copy



A NEW



s "Bailey

BOOKLET ^

Number 5 in the series of Bailey pamphlets is now
available. The eight articles in this booklet were
written for Survey Midmonthly by Gertrude Springer
after visits to local communities to observe the
administration of social security and public welfare
services. Miss Bailey Says Series 5 is a "must" in
reading requirements for public welfare workers and
boards of public agencies, as well as for social
workers and laymen connected with private agencies.

Articles included in Series 5:

Mils Bailey's Brief Case

Security Hat III Growinf Paini

Children Aren't Traih

"So We Told 'Em Plain Facts"

"I uck Isn't Enough"

Mist' Harry Meet! a Merit System

Brace Up. Theodore

"Speaking of Interpretation ..."

Only 25c a copy

QUANTITY RATES: 10 to 100 20c each; 100 or more
\5c each, shipping charges included. These rate* apply
also for the four earlier pamphlets in the series. Order
from

SURVEY MIDMONTHLY, 112 East 19 Street, New York City



advertisements fleo'e mention SI'RVEY MIDMONTHI.Y

125



DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS



Civic, National, International



Library Service



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. S20

North Michigan Ave., Chicago. To aid in
the extension and improvement of library
service.



Child Welfare



BOYS' CLUBS OP AMERICA, INC., J81 Fourth
Avenur. N.Y.C. National service organization
of 309 Boys' Clubs located in 171 cities. Fur-
nishes program aids, literature, and educa-
tional publicity for promotion of Boys' Club
Movement ; field service to groups or individ-
uals interested in leisure-time leadership for
boys, specializing with the underprivileged.



BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA, 2 Park Avenue,
New York City. Incorporated in 1910 and
chartered by Congress in 1916 for the pur-
pose of developing the character of boys and
training them in their duties as citizens.
Cubbing, younger boys' program, 9-11 ;
Scouting, 12 and upward ; Senior Scouting,
16 years and up. Scouts are organized in
patrols and Troops. Cooperates with schools
and churches, fraternal orders and other
civic groups. Walter W. Head, President ;
Dr. James E. West, Chief Scout Executive.

BERKSHIRE INDUSTRIAL FARM, Canaan,
New York. A national, non-sectarian farm
school for problem boys. Boys between 12
and 14 received through private surrender
or court commitment. Supported by agreed
payments from parents or other responsible
persons, in addition to voluntary contribu-
tions. For further information address Mr.
Byron D. Paddon, Superintendent, or the New
York Office at 101 Park Ave., Tel :Lex.2-3147.

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA

C. C. Carstens, director, 180 E. 22nd Street,
New York City. A league of children's agen-
cies and institutions to secure improved
standards and methods in their various fields
of work. It also co-operates with other chil-
dren's agencies, cities, states, churches, fra-
ternal orders and other civic groups to work
out worth-while results in phase of child
welfare in which they are interested.



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF DAY NURSER-
IES 130 East 22nd Street, New York City.
To federate day nurseries in the U. S. and
assist them to establish and maintain ap-
proved standards of care.

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE 419
Fourth Ave., N.Y.C. Promotes child labor
legislation, state and federal ; conducts in-
vestigations ; advises on administration ;
maintains information service.



AMERICAN LEGION NATIONAL CHILD WEL-
FARE DIVISION, 777 North Meridian Street,
Indianapolis, Ind. Three-phase program : Ed-
ucation ; legislation for benefit of all chil-
dren ; temporary material relief to children
of veterans of World War. Emma C.
Puschner, Director.



THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR CRIP-
PLED CHILDREN, Elyria. Ohio. Paul H.
King, President ; E. Jay Howenstine, Execu-
tive Secretary. Promotes organization of
national, state, provincial and local societies
for crippled children. Aids in development
of their programs. Assists in drafting and
securing the passage of legislation in behalf
of cripples. Maintains a Bureau of Informa-
tion with loan library service. Conducts
yearly an Easter Crippled Children Seal
Campaign. Bulletins. "Tkt Crippled Child"
magazine, bimonthly, $1 a year.



Community Chests



COMMUNITY CHESTS AND COUNCILS, INC.

165 But 44th Street, New York. Informa-
tion and consultation about cooperative plan-
ning and financing of social *ork through
cheeU and councils of social agencies.

In



Health



THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL
HYGIENE, INC. Dr. Arthur H. Ruggles,
president ; Dr. C. M. Hincks, general direc-
tor ; Clifford W. Beers, secretary ; 60 West
50th Street, New York City. Pamphlets on
mental hygiene, child guidance, mental
disease, mental defect, psychiatric social
work and other related topics. Catalogue of
publications sent on request. "Mental Hy-
giene," quarterly, $8.00 a year.



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC
HEALTH NURSING 50 W 60th St.. N<-
York Dorothy Deming. R N., Gen. Dir
Advisory service, statistics, monthly maga-
zine.



NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION
60 West 60th Street, New York, Dr. Kendall
Emerson, managing director. Pamphlets of
methods and program for the prevention of
tuberculosis. Publications sold and distributed
through state associations in every state.
American Review of Tuberculosis, medical
journal, $8.00 a year ; and Monthly Bulletin,
house organ, free.



AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE A

clearing house cooperating with social work-
ers in referring indigent mothers to medically
directed birth control clinics in 42 states, in-
cluding 19 centers in Greater New York. In
areas lacking centers, qualified physicians
are available. Phone or write: 515 Madison
Avenue, New York City. WIckersham 2-8600.
President: Richard N. Pierson, M.D. Medi-
cal Director: Eric M. Matsner. M.D.



New York City



THE BIRTH CONTROL CLINICAL RESEARCb
BUREAU, 17 West 16th Street ; MARGARET
SANGER, Director ; has added evening ses-
sions, Wednesday and Thursday evenings,
from 7 to 9 P.M., for the benefit of mothers
who work and cannot come to the Clinic
daily from 9 to 4.



Penology



THE OSBORNE ASSOCIATION, INC., 114 East
30th Street, New York, N. Y. Telephone
CAledonia 5-9720-9721. Activities: Collects
information about penal institutions and
works to improve standards of care in penal
institutions. Aids discharged prisoners in
their problems of readjustment by securing
employment and giving such other assistance
as they may require. Wm. B. Cox, Executive
Secretary.



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