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underpaid. No one who reads the state-
ments of men high in each profession
complaining of the low income in that
profession can help being amused and
puzzled. Doctors complain of the high
incomes of engineers, architects and even
bricklayers; dentists complain of the in-
comes of lawyers and plumbers; and so
on through the entire list, each profes-
sion protesting that it is underpaid com-
pared with the others."

There is realism in the courageously
expressed opinion that: "Owing to some
fortunate chance, people who are in the
professions have managed to get into
positions of advantage." Those who dis-
agree and others interested in this field
would do well to get this informative
volume. HERMAN FELDMAN

Amos Tuck School of Administration
and Finance, Dartmouth College

Premature Likeness

A HISTORY OF THE BUSINESS MAN. by
Miriam Beard. Macmillan. 779 pp. Price $5

postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

TPHIS volume deals with the political,
social and especially the cultural his-
tory of the business man as a class, from
ancient times to the present. It is a survey
of a popular rather than a scholarly char-
acter, setting forth much information
familiar only to scholars and uncovering
significant topics which historians often
have overlooked. The volume has a wide
sweep of content and an easy style; more-
over it contains a great deal of generali-
zation and interpretation. It is both
interesting and entertaining, though its
779 large pages sometimes grow monoto-
nous from sheer length and detail.

The book varies greatly in quality,
in content and emphasis. It suffers from
a difficulty common to surveys; that is,
the unevenness and inaccuracy of the ma-
terials available. Sometimes, however, the
author has overlooked excellent mono-
graphic studies, as for example in her
treatment of Venice and of America in
the last half of the nineteenth century.
The undiscriminating selection of the
dramatic and colorful in those cases sug-
gests a striving to be journalistic. More-
over Miss Beard takes great liberties
with her material in an occasional shut-
tling of centuries and in drawing gen-
eralizations which her presentation does
not support.

This volume fortunately follows no
simple philosophy and has no thesis to
prove. It would, however, have been
strengthened if the author had had a
greater familiarity with the history of
business. That knowledge among other
things should have made for greater pre-
cision in the use of such terms as capital-
ism, realtor and speculator, and should
have helped to avoid the distortion of



H NK 1938



219



the picture which came from drawing the
business man after the pattern of political
history.

For her failure to deal adequately with
business the author is not wholly respon-
sible since that subject has been little
cultivated by historians. She has under-
taken a task which, at best, could not be
done satisfactorily at this time. It is al-
ways a question whether a premature
work is good or bad in its results. Miss
Beard's book may stimulate interest in
the subject and thus perform a valuable
historical service. In the opinion of the
reviewer it can have no other lasting
significance. HENRIETTA M. LARSON

Harvard University

Britain Surveys Her Health

REPORT ON THE BRITISH HEALTH SER-
VICES. PEP (POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PLAN-
NING), 15 Queen Anne's Gate, London. 430 pp.
Price 10s. 6d. To be ordered direct of the PEP.

PHE anonymous authors of this report,
who spent three years mapping out
the field and gathering material for it,
have virtually done the work of a Royal
Commission. The British health services
.are such a complex admixture of govern-
mental, philanthropic, voluntary and pri-
vate agencies, more or less discrete yet
more or less cooperating, some national
in scope but others quite local, that it is
something of an achievement simply to
become oriented among them, and a much
greater one to describe them accurately
and to assess their relative importance.
All of this the P E P report does, and
does well.

Taking a middle-of-the-road definition
of what constitutes health services, the
authors review not only those services
which have to do with the diagnosis and
treatment of sickness, but also various
agencies which have a relatively imme-
diate bearing upon the prevention of sick-
ness and the promotion of health. For
example, "environmental services" are de-
scribed, including regulation and inspec-
tion of the food and water supply, control
of infectious diseases, slum clearance and
so on. The maternity and child welfare
services and the school medical service
are fully described, as are the medical and
ancillary professions, as well as the hos-
pitals and special services such as those
for venereal diseases, mental illnesses,
care of cripples, and the welfare of the
deaf and dumb and the blind.

Research, nutrition, physical education,
and various experimental services both
voluntary and governmental are dealt
with as special topics of the report. The
section on National Health Insurance is
especially complete because of the impor-
tance of this agency in the report's con-
clusions and recommendations. The at-
tempt is made also to estimate the actual
effect of these many services on the na-
tion's health and to determine whether
the public is getting an adequate return
from its annual expenditure of 200 mil-



lion on the prevention and care of sickness.

