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And the waters prevailed, and impatience and irritation
grew apace and the public wanted to get on board, but the
sisterhood defended the Ark of Professional Standards, and
the Ark went out upon the face of the waters.

And the leadership of the permanent high hills of com-
munity organization was covered.

And it came to pass at the end of five years and eight
months, that Noah Charities peeped out of the Ark of
Professional Standards which he had made to rescue social
case work from the floods of depression and the attacks of
ward committeemen.

And there went forth a raven to and fro, to see if the
floods of depression were abated ; but the raven found no
rest for the sole of his foot and returned a message to
Survey, the wife of Noah, in the middle of the sixth month
of the year 1935, to the effect that it long had been obvious
to all save those who dwelt in the Ark that case work tech-
nique and small-bore pumps, suited to the pre-flood era,



were unfitted for rescuing great numbers of normal families
adrift in the flood, and for maintaining public support and
understanding under flood conditions. And the raven's
croak was unheard by the inmates of the Ark.

And Noah Charities, his wife, Survey, and their three
daughters and all of the sisterhood stayed yet two years
more in the Ark of Professional Standards. And the moun-
tain tops of community leadership re-emerged and there
was an outcry against the sisterhood that had let down
community leadership into the flood without recognition of
its capacity for saving able-bodied swimmers.

And again Noah Charities sent forth a dove out of the
Ark, and the dove came back unto him in the evening,
and returned a message that Mount Ohio would refuse the
Ark a place to land, and that Mount Illinois, and many
other Mounts were fed up on their fish-eye view of the
Ark's bottom.

AND the dove brought also an olive branch to the Ark
from some Ararat where a half-forgotten child of
Noah Charities had been wise to herself, had kept close
to the public through all the years of the flood, and, as
the waters receded, had adapted herself and her techniques
to the new conditions of public welfare administration.
But the dove was pigeonholed in the Ark.

And in the midst of the second month, of the ninth year,
eight years and eight weeks after the crash and the begin-
ning of the tide of public criticism, Survey, the wife of
Noah Charities, looked up from nursing the new baby,
Security Service, and, picking one of the offspring of the
stowaway Eye-Opener out of her hair, peeked out of the
Midmonthly editorial window on pages 45, 46, 47, 48 and
58 and suddenly spied the Mount Ohio reef-line, and the
breakers of criticism threatening the Ark. And she said:

"Why, children, I believe it's been raining! You are all
wet. You should have brought your publicity umbrellas
and your interpretive galoshes!" And she went back to
Baileying out the Ark.

And the dove and the raven went forth, leaving the Ark
to the sisterhood. And the dove and the raven came down
to earth, and were seen no more.

And the Ark of Professional Standards ran aground,
and the proliferating practitioners made haste to leave the
ship. But the floods had abated and the sisterhood was res-
cued by Community Chest, the cousin of Noah Charities,
twice removed. And the Ark was saved.

And behold, Noah and his daughters and all the sister-
hood raised an altar to professional pride and sacrificed
thereon, each according to her kind. But case work tech-
niques and passive therapy were not sacrificed.



M\V 1938



145



THE SOCIAL FRONT OF 25 YEARS




ALEXANDER JOHNSON



1913

January First public conference on mental
hygiene at University of City of New York,
planned by the Committee on Mental Hygiene
of the New York State Charities Aid Asso-
ciation.

Alexander Johnson
resigns as secretary
of the National Con-
ference of Charities
and Correction to be-
come head of the new
extension department
of the Training
School for the Feeble-
Minded, at Vineland,
N. J.

The Public Chari-
ties Association of
Pennsylvania is or-

organized to "bring order out of chaos" in
state institutions and to "eliminate politics
from the state's charities."

The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce
recommends the establishment of a Federa-
tion for Charity and Philanthropy, "a large
scale experiment in good will and charitable
giving."

February Fifteen state legislatures consider
"mothers' pension" bills. Mary E. Richmond
of the Russell Sage Foundation urges "make
haste slowly," on the basis of "more facts
and more deliberation."

"Two movements are on foot to get the
medical schools to give instruction in in-
dustrial hygiene."

March Chicago reports on first test by in-
formal board for position of chief probation
officer. Joel D. Hunter of Chicago Commons
tops the list.

