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made a "reluctant statement" that "the
prison system will remain a school of
crime until an alert, intelligent and or-
ganized public opinion strikes the existent
calm of public interest."

Here and There Wichita, Kan. is
making extensive use of the "lie-detector"
or polygraph. Last year Wichita tested
1551 persons, found evidence of deception
on the part of 363 of these, and insanity
in fifteen. Police obtained confessions
from 211 persons and prosecuted fifty-
one others on the basis of the tests.
Wichita police examine all who are de-
tained, vagrants as well as suspects. Last
year Michigan state police and Berkeley,
Calif, city police used the lie detector in
their regular routines. . . . There were
in 1937 thirty-three fewer murders and
manslaughter cases in New York City
than in 1936, but an increase in other
crimes. Burglaries increased over the
preceding year by 759; cases of felonious
assault by 341 ; assault and robbery by
thirty-six. Part of the increase is at-
tributed by Police Commissioner Valen-
tine to strikes, labor disorders, burglaries
committed by youths and sex offenses,
each of which classes was larger than in
1936. . . . New York next September
will close one of its three remaining pro-
bationary schools in the city system be-
cause modern treatment of problem cases
has reduced the number of "bad boys"
and truants, school officials report. Pro-
bationary schools no longer are consid-
ered places of punishment, they say, but
are used for rehabilitation.

Children's Courts Reporting on sta-
tistical observations of children's courts
in New York State, compiled since 1931
by the state division of probation, May
H. Raymond, in a recent issue of Cor-
rection, states that study of the total
cases does not suggest any increasing
trend in delinquency cases. Each year's
annual reports showed a growing ten-
dency of judges to settle more children's
cases without formal court action.

Although the code of criminal proce-
dure defines a delinquent as "any child
over seven and under sixteen" who of-
fends in specified ways, within five years
the cases of 102 children between ages
three and seven were brought into New
York children's courts as delinquent.
Their "offenses" were such as picking



flowers, quarreling, calling names and
throwing stones. In one case the petitioner
was an adult who charged that a three-
year-old child had called her names. After
a hearing, the case was dismissed on
recommendation of the woman's counsel.
"The main reasons for which children
appear in children's court do not vary in
their order from year to year," says Miss
Raymond. Stealing is the most frequent
offense for delinquent boys (55 percent
of cases in 1936) ; carelessness or mischief
lies at the base of the next group of cases;
truancy and "being ungovernable" follow,
in much smaller numbers. Sex offenses
were charged against only 1.8 percent of
boy offenders of the group studied last
year. Girls appear as delinquents pri-
marily for truancy (29.1 percent of cases
in 1936) ; next, "being ungovernable"
(25.4 percent); and sex offenders (15.4
percent.) In 1936, 37.2 percent of the
cases of delinquent children brought be-
fore children's courts in New York State
were put on probation ; 32.8 percent were
dismissed; 17.7 percent committed to
institutions.

Jail Association Carrying forward
the efforts of the American Prison Asso-
ciation's committee on problems of coun-
ty jails and short term prisoners, a
National Jail Association has been or-
ganized. It will work closely as an
affiliate with the APA, but will have its
own officers and, in addition to meeting
with the association, will hold regional
gatherings. The purpose of the new asso-
ciation is "to band together all those con-
cerned with or interested in the custody
and care of persons awaiting trial, serv-
ing sentence, or otherwise confined in
jails, with a view to improving the con-
ditions under which such persons are
dealt with." All interested persons, offi-
cial or unofficial are eligible to belong.

The Public's Health

A LONG with its other findings on the
state of the country's health, the
National Health Inventory checked up
on the extent and nature of dental care
in the general population of a large city.
At the request of the Medical and Den-
tal Bureau of Wayne County, Mich.,
Detroit was selected for the study. A
house-to-house canvass covered 70,544
persons, a carefully selected "sampling"
regarded as representative of the city's
population.