The significant findings and recommen-
dations of the P E P report are not diffi-
cult to summarize. "The health services
suffer greatly from confusion and over-
lapping, and in order to minimize this
we propose their reorientation around
the general practitioner, who should be
enabled to bring the resources of the
health services on the one hand into con-
tact with the needs and peculiarities of
the individual patient on the other. . . ."
It is proposed to make better use and
improved arrangement of existing ser-
vices and to extend the medical service
under National Health Insurance to the
families of the eighteen million workers
already provided for under that scheme,
and also to link up that service at pres-
ent limited to the resources of the general
practitioner with the clinics, hospitals,
and specialists in each region of the coun-
try. Gaps in the present services are to
be filled, especially those involving pre-
school children and the dependents of
insured persons. A much greater degree
of coordination is sought among the many
public and voluntary agencies which con-
trol these services. The evidence is quite
convincing that all this can be financed
by savings effected through coordination
and by a modest increase in the contribu-
tions now paid 'by wage earners for pur-
poses of health insurance, with a com-
parable Exchequer grant.

In reviewing the report, The Spectator
(London) urges "expansion and improve-
ment of the kind of service which only
the general practitioner can render," par-
ticularly as diagnostician, and adds:
"Fortunately, we have for that great
purpose the popular system of National
Health Insurance ready to hand. The
step which would conform most nearly to
the temper and needs of our time would
be the extension of the existing panel ser-
vice to the wife and young children of the
wage earner by virtue of his contributory
rights."

The British Medical Association has
long been urging just such a step, and
such is the expressed wish of representa-
tives of the insured wage earners and
their dependents who together comprise
nearly 80 percent of the total population
of Great Britain. Second only to this is
the other demand that the facilities of
laboratories, up-to-date diagnostic ap-
paratus, and consultants be brought into
the range of medical service under Na-
tional Health Insurance and also, if pos-
sible, provision for hospitalization under
arrangements permitting continuous su-
pervision by the family practitioner.

The PEP report will certainly bring
into sharp focus the many problems of
the existing health services and will
doubtless serve as an incentive to more
speedy action by Parliament on legisla-
tion that has really been hanging fire for
a number of years, some of it since the
report of the Royal Commission on Na-



tional Health Insurance in 1926. Ameri
can readers will find the P E P repor-
the most valuable existing source of de-
scriptive and statistical information abou.
the various British health services, it.
which Americans are becoming increas
ingly interested.

DOUGLASS W. ORR, M.D'

Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kan.

Counting the Causes

DYNAMIC CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME
by Nathaniel D. M. Hirsch. Sci-Art Pub
lishers. 250 pp. Price $3.25; sold only to insti
tutions and professional people.

AS director of the Wayne Count;
** Clinic for Child Study attached t<
the juvenile court of Detroit, Mich., thi
author has studied approximately a thou
sand delinquent children and has made ;
detailed, statistical classification of thi
causes of juvenile delinquency as a back
ground to his effort to deal with thi
problem in scientific and practical fashion
In this, as in earlier studies which treai
of the causes and results of behavior pat'
terns, it is evident that the complexity o
the problem and the many interacting fac-
tors make real statistical measuremen'
almost impossible. "We merely compute
and correlate some of their effects 01
precipitates."

Although Mr. Hirsch supplements th(
usual classification of hereditary and en-
vironmental causes with the additional
categories of accidental causation andi
genius, he does not entirely make his case
that these are separate categories rathei
than inherent in the other two. The find-
ings of the statistical study of delinquency
factors in all the cases show: heredity's
contribution, 59.8 percent; environment's
contribution, 38.9 percent; accidental con-
tribution, 1.3 percent. Another analysis
reveals that at least 65 percent of all the
children suffered from major emotional,
personality or mental deviations. This
percentage of deviation probably is almost
five times as great as that found in the
population at large. The feebleminded
were 15 percent. The unstable and those
with emotional or personality disorders
were more numerous, 41 percent. Glan-
dular or endocrine disturbances accounted
for 4 percent.

A special study of broken homes agrees
with the work of Shaw and McKay in
Chicago that broken homes are not in
themselves important causes of delin-
quency. The author points out that there
are two types of broken homes. The nor-
mal home, affected by death, hospitaliza-
tion or other causes, does not produce
delinquents in markedly greater numbers
than does the unbroken home. But in the
abnormal type of home where there is_
delinquency, neglect or poor constitutional
make-up of the parents these basal
causes of broken homes also are impor-
tant factors in a great amount of juvenile 1
delinquency.