The American Association for Labor Legis-
lation forms a new Committee on Social In-
surance, Edward T. Devine, chairman.

April Oregon passes a minimum wage law
for women and children, the first to have a
compulsory clause.

"// the peace societies are really in
earnest why are they so slow in joining
hands and hearts with the vast hosts of
labor throughout the world the unionists,
socialists, syndicalists and all the rest, who
constitute at this moment the one really
serious menace to the supremacy of the
war lords?" JOHN HAYNES HOLMES,
Church of the Messiah, N. Y.

The St. Louis School of Social Economy
becomes a department of Washington Uni-
versity.

Tennessee passes a state-wide compulsory
school attendance law.

"That the private charitable societies of
Boston oppose the plan to transfer to the
state the care of deserving widows with
dependent children as an independent class
is indicated by the hearings on the various
bills now before the Massachusetts legis-
lature."



As Recorded in
The Survey

May The Rockefeller Foundation chartered
for the purpose of "promoting the well-being
of mankind throughout the world." Original
endowment about $183 million.

The Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations,
New York, with the cooperation of the New
York School of Philanthropy and the Russell
Sage Foundation, establishes a department
for social workers.

The first woman judge of delinquent girls,
Mary M. Bartelme, lawyer, sits on the bench
of the Chicago Juvenile Court.

June First American Conference on Social
Insurance held in Chicago.

The New York School of Philanthropy
announces a new department with courses on
"the biological, physiological, sociological,
pedagogical and economic significance of
play."

July Bill in Congress, sponsored by the
Progressive Party, to create a federal com-
mission on social insurance.

August Conference at Church of the Ascen-
sion, N. Y. to discuss: When should social
workers go into politics? ... Is social work
a substitute for economic justice? Speakers:
John Collier, Graham Romeyn Taylor, Fran-
ces Perkins, Benjamin C. Marsh, Judge
Julian M. Mack and others.

First annual meeting of the National Or-
ganization for Public Health Nursing. Lillian
D. Wald, president.

September Sena/te
confirms President
Woodrow Wilson's
appointment of Indus-
trial Relations Com-
mission, Frank P.
Walsh, chairman; an
outgrowth of a move-
ment initiated two
years earlier by a
group of social work-
ers, among them Ed-
ward T. Devine, Jane
Addams, Allen T.
Burns, Paul Kellogg.

"The usefulness of the motion picture in
education is furthered by an invention
which does away with the flicker and so
avoids eyestrain."

National Federation of Settlements formed
in 1911, holds its first conference in Pitts-
burgh. Mary E. McDowell, Chicago, elected
president.

October Two visiting teachers appointed by
the Board of Education begin work in the
New York City schools, "one of the most
important steps toward socializing the schools
ever undertaken by a board of education."

November National Vocational Guidance
Association organized. Frank M. Leavitt, Uni-
versity of Chicago, president.




ALLEN T. BURNS



Massachusetts held the first city and town
planning conference ever held in America
under the auspices of the state government.

December "A plan to use public money
in the erection of sanitary dwellings of low
rental for unskilled wage earners in the
nation's capital is proposed by Edith Elmer
Wood."

1914

January The newly formed American So-
ciety for the Control of Cancer warns the
public that the new radium treatment does
not promise a sure cure.

February A bureau of social welfare has
been organized in the extension division of
the University of Iowa to gather and dis-
seminate information on social conditions.

Lynchings in the United States reached an
all time low in 1913 fifty-two persons, all
Negroes but one, were put to death by mobs.

March Congress considers "a bill to estab-
lish national farm-land banks" as a measure
of relief to agriculture.

Two hundred delegates from twenty-five
states attending in New York first National
Conference on Unemployment, recommend to
American Association for Labor Legislation
"thorough investigation of problem of unem-
ployment and initiation and promotion of
public action."

For the first time the subject of teaching
sex hygiene in public schools was on the
program of the National Council of Educa-
tion and the Department of Superintendence
of the National Education Association.

April Old age pensions broached in the
Canadian House of Commons but shelved
because "there was no great body of pro-
nounced sentiment calling for action."

Cleveland Federation for Charity and Phil-
anthropy reports a gain of 69 percent to
philanthropic agencies in the first year of
"cooperative collection."

Cook County, Illi-
nois, establishes a
bureau of public wel-
fare, appropriates
$10,000 for its main-
tenance and appoints
Amelia Sears as di-
rector.