Of all the persons interviewed, one
third had seen a dentist within a year
before the date of canvas. This varied
greatly with the socio-economic class.
The average among professional people
was found to include 42 percent who had
seen a dentist within the year; among
unskilled workers, 16 percent; among
Negroes as a group, 8 percent. There
was marked difference in frequency of
visits to the dentist by age groups. Be-



JUNK 1938



213



ginning with a "low" among those three
to five years old, only 7 percent had had
dental treatment within the year (ex-
cluding visits for extraction only) ; of the
fifteen to nineteen-year-olds, 31 percent;
while among those over sixty-five years,
the number fell to 6 percent.

The total amount of dental care re-
ceived was preponderantly for extractions
or fillings, again showing characteristic
differences by age. In the case of extrac-
tions, a large difference was evidenced by
socio-economic groups, the higher per-
centages being among the lower wage
groups. All other percentages showed the
reverse, the white professional class hav-
ing about three times as many fillings as
the unskilled, and an even greater lead
over the number of Negroes who received
such care.

AHA Approval Day Forty hospital
care insurance plans recently were given
official approval by the committee on
hospital service of the American Hospital
Association. "Approval meetings" were
held simultaneously in forty cities to cele-
brate the announcement of this step. Ap-
proved plans have measured up to four-
teen standards set up by the AHA which
emphasize administrative, actuarial and
service points. More than a million and
a half persons in the U.S. now are en-
rolled in non-profit community hospital
service plans.

New York City's Associated Hospital
Service at last announcement had 660,000
subscribers and recently widened .its bene-
fits from twenty-one to thirty days of
semi-private hospital care, and a one third
discount instead of one fourth on semi-
private hospital charges after thirty days.

Cast Out Fear Chicago psychiatrists
and social workers are observing with
keen interest the development of a unique
little organization called the Association
of Former Patients of the Psychiatric
Institute of the University of Illinois. It
consists of some seventy or eighty persons
of all ages, discharged from the institute
as recovered, who meet one Sunday morn-
ing a month for the three-fold purpose
of helping the staff of the institute in its
follow-up study of cases, of helping over-
come the negative attitude of the public
toward persons recovered from mental
illness and of helping some of their own
number find jobs.

The association grew out of weekly
meetings of patients at the institute for
the discussion and evaluation of their own
delusions. This group therapy seemed so
helpful that a plan evolved for meetings
after discharge to which the ex-patient
could bring a friend or relative. The idea
of an association for interpretation and
mutual welfare was a natural sequence.
A member of the institute staff is pres-
ent at the meetings to participate in dis-
cussion.

In addition to the Sunday morning



meetings a study group of ex-patients
meets once a month at the institute to
discuss their problems of adjustment with
the psychiatrist. One of the most com-
mon of their difficulties is the lack of
confidence in their recovery and of frank-
ness in talking about it on the part of
their families.



MORTALITY AMONG PERSONS
UNDER 20 TE or flee



Another of Youth's Enemies

Through an internationally broadcast
radio program, the American Heart As-
sociation recently directed public atten-
tion to "the constant menace of rheumatic
heart disease," and pointed to an annual
total of at least 40,000 deaths from this
cause in the United States at an average
age of thirty. Four prominent physicians
who spoke [see Survey Midmonthly,
April 1938, page 119] deplored the sur-
prising lack of institutional facilities for
prolonged care of children crippled by
heart disease. Dr. Howard Haggard of
Yale University, in introducing the speak-
ers, stated that today this disease "de-
stroys more children of school age than
any one ailment." As an encouraging fac-
tor it was noted that "of one thousand
young patients given prolonged care and
careful observation, 75 percent are alive
today, the majority leading active physi-
cal lives ten years after the onset of the
disease."

Irvington House, the only sanatorium
in the country for children afflicted with
rheumatic heart disease, now is conduct-
ing in the institution a "closed colony"
study of the obscure and little understood
causes. For the five-month period of the
study a group of young patients is being
isolated from all other children, while a
similarly afflicted group of children who
must remain in tenement homes also is
being studied. Comparison of observations
is expected to yield valuable information
in understanding the factors which influ-
ence the course of the disease.

