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WHEN IT REALLY HAPPENED

Richard W. Hale, Jr. of Princeton University turns the pages
of history to England in 1834-41. What really happened, he
now asks and answers, when the Poor Law Commission
"cleared the relief rolls"? And how can the experience of
those turbulent days help a practical man solve some of
the perplexing problems in America today?



THE PLAGUE OF CHRONIC SICKNESS

Dr. Ernst P. Boas, chairman of the committee on chronic
illness of the New York Welfare Council and assistant
clinical professor of medicine at Columbia University, points
out the "mad confusion of patients and institutions" that
exists in a sorely neglected field of medical care. Moreover,
he outlines a community program to combat this disturbing
drain on the nation's physical and economic vitality.

SOCIAL WORKERS AND UNIONS

John Fitch of the New York School of Social Work, longtime
student of labor relations, poses some pointed questions: Are
social workers and trade unions going in the same direction?
Are not both concerned with social and economic security,
with freedom of speech and press, with democratic processes,
self-direction and self-control? If the answer is Yes and
Mr. Fitch thinks it is then why shouldn't social workers
join unions?



AM I A SOCIAL WORKER?

Dr. Charles A. Neal of Cincinnati puts the question to "Miss
Bailey." For thirty years he has been in health work, rubbing
elbows with social workers, dealing with social problems,
administering institutions for the indigent and infirm. But
he lacks the technical requirements which "by book and
candle" would make him a social worker. So, he says, "all
I can do is to sit on the various boards that hire and fire
them." If Dr. Neal isn't a social worker what is he?



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DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

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ters in Washington. D. C., and three Branch
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chapters organized mostly on a county basis.
Services of the Red Cross are: Disaster
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AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND.

INC. IB West 16th Street, New York. A
national organization for research and field
service. Activities include : assistance to state
and local agencies in organizing activities
and promoting legislation ; research in legis-
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RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Im-


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provement of Living Conditions Shelby M.
Harrison, General Director; 130 E. 22nd St.,
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and Penology, Industrial Studies, Library,
Recreation, Social Work Interpretation,
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The publications of the Russell Sage Founda-
tion offer to the public in practical and
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tant results of its work. Catalogue sent
upon request.


LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY

Promotes a better understanding of problems
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Norman Thomas, 112 East 19th Street, New
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THE PAMPHLET SHELF



Public Service

FILMS AS AN AID IN TRAINING PUB-
LIC EMPLOYES, by John E. Devine.
From the Committee on Public Administra-
tion, Social Science Research Council. Price
$1 from the committee, 306 East 35 Street,
New York.

A thorough discussion of current and
potential uses of films as training material
in public service and for other instruc-
tional purposes. Production methods are
discussed and a catalog of existing films
related to the public service is given.



PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION IN THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, by Lewis
Meriam. 62 pp. Price 50 cents from the
publisher, The Brookings Institution, Wash-
ington, D.C.

An analysis of the problem of personnel
administration, an evaluation of the merits
of a civil service board or commission
versus a one man administration and
recommendation for an extended classified
civil service under the present three-man
commission strengthened as to powers and
with more adequate appropriations.



State of the Nation

THE LABOR CRISIS IN THE UNITED
STATES, by George Sokolsky. Wiley. 29
pp. Price 25 cents direct from publisher,
New York.

Mr. Sokolsky presents his views on the
need for industrial peace and what that
need entails.



DEMOCRACY VERSUS DICTATORSHIP,

by Norman Thomas. 36 pp.
FORDISM, by Carl Raushenbush. 64 pp.

League for Industrial Democracy pamphlet

series. Price 15 cents each from the league,

112 East 19 Street, New York.

Mr. Thomas discusses what democracy
is and what it is not, in the world of to-
day. Mr. Raushenbush presents a thorough-
going collection of data for those who



want light on eftorts to unionize Mr.
Ford's far-reaching industry.



HOW TO READ A NEWSPAPER, by Paul
Hutchinson. Published in its series, Social
Action, by the Council for Social Action of
the Congregational and Christian Churches,
289 Fourth Avenue, New York. 32 pp. Price
10 cents.