First social service
congress of Canada
held; object, "to
arouse interest and AMELIA SEARS
enlist all Canadians
in behalf of social

righteousness with the purpose of improving
social, economic and ethical conditions."

May Jacob A. Riis dies.

Boston University appoints Meyer Bloom-
field to its new professorship of vocational
guidance, first in the country.

First convention of mental hygiene socie-
ties held in Baltimore.




146



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



The Federal Industrial Relations Commis-
sion proposes a country-wide system of em-
ployment bureaus in charge of a national
bureau in Washington.

Delegates from nineteen cities organize the
Pennsylvania Housing Association, electing
Samuel S. Pels president.

June National Women's Trade Union
League establishes training school for organ-
isers, first of its kind.

July Federal commission recommends estab-
lishment of Federal Board of Vocational
Education to work with states.

August The World War begins.

United States Civil Service Commission
announces examination for sixty-one positions
in the Children's Bureau, first government
recognition of social work as a profession.

St. Louis inaugurates new experiment in
public recreation free motion pictures in
public parks.

Twelve hundred women, led by Mrs. Henry
Villard and Lillian D. Wald march in New
York in protest against war.

September Confer-
ence at Henry Street
Settlement from
which grew the
American Union
Ap.iinst Militarism.
Lillian D. Wald,
chairman.

Steamship ''Red
Cross" sails for Eu-
rope with thirty phy-
sicians and 125 nurses
for service in war-
ring countries.

October Carnegie Institute of Technology.
Pittsburgh, announces a new department of
social service to train young women for posi-
tions, paid or unpaid, in social welfare or-
ganizations.

December The New York State Factory In-
vestigating Committee, after a two-year study
of low paid workers, proposes a minimum
wage law and vocational training.

1915

For Some Mutt Watch, Wkilt . . .
The golf links lie so near the mill

That almost every day
The laboring children can look out
And watch the men it play.

SARAH N. CLEGHORN, written from Camden.
S.C. First puol'uhed in FPA'S Conning Town,
York Tribune.

January American Woman's Peace Party or-
ganized at Washington conference. Jane Ad-
dams, president.

April After a long and bitter fight New
York state passes bill for widows' pensions
administered by child welfare boards.

North Carolina the first state to combine
several county almshouses into a single dis-
trict institution.




LILLIAN D. WALD




JANE ADDAMS

unirt "as soon as this



Inn. i iuuun.il Con-
gress of Women,
Jane Addams, presi-
dent, meets at The
Hague with dele-
gates from all war-
ring countries except
France and Russia.

May A Committee
of One Hundred,
meeting in Chicago,
proposes the estab-
lishment of a world
war ends."



June Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow of the New
York State Department of Health called to
the new professorship of public health at the
Yale medical school.

September William Sanger of New York
sentenced to jail for having given away a
single copy of Margaret Sanger's pamphlet
on birth control, Family Limitation.

October The Standard Oil Company of
New Jersey adopts the eight-hour day for
all its plants.

November Booker T. Washington dies.

PREPAREDNESS

Tune: Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines
I'm Captain Jingo, U.S.A.

I feed my crew on "pork" and bray,
And I whoop it up, "Prepare and pay

For a great American army."

I'll teach the youngsters how to shoot.

The kids to toot, the girls salute,
I'll scare the people till they root

For great American army.

I'll work the powder mills all night,
I'll hitch their profits to a kite,

And 'pretty soon I'll order: "Fight,"
With my great American army.

A.P.K. (Arthur Kellogg)

December Henry Ford's peace ship sails
for Europe to "get the boys out of the
trenches by Christmas."

The American Red Cross moves to re-
organize on military-civilian lines.

First American old age pension law passed
by Alaska.

1916

January Louis D. Brandeis nominated by
President Wilson for Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court.

February "The new fashion of naming
state societies of social workers with some
variation of the term 'social welfare' has
not been followed by the Vermont Confer-
ence of Charities and Correction."

March Bills providing for compulsory health
insurance have been introduced in New York.
New Jersey and Massachusetts.

April At congressional hearing on bill to
create a commission to investigate unemploy-
ment and social insurance only witness in
opposition was Samuel Gompers, president
of AF of L.

May The Survey initiates a new editorial
department, Social Insurance.