New Rulings New York has a new
law that requires a syphilis test of all
women in pregnancy. ... A law will go
into effect in the state July 1, 1940 re-
quiring all persons nursing for hire to
obtain a state license, either as a profes-
sional nurse (R.N.) or as a practical
nurse. [See Survey Midmonthly, Febru-



ary 1938, page 48.] ... A legislative
commission on public health and medical
care was provided with an appropriation
of $15,000 to study health needs of the
state and draft a long range state health
program. The commission is directed to
give attention among other things to
proposals for increase of preventive ef-
forts through public health services, the
question of adequate medical care
through public funds for persons of low
income, and the use of public funds for
the support of medical education and
research.

High Score Boston, Mass, came off
in first place among the cities of over
half a million population in the 1937
awards of the annual City Health Con-
test conducted by the U.S. Chamber of
Commerce in cooperation with the Amer-
ican Public Health Association. The
awards are given not for the "healthiest
city" but for the most effective efforts
put forward during the year by all agen-
cies and groups in the community to
meet the total local health problem.
Some of the activities considered by the
judges are safety of water supply, milk
supply, medical and nursing service, pre-
ventive measures taken in the community,
school health, and control of tuberculosis
and venereal disease. Other cities which
received first awards in their classes in-
clude: Louisville, Ky., Providence, R. I.,
Hartford, Conn., Sacramento, Calif.,
Greenwich, Conn., Englewood, N. J.
Additional awards were given in each
class, and special awards to Baltimore,
Md., Brookline, Mass., Detroit, Mich.,
Hackensack, N. J., Newark, N. J., New
Haven, Conn., Pasadena, Calif., Schenec-
tady, N. Y., and Syracuse, N. Y., all
winners twice or more before and there-
fore barred from the regular contest but
recognized for maintaining their previous
high standards.

The CCC

PHE fifth annual report of the Civilian
Conservation Corps runs into big fig-
ures which go to show, says Robert Fech-
ner, director, that the program has been
"a good investment of public funds." The
program has furnished employment to an
aggregate of 2,242,000 people including
more than two million enrollees, young
men for the most part in their 'teens.
Of their cash allowances while at camp
$435 million has been returned to needy
dependents at home. The whole project
has cost so far $1,920,000,000. Mr. Fech-
ner offers an impressive tabulation of the
accomplishment of CCC boys in projects
of reforestation, erosion control, forest
fire protection, recreational facilities, and
so on. Sixty-five thousand illiterates were
taught to read and write, he says, and
400,000 men left camps for private jobs
before their period of enrollment wa
completed.



214



SURVEY MIDMONTHI



Boy's Eye View Not by columns of
figures but by the personal reactions of
jr who have been through the mill is
the CCC camp appraised in a study, The
8CC Through the Eyes of 272 Boys, by
Helen M. Walker, associate professor of
family case work in the School of Applied
1 Sciences, Western Reserve Uni-
ty. (94 pp. Price $1 from Western
Reserve University Press, Cleveland,
Ohio.) The study is based on interviews
with a sample of the 6500 or so boys
from Cuyahoga County discharged from
camps prior to June 1936. The detailed
stories make interesting reading.
Professor Walker and her associates con-
clude that the values from the camp ex-
perience fall into two general classifica-
tions: improved physical conditions and
financial gains; greater maturity and self-
confidence. They believe that the long
time value of the experience would be
enhanced by more careful selection of en-
rollees and of staff, better equipped edu-
cational advisers and more adequate in-
terpretation of the camps' objectives and
practices to the boys, their families and
the general public.

The Public Approves According to
a recent poll by the American Institute
of Public Opinion of a carefully selected
cross-section of voters a great majority
of "we, the people," 78 percent of those
canvassed believe that the CCC camps
should be made a permanent institution.
Democrats were a shade more enthusias-
tic for the camps than Republicans, the
former standing 85 percent in favor of
the camps, the latter 62 percent. About
three fourths of the voters canvassed
held that military training should be in-
cluded in the camp duties.

Professional

!PHE responsibility of schools of social
work in preparing workers to meet
the new demands of public welfare and
social security programs, state and fed-

Ieral, will be the core of a three-year
research project made possible through a
grant to the American Association of
Schools of Social Work from the social
science division of the Rockefeller Foun-
dation. The study will examine the types
and number of professional workers re-
quired by the public social services and
will review standards of social work
education and methods of accrediting new
schools and assisting the association's
member schools.