It was found again in this study that



220



* high percentage of delinquents oi bor-
derline general intelligence are above the
average in mechanical ability. It is sug-
gested that the public schools should train
mechanical talent rather than attempt to
develop the intellectual powers of these
children.

Nearly half the book is devoted to de-
tailed individual case reports, valuable
for the student and the practical worker
as diagnostic studies. However, except in
one case they appear woefully lacking in
indicating the processes or results of
treatment. Little correlation is indica-
ted between the psychiatric treatment,
consisting chiefly of office interviews* be-
tween the child and the psychologist, and
treatment by social workers.

Mr. Hirsch reiterates the conclusions
of the Gluecks, in One Thousand Juve-
nile Delinquents, that a court clinic
should be a treatment as well as a
diagnostic agency and should relate its
diagnoses to the carrying out of its rec-
ommendations. Nowhere has this been
fully tried. When these steps have been
taken and when all treatment agencies,
including clinics, are correlated and
manned by an adequate number of trained
workers, we shall begin not only to
understand juvenile delinquency, but to
cure it. CHARLES L. CHUTE

National Probation Association

Today's American Home

THE 1938 BOOK OF SMALL HOUSES, edit-
rd hy the editors of Tkr Architectural Forum.
Simon and Schuster. 197 pp. Price $1.96 post-
paid of Survey Miimonthly.

THIS guide for the prospective home
owner contains 131 attractive photo-
graphs of single-family houses ranging
in price from $1000 to $12,000. Charts,
diagrams, and general specifications have
been included for all the illustrations,
but specific details and dimensions for
the most part have been omitted. The
principles of house building and the func-
tions of the various related professions
are set forth in the introductory pages.
Four useful Federal Housing Adminis-
tration planning pamphlets are included
u a supplement.

The low cost home of 1938 would be
"bequeathed with dignified simplicity,"
would have a living porch facing the gar-
den, garage under the house, compact
kitchen, recreation room in the base-
ment, intelligent use of light colors, more
electrical outlets, windows and closets.
A screened back yard would be the cen-
ter of outdoor home life. If the desires of
the public, according to the Niagara
Hudson Survey which is reported in the
book, were included in this 1938 model
house, it would be of colonial or English
type with brick construction, insulated,
would have a fireplace, a storage room
for fruits and vegetables in the basement,
a ground floor bedroom or den, separate
dining and living rooms, a tub shower,
and automatic hot water heater.



10 BEST SELLERS

for Social Workers

Compiled from Orders Received
by The Survey during May

MORE THAN ONE DOLLAR

1. SOCIAL AGENCY BOARDS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM

EFFECTIVE, by Clarence King J1.25

2. HANDBOOK ON SOCIAL CASE RECORDING, M, C. Bristol 1.50

3. THE WASTED LAND, by Gerald W. Johnson 1.50

4. PERSONALITY AND THE CULTURAL PATTERN,

by James S. Plant, M.D. 2.50

5. SOCIAL CASE RECORDING, by Gordon Hamilton 2.50

ONE DOLLAR OR LESS

1. THE PUBLIC ASSISTANCE WORKER, by Russell H. Kurt* $1.00

2. THE CASE WORKER'S DESK MANUAL, by Erie Fiske Young 1.00

3. RETREAT FROM REASON, by Lancelot T. Hogben 1.00

4. HOW TO INTERPRET SOCIAL WORK, by Helen Cody Baker and

Mary Swain Rout*ahn 1-00

5. SOCIAL WORKER'S DICTIONARY, fey Young and McClenakan

ORDER THESE BOOKS POSTFREE FROM
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, 112 EAST 19 STREET. NEW YORK CITY



Is it too much to hope that the Book
of Small Houses in later years will con-
tain more illustrations of houses which
actually have been constructed in accord-
ance with the principles, standards, and
preferences set forth in the text of this
book? In addition to the relatively dis-
organized production of a few custom-
built dwellings each year, America must
devise techniques for building houses in
large numbers for the low and middle in-
come groups.
New York SYDNEY MASLEN

Concept of God

THE MODERN FAMILY AND THE CHURCH,
by Regina Westcott W'ieman. Harper. 407 pp.
Price $3 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

IJERE is an excellently realistic pic-
ture of the present-day crisis in the



family, the church, and the country at
large, with special reference to church
and family. Part III, devoted to the in-
fluence of the church within the family is
particularly good, since it is concerned
not only with the problems of family life,
such as marriage and the guidance of
children, but suggests a method of coun-
seling in family difficulties. Illustrative
situations are discussed, with indications
of the best modes of meeting difficulties.
Besides complete bibliographies, the book
includes guiding outlines for study groups,
with detailed suggestions for developing
every branch of such studies. Definitions
In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

221



are frequent, together with emphasis on
significant needs, both in inner and in
outer organization.