June President Wilson signs the National
Defense Act.



liuciiutiuiul Health Board announces an
institute of hygiene and public health ai
Johns Hopkins University, thereby "confirm-
ing the public health officer's work as a
profession."

Bill in Congress to create a women's divi-
sion in the Department of Labor.

July "The dominant note in many of the
medical conventions this spring has been
health insurance."

The first American Congress on Child
Welfare held in Buenos Aires.

August Financed by the Rockefeller Foun-
dation a new psychiatric service begins a five-
year demonstration at Sing Sing Prison.

Newly organized Ohio Old Age Pension
League will initiate legislation.

Congress passes the federal child labor bill.

September President Wilson signs federal
workmen's compensation bill.

December "Organ-
ized education must
be ready to mike
use of the free yean
of childhood which
child labor laws are
wresting from pre-
mature work."

Judge Baker Foun-
dation established in
Boston as a continu-
ing memorial to the
life and work of
Harvey H. Baker,
judge of the Boston Juvenile Court.




HARVEY H. BAKER



1917

January The General Education Board an-
nounces that it will provide Teachers College,
New York, with funds necessary "to estab-
lish and conduct a school for the purpose
of constructive work in the reorganization of
elementary and secondary education . . . better
adapted to the needs of modern life."

"Agitation in favor of universal com-
pulsory military training has made great
gains in Congress."

After a twenty-year fight and over Presi-
dent Wilson's veto, Congress passes bill re-
quiring literacy test of immigrants.

February Tom Mooney found guilty of
bombing Sqn Francisco's preparedness parade
on July 22, 1916 and sentenced to hang.

The Red Cross hastens its efforts to or-
ganize and equip base hospitals for the care
of sick and wounded soldiers.

"The appeal for 'no war without refer-
endum' has received tremendous response."

March "Social legislation had but scant
attention from the sixty-fourth Congress.
It was almost a war session and problems
of social and industrial justice could fire
but indifferently well."

April Congress declares state of war with
German imperial government, "to make the
world safe for democracy."

The Red Cross announces its intention to
meet the needs of families of soldiers and
sailors. The New York School of Philan-
thropy will train volunteers for this service.



MAY 1938



147




Congress adopts the draft as against the
volunteer plan for recruiting army.

June National Conference of Charities and
Correction changes its name to National
Conference of Social Work.

Red Cross relief fund of $100 million over-
subscribed by $14 million.

August Eight thousand colored men, women
and children march in New York in protest
against "discrimination and oppression."

Congress has bill,
drafted by Judge
Julian W. Mack, to
provide life insurance
;md compensation for
men killed, injured
or made sick in the
federal service and
allowances for their
families.

National Social
Workers Exchange
opens offices, out- JULIAN W. MACK
growth of social work

department of Intercollegiate Bureau of Oc-
cupations.

September President Wilson signs the eight-
hour bill for railroad employes.

October J. McKeen Cattell and H. W. L.
Dana dismissed by Columbia University on
account of "their public agitation against the
conduct of the war." Prof. Charles A. Beard,
pro-war liberal, resigns in protest.

The Julius Rosenwald Fund established in
Chicago.

November First congress, held in New
York, of the League of Small and Subject
Nationalities.

U.S. Supreme Court decision voids as un-
constitutional the residential segregation ordi-
nance of Louisville, Ky.

December Edward
T. Devine resigns as
director of New York
School of Philan-
thropy to continue
Red Cross work in
Paris. Porter R. Lee
succeeds him.

Congress passes
constitutional amend-
ment on prohibition
giving states seven
years to ratify. "Pro-
hibition is now only a matter of time."

1918

June The Supreme Court declares the fed-
eral child labor law unconstitutional and
invalid.

September Congress enacts a minimum
wage law for women and minors in the Dis-
trict of Columbia.

October The Commonwealth Fund estab-
lished with a gift of $10 million by Mrs.
Stephen V. Harkness of New York.

November The Armistice.




PORTER R. LEE




"The war is won.
Under what device
can we consolidate
its gains, eliminate
its evils, capitalize
for the program ap-
propriate to peace
the social enthusi-
asms which it has
generated? EDWARD
T. DEVINE.

Conference on de-
mobilization, called EDWARD T. DEVINE
by The Survey, Dr.