Marian Hath way as executive secre-
tary of the association will be in charge
of the study as a whole. A large advisory
committee includes representatives of the
federal and state public services, the
schools of social work, colleges and uni-
versities, federal educational agencies, the
American Association of Social Workers
and other agencies in or related to social



work. A smaller planning committee with
Robert Lansdale of the New York School
of Social Work as chairman is now at
work and the study will get under way
at once.

Hard Times Faced, in common with
other federations and chests, with a fall-
ing off in contributions due to the de-
pression the New York Federation for
the Support of Jewish Philanthropic So-
cieties has moved to reduce the budgets
of its ninety-one affiliated agencies from
the $4,491,658 voted for 1937 to $4,280,-
000 for 1938. Several weeks ago it was
thought that the cut might have to be
something like 12 percent, but the final
decision of the board of directors brought
that down to 4.7 percent.

Commenting on the cut Mrs. Sidney
C. Borg, acting president of Federation,
said: "The board was mindful of the
great need that exists and that must be
met, and also of the danger of adding to
the already overburdened deficits of the
institutions. . . . But the board had the
courage and the faith in the contributing
public to vote the largest allowance it
has granted to the affiliated agencies in
any year since 1931, except for last year."

While the decision was pending, the
board heard a committee of the Social
Service Employes' Union Local No. 19,
United Office and Professional Workers
of America, CIO, protesting the budget
reduction. On the night of board action,
the union held a mass meeting attended
by several hundred members and sym-
pathizers. Speakers included Michael
Forge of the CIO Transport Workers
Union, Edwin Berry Burgum, president
of the College Teachers Union ; Lucille
McGorky, organizer for the State,
County and Municipal Employes Union,
CIO affiliate, and Allan S. Haywood,
regional director of the CIO. Following
the board action William Piehl, national
organizer of the union, declared that
"Even this reduction will work serious
hardship on the services and standards
of the agencies."

Training on the Job Forty states
and Alaska have included some provision
for training workers in their 1938 plans
for child welfare service according to a
recent issue of The Child, monthly news
publication of the U.S. Children's Bu-
reau. Twenty-five jurisdictions (including
Alaska) have included plans for educa-
tional leave for employed staff members
to attend a recognized school of social
work; eighteen have provided more than
one type of training for staff members ;
nineteen have added to their staffs a spe-
cial consultant or supervisor of training
for their child welfare workers; nine
have established training units, some of
them in cooperation with local approved
schools of social work. In seven states
where it had been necessary to employ
a number of inexperienced staff members,



institutes were planned, as well as other
forms of training. "A definite trend ap-
pears toward a predominance of plans
for educational leave to attend recognized
schools of social work and of plans for
supplementing the service given by the
regular field supervisor through the addi-
tion of a training supervisor to the staff."
In New York state laws have been
passed, though no funds have yet been
appropriated, to make possible in-service
training fellowships for public welfare
workers, with continuance of salary dur-
ing the training period. The plan, de-
signed especially for localities where few
trained workers are available, would per-
mit three to six months in schools ac-
credited in particular fields. Due to lack
of an appropriation, however, the only
division of the State Welfare Depart-
ment now able to take advantage of the
new legislation is that of child welfare
in connection with the social security
services. In this division a fund of $4500
is available for fellowship purposes, ear-
marked from a larger sum allotted to the
state by the child welfare division of the
U.S. Children's Bureau, to help localities
provide more complete and effective ser-
vices for neglected, dependent, handicapped
and delinquent children. Under this plan
the trainees are selected following a
request from the local welfare authorities
for such training. With the approval of
the State Welfare Department and the
Children's Bureau, workers are sent to
a school of social work for such training
as the needs of the particular situation
suggest. During the absence of local staff,
trained state workers are supplied as
substitutes.

Summer Study A list of summer
courses and institutes of interest to nurses
of all varieties is given, conveniently clas-
sified, in the American Journal of Nurs-
ing, April 1938, pages 491-6. Listing of
courses of special interest to public health
nurses appears in the magazine, Public
Health Nttrsino, April 1938, pages 250-3.