The distinguished managing editor of
The Christian Century discusses with dis-
crimination and good humor why Ameri-
can newspapers are the way they are and
advises how to understand them and how
to check opinion against them.



PLANNING FOR LOW RENT HOUSING:
A NON-TECHNICAL GUIDE FOR LOCAL HOUS-
ING AUTHORITIES. 51 pp. Price $1 from the
National Association of Housing Officials,
1313 East 60 Street, Chicago.

Written for immediate and specific ap-
plication "to some of the first jobs, in
time and importance," that face local hous-
ing authorities.



TECHNOLOGY AND PLANNING. National
Resources Committee. 31 pp. Price 10 cents
from the superintendent of documents, Wash-
ington, D. C.

One of the series of pamphlets which
interpret and summarize for public con-
sumption the technical reports of National
Planning Board Reports. The full report,
Technological Trends and National Policy,
was interpreted in an article by Beulah
Amidon, Blueprinting the Machine Age.
[See Survey Graphic, September 1937,
page 474.]



Social Services

MAKING AMERICANS, by Cecilia Razov-
sky. National Council of Jewish Women. 50
pp. Price 25 cents from the Council, 1819
Broadway, New York.

A manual, based on the council's long
experience in work with the foreign-born,



which gives up-to-date material for nat-
uralization and citizenship training.



APPRAISING YOUR INTERPRETATION
PROGRAM, A CHECK LIST. Price 15 cents
from Social Work Publicity Council, 130
East 22 Street, New York.

Outline for self-evaluation of an agency
publicity program, ingeniously designed
for use.



THE CATHOLIC FAMILY IN RURAL
LOUISIANA, by the Rev. Herman Joseph
Jacobi. 126 pp. Catholic University of Amer-
ica, School of Social Work. Price, paper $1,
cloth $1.50, from the National Conference
of Catholic Charities, 1441 Rhode Island
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D. C.

An extensive social and religious study
of a predominantly Catholic community,
presenting valuable source material in the
rural social field.



International

WAR IN CHINA, by Varian Fry. Foreign
Policy Association Headline Books, No. 13.
96 pp. Price 25 cents from the association,
8 West 40 Street, New York.

Background and foreground of what is
happening in China, presented with maps
and charts and the characteristically read-
able and lucid text of the Headline Books.



THE YOUNGEST PIONEERS. Free on
request.

SOCIAL FORCES IN PALESTINE, by
Abraham Revusky. Price 25 cents.
Both from Hadassah, Women's Zionist Or-
ganization of America, 1860 Broadway,
New York.

The first booklet tells of the immigra-
tion of two thousand Jewish children from
Germany to Palestine under the Youth
Aliyah, directed by Henrietta Szold. Mr.
Revusky, writing in the Hadassah educa-
tion series, emphasizes practical applica-
tions of Zionism in shaping the social
structure of the Jewish National Home.



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dents; ANN REED BRENNER, secretary.

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ANDERSON, advertising manager.



JULY 1938



CONTENTS



VOL. LXX1V No. 7



Social Work Stretches Its Tent Ropes RUTH A. LERRIGO 227

The Test of American Democracy SOLOMON LOWENSTEIN 229

Margaret Bondfield PAUL KELLOGG 230

Prisons and Beyond SAN FORD BATES 231

Seen in Seattle SKETCHES BY WALT PARTVMILLER 232

Social Work and Public Service DAVID c. ADIE 234

Probation and Parole * JOSEPH N. ULMAN 235

Facts and Figures 237

The Common Welfare 238

The Social Front 240

Relief Public Assistance Child Welfare Compensa-
tion Old Age Insurance Wages and Hours "Divers
Good Causes" . Self Study With the Co-ops The
Public's Health Professional People and Things

Readers Write : About the Anniversary Number 250

The Pamphlet Shelf 251

Book Reviews 252

Q Survey Associates. Inc.



In the adjustment between Negroes and
fee* the real problem is the problem of
the white mind. GRAHAM R. TAYLOR, 1923.