Felix Adler chairman, to consider the con-
servation of wartime standards and the ele-
ments of a reconstruction program.-

1919

January Prohibition amendment ratified by
necessary number of states. "We go dry."

February Dr. Livingston Farrand heads the
American Red Cross and begins the process
of its transition to a peace basis.

April New York School of Philanthropy
changes its name to New York School of
Social Work.

May U.S. Children's Bureau sponsors In-
ternational Conference on Child Welfare
Standaids.

The American Association for Organized
Charity, Francis H. McLean director, expands
its program and changes its name to Ameri-
can Association for Organizing Family Social
Work. (Now Family Welfare Association of
America.)

June Smith College announces a training
school for social work "as its contribution
to the program of social reconstruction."

Peace of Versailles signed.

September New School for Social Research
opens in New York.

October The General Education Board of
the Rockefeller Foundation announces a gift
of $20 million "for the improvement of medi-
cal education."

November International Labor Conference
convenes in Washington, first of the inter-
national congresses created through the agency
of the League of Nations.

December The National Consumers' League
adopts a ten-year campaign program for "la-
bor legislation, food standards, honest cloth,
industrial hygiene, health insurance and the
minimum wage."

An industrial conference to consider labor
relations, convened by President Wilson in
Washington.

1920

January League of Nations officially in-
augurated.

The American Red Cross announces that
the central feature of its peacetime program
is to be in the field of public health.

American Civil Liberties Union organized,
Roger N. Baldwin director.

April National Conference of Social Work
met in New Orleans. "One felt the return to



pre-war days with their emphasis on tech-
nique and on experiences recounted in detail;
with their debates over the relative merits of
evolutionary processes or coercive measures
in trying to bring social service up to higher
standards and secure professional recogni-
tion."

May Congress has a bill "substantially on
the lines recommended by the American
Legion" for "adjusted compensation" for men
who served in the World War.

Congress adopts a compulsory contributory
old age and disability insurance system for
federal employes.



August The Chicago
School of Civics and
Philanthropy, found-
ed by Graham Taylor
in 1903, becomes the
Graduate School of
Social Service Ad-
ministration, Univer-
sity of Chicago.

October Child Wel-
fare League of Amer-
ica organized, C. C.
Carstens of Boston
director.




GRAHAM TAYLOR



December International Ladies Garment
Workers Union opens its own health center,
the first union in the country to offer this
service to its members. Dr. George M. Price,
medical director.

1921

April The California legislature has a bill
representing the first attempt to define social
work and social workers by law.

June Bryn Mawr College opens new Sum-
mer School for Women Workers in Industry.

A committee, Evart G. Routzahn, chair-
man, formed at the National Conference of
Social Work to develop better methods of
publicity for social work.

July A new organization, the American As-
sociation of Social Workers, is formed out
of the National Social Workers Exchange.

August Grace Abbott succeeds Julia C.
Lathrop as chief of the U.S. Children's
Bureau.

The Rockefeller Foundation gives Harvard
University $1,785,000 for a new school of
public health.

October The first National Conference on
Unemployment, led by Secretary of Commerce
Hoover, adopts an emergency relief program.
". . . primarily a community problem. The
responsibility for leadership is with the may-
ors. . . ."

The Carnegie Corporation opens a library
in Atlanta for the exclusive use of Negroes.

White-Williams Foundation, Philadelphia,
offers first training course for visiting
teachers.

First issue of Survey Graphic.

November First American Conference on
Birth Control broken up by New York police.

Sheppard-Towner act appropriates funds for
federal-state cooperation "in promoting the
care of maternity and infancy."



148



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



Harmon Foundation established.

December The Commonwealth Fund in co-
operation with other agencies announces a
broad five-year program in methods of pre-
venting juvenile delinquency.

1922

February "The spirit of coordination
which has prevailed in so many fields since
the war is especially evident among volun-
tary public health agencies."

March Sanford Bates, Massachusetts state
commissioner of corrections, makes a begin-
ning, a series of lectures, in training prison
officers.

April Cornell University's new "pay clinic"
in New York vigorously attacked by six
medical societies of state as "socialistic" and
"pauperizing."

June Topic of National Conference of So-
cial Work, "The Changing Fundamentals of
Social Work."

National Civil Service Reform League
opens Washington office "to prevent sudden
inroads on the merit system."



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