The church-at-large is admonished
that it will be "destroyed if it has reached
the point where its multiplicity of wills
toward sustaining divisiveness is held su-
perior to God's will toward building
unity of function." Naturally the family
is described as the situation most open to
influences favoring the presence and the
work of God.

The "interweaving of the interests of
men into larger wholes which increase
the abundance and meaning of all living"
is said to create human personality "out
of the vegetative organism of the infant,"
and this, the author says, is God. Other
and more definite statements accompany
these generalities. We are once more re-
minded that "God is love." The kingdom
is once more said to be "within." But for
the most part, God as "value-making
power" becomes so general that the dis-
cussion lacks emphasis and inspiration.
The reader who is accustomed to deriv-
ing meaning from utterances which need
to be "particularized in regard to im-
personal love" will see the force of the
author's argument and supply the dyna-
mic which is lacking.

Altogether, this sounds rather too aca-
demic. In practice social workers are
confronted by the opposites of such ideals.
When a situation is so highly intellec-



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tualized, it is a question of restatement
all along the line, in language of actual
experience in aiding individuals to find
their readjustment. Possibly it is better
to begin with individuals and work to-
ward the general principles of this book.
Then, with bettered families, it may be
possible to show in what sense God is an
interweaving value-making power.

HORATIO W. DRESSER
First Unitarian Congregational Society
Brooklyn, N. Y.

Doctor Looks at Doctoring

FTHTY YEARS A COUNTRY DOCTOR, by

William N. Macartney, M.D. Button. 584 pp.
Price $3.50 postpaid of Survey MidmontMy.



exactly autobiography, nor an
experienced man's comments on life,
nor advice to young men entering a pro-
fession, nor a diatribe against the profes-
sion's high priesthood this book is yet
in a measure all of these.

In the early pages, good biography, the
author describes life as medical student
and intern in New York in the late
eighties. There are several chapters of
remarks about stuffed-shirt specialists,
therapeutic pooh-'bahs and dead beats,
which probably express in an adequate,
if not original way, the views of many
competent practitioners. At least two
thirds of the book is taken up with obser-
vations on disease and therapeutics, with
which are interspersed wisecracks writ-
ten more for the author's than the read-
er's amusement. Rightly, the therapeutic
advice is written for physicians the book
cannot become a household medical hand-
book. In fact although the style of the
book is entirely informal, an ignorant
physician could not follow its advice, for
a knowledge of disease is assumed.

By all objective standards, the book
indicates, country doctors were doing as
well by their patients as city doctors. This
reader would like to know how Dr.
Macartney kept up with the various med-
ical discoveries, and his reaction to the
changes in medical practice. The book
probably will appeal chiefly to physicians.
DANIEL C. DARROW, M.D.
Yale University

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In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

222



GOING



Whether or not you are about to
join the 4,999 other social workers
bound for Seattle, now is the time to
think of GLOBE, intimate journal of
travel and world interest.

If you are staying at home, GLOBE
will give you many a pleasant inter-
lude of vicarious travel.

If you are going along, GLOBE
will hold your interest when you have
tired for the moment of scenic
grandeur. For GLOBE is not just
another magazine, it is a different
hind of magazine. Small enough to fit
comfortably into your coat pocket or
an odd corner of your bag, GLOBE is
large enough to contain 130 color-
fully illustrated pages of fiction,
articles, reportages.

GLOBE is a travel magazine in the
sense that it garners its material from
the four corners of the earth. GLOBE
is a literary journal in that it brings
you such writers as Ezra Pound,
Stephen Leacock, Ruth Suckow,
Christopher Hollis, Ludwig Bemel-
mans, Vardis Fisher, et al. GLOBE is
many magazines in one, possessing a
character distinctly its own.

Ask to see a copy at any of the
better newsstands, we are sure you
will like it, so sure in fact, that if
there is still time before the train
leaves for Seattle we would like to



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