Our citizens should have an equal opportun-
ity to health, as an inherent right coequal
with the right to life and liberty. SURGEON
GENERAL THOMAS PARRAN.

There is plenty of free speech in Jersey
if you talk the right way. LUCILLE HICKS,
Highland Falls, N. Y., at conference oj
Democratic Women of New York.

Labor problems cannot be solved by laws.
There must be agreement, good faith, un-
derstanding and cooperation by employers
and workers. FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary
of Labor.

To be able to spend and confer benefits
on special groups without having to raise
corresponding taxes to pay for these appro-
priations is the politicians' paradise. Edi-
torial, New York Times.

A "civics" that u to any degree realistic
or valuable must not be a course in a high-
school or a college but a part of the educa-
tional process from childhood on. MARY K.
SiMKiiuriTiii m Neighborhood.

The future officers of the army and navy

not expected to pay their way through
fat Point or Annapolis by doing chores,
should we treat the future leaders in
non-military adventures with less con-
ation? JAMES BRYANT CONANT, presi-
t. Harvard University.



So They Say



It is in a political form that man's des-
tiny presents itself today. THOMAS MANN.

Morals are the concern of conservatives,
and thinking the concern of radicals. CARL
VAN DOREN, in The Survey, 1923.

Humanity is infinitely more decent than
the infamous acts of the past twenty-five
years would indicate. HENRY A. WALLACE,
Secretary of Agriculture.

We must once and for all reject the notion
that in a democracy everybody is entitled
to the same amount and the same kind of
education. ROBERT M. HUTCHINS, presi-
dent, Chicago University, in Progressive Edu-
cation.

It is inefficient to economize on the ser-
vice of public health, for it is cheaper to
spend ten dollars to keep one workman from
getting syphilis than to have him become
unemployable and infectious. DAVID CUSH-
MAN COYLE in Harper's Magazine.

We are Occidentals and mistakes are in
our germ plasm. But to also is the principle:
Forward, by dramatic sallies if practicable
but forward still, if necessary, by slow re-
adjustments toward a scheme of life in which
men may be freer and more secure in their
lives. ALVIN JOHNSON, director, The New
School for Social Research.



Dictators thrive on popular distempers
translated at the ballot box. C. A. DYKSTRA,
president, University of ffisconsin.

It is futile to educate youth for an un-
realizable world. Academic monasticism has
no place in a democracy. MORRIS L. COOKE,
Philadelphia.

There can be no question but that the
administration of relief is the most difficult
job in the world. WILLIAM HUDSON. Com-
missioner of Welfare, New York City.

In spite of all our knowledge and science
there is no absolute security for the big
man or the little man, for the rich or the
poor. MARY W. DEVVSON, Sofia/ Security
Board.

We should have little difficulty in finding
evidence of un-American influences now at
work in the country. J. PARNELL THOMAS,
New jersey, member of Congressional com-
mittee of investigation.

The only laws that work under all condi-
tions are God's laws that make the sun rise
every morning and set every night. LYMAX
S. FORD, executive secretary, Community
Chest Association, Kansas City, Kan.

Would I had phrases that are not known,
utterances that are strange, in new language
that hath not been used, free from repeti-
tion, not an utterance which hath grown
stale, which men of old have spoken.
KHAKHEPERRESENB, an Egyptian writer, c.
2700 B.C.




At the Seattle meeting of the National Conference of Social Work. Left to right: Charles F. Ernst, director
Washington State Department of Social Security; Ewan Clague, Social Security Board; Paul Kellogg, elected presi-
dent of the 1939 conference; Margaret Bondfield, conference guest from England; Ruth FitzSimons, assistant to Mr.
Ernst and in the absence of the president and first and second vice-presidents, ranking officer at the meeting



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



JULY 1938




VOL. LXXIV NO. 7



Social Work Stretches Its Tent

By RUTH A. LERRIGO

And an All-Star Cast of Volunteer Reporters:



PERHAPS it was because this
was Secretary Howard R.
Knight's thirteenth meeting
of the National Conference of So-
cial Work. Anyway, as a confer-
ence, the sixty-fifth annual meeting
t Seattle was a refreshing, bizarre,
useful, cock-eyed, invigorating ex-
perience. Some mischievous jinx
must have been unwilling to let Mr.
Knight get away with such an omen of luck as the twenty-
two pound salmon which he caught just before the open-
ing gun; for such a tale of flood, fire, derailment and
disaster visited on delegates en route, of a president absent
on account of illness, of "big-shot" speakers in absentia,
of .1 famed climate gone wintry, has not been known in
many a year of conferences.