The third Seminar on Social Work, a
European study tour directed by Marion
Hathway, of the division of social work
of the University of Pittsburgh, has been
announced by Edutravel, 55 Fifth Ave-
nue, New York. The party will sail from
New York, July 6.

The department of social work of the
Carnegie Institute of Technology will
offer three courses in the advanced grad-
uate curriculum in a summer session,
June 20-JuIy 30. Information from the
department, Pittsburgh, Pa. . . . The De-
troit Children's Aid Society will give its
fifth annual summer institute for student
workers, June 20-August 12. Leon W.
Frost is in charge. . . . The National
Society for the Prevention of Blindness
has announced that college credit courses
for the training of teachers and super-
visors of sight-saving courses, will be
given at the 1938 summer sessions of the



JUNE 1938



215



following institutions: Tulane University,
New Orleans, La.; University of Cin-
cinnati, Ohio; University of Washington,
Seattle, Wash.; University of Hawaii,
Honolulu; Wayne University, Detroit,
Mich.; State Teachers College, Buffalo,
N. Y. ; Teachers College, Columbia Uni-
versity, N. Y. Most of the courses begin
around mid-June except the last two,
which start in early July. Information
from the registrars of the colleges.

Northwestern University, on the
McKinlock Campus, is offering for the
second year a summer session course in
the interpretation of social work. Apply
to William F. Byron, at the university.
. . . George Williams College, Chicago,
will hold a graduate summer school for
professional workers in leisure time agen-
cies. A wide range of courses has been
arranged.

Package Libraries A package library
service for county welfare departments
is planned by the Indiana Board of Pub-
lic Welfare, to be coordinated with the
state's in-service training for workers.
Books will be sent by mail on loan for a
period probably around six weeks. It is
anticipated that the service will make
available books that are now difficult to
obtain and will be the beginning of a
much larger service.

Write a Peace Play A one-act play
contest, sponsored by the Religious
Drama Council of the Greater New
York Federation of Churches, will close
July 1. The contest is open to any man
or woman anywhere in the world and
prizes begin with $200. All manuscripts
must be original one-act plays, dealing
with peace, not exceeding one hour's play-
ing time and suitable for production by
church groups of children, young people
or adults. Details from the Religious
Drama Council, 71 West 23 Street, New
York.

Corning Events The sixteenth Inter-
national Red Cross Conference will be
held in London June 20-24. . . . The
American Home Economics Association
will meet June 28-July 1 in Pittsburgh,
Pa. . . . The Second Midwest Conference
and Institute on Adult Education will be
held August 7-14 at College Camp, Lake
Geneva, Wis. under auspices of the Adult
Education Council of Chicago and Mid-
west committee in cooperation with the
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion. Eduard C. Lindeman will be con-
ference leader. Information from Ralph
McCallister, secretary of the council, 224
South Michigan Avenue, Chicago. . . .
The Summer Institute for Social Progress
will meet July 9-23 on the Wellesley Col-
lege campus, Wellesley, Mass. The insti-
tute will center on the question, "What
part can the citizen of the United States
play in the world situation?" Informa-
tion from Grace Osgood, 14 West Elm

216




Avenue, Wollaston, Mass. . . . The
twenty-third National Recreation Con-
gress will be held October 3-7 in Pitts-
burgh, Pa. ... The American Public
Health Association will meet October 25-
28 in Kansas City, Mo. . . . The national
conference of the youth section, Ameri-
can Country Life Association, will be
held November 2-5 on the topic, Improv-
ing Our Rural Civilization.

People and Things

tj^ROM private social work to public
has become a familiar transition, but
to turn from public "big" public to
the problems of the private agency is
news. That is the
course which has
been taken by Fred-
erick I. Daniels who
headed New York
State's TERA until
it was merged with
the State Depart-
ment of Welfare,
when he became first
deputy commission-
er. Now Mr. Daniels will guide the
activities of the Brooklyn N.Y. Bureau
of Charities. As general secretary suc-
ceeding Douglas P. Falconer, now head-
ing the working staff of the Greater New
York Fund, Mr. Daniels will direct one
ot the oldest private social work agencies
in the country and the largest agency in
Brooklyn for federated community ser-



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 58 of 109)