What with natural beauty and unnatural accident, con-
ferees arrived gasping on June 25 and 26. It may have
been the climate, or possibly the monotonous business of
"absentee papers," but by the end of the week the con-
ference tempo has slowed down at some points to a doze.
At other points, on the contrary, people were finding this
a better, more nourishing conference than larger ones which
have preceded it. Lacking the emotionalism of discipleship ;
the thronging of unassimilated new workers; the distress
of heat and crowding, there was time for reflection and
peace. Indeed social workers did not seem to take the
Seattle meeting quite so grimly as usual. Where, a few
\cars ago, you hardly could escape earnest side-talk of
"techniques" and "approach," of the new thing called
'Vroup work," of the breathless possibilities in social secur-
it\ and social action in Seattle you were just as likely to
hud yourself eavesdropping on eulogies of cracked
I)uri|_'eness crab, wild blackberry pie and red raspberries as
hii: as your thumb. A trade-union meeting might start a
>ii<lclrn wave of excitement, but exciting too was Seattle's
elusive mountain skyline peeking out of the clouds with,
as Helen Cody Baker put it, "all the suddenness of a
cuckoo-clock."

To many of us making our maiden trips to the North-
west, the whole country was a revelation of beauty. Seattle
itself was simple but puzzling. A city built on hills around



David C. Adie, Helen Cody Baker, Martha A.
Chickering, Norris Class, George Davidson,
Dorothy Doming. Sybil Foster, Edgar M.
Gerlach, John F. Hall, Charles E. Hendrv. Fred
K. Hoehler, Donald S. Howard, Ralph G.
Hurlin, Arlien Johnson, Andrew F. Juras, Dr.
Ellen C. Potter, David Resnick, Reuben B.
Resnik, Florence M. Seder, Dr. Herbert D.
William*, Paul Benjamin, Paul Kellogg.



a stunning land-locked harbor, it
combines lavishness in everything
that grows with a tendency to ob-
scure those natural beauties with
neon lights, brake-squeaking traffic
and overgrown buildings and indus-
trialism. Visitors saw the city as
young and commercial but gaped at
its exquisite art museums; wondered
at the lack of decor in the finest

restaurants but revelled in their foods; deplored some of
the ugly streets but gloried in nearby beauty spots.

There was another element, new to national conferences
of social work. "The fleet was in." And that means some-
thing to Seattle. The arriving social workers found the
town bedecked with flags and signs of hospitality, "Wel-
come, Fleet!" The president's reception had a military
aspect, sandwiched in between two naval balls in a hall
decorated lavishly with service flags. Daytimes the Olympic
Bowl was host to probation workers ; by night it changed
its face and welcomed the gold-braided formality of naval
officers with lovely ladies. "Gobs" were everywhere.

The conference this year looked different. Certain well-
known folk were conspicuously absent. There were no
Abbotts, no Miss Breckinridge, no William Hodson. Harry
Hopkins couldn't be spared ; Aubrey Williams also was
needed elsewhere; Congressman H. Jerry Voorhis was
home in California, "having a baby" it was said. It was
a meeting of "vices" with a hyphen. Third-vice-president
Ruth FitzSimons turned out to be ranking officer and pre-
sided with charm and competency in the much-regretted
absence of President Solomon Lowenstein. The one oft-
repeated lament concerned the necessity for absentee-read-
ing of paper after paper by hurriedly drafted substitutes
who all too often droned. Even with good readers, the
personalities who would have given vitality to the words
were sadly missed. The Northwest, enjoying its first na-
tional conference since its social work "grew up," was
disappointed when any stars were missing from the show.
While understudies were generally gracious and competent,
the customers had bought their tickets for the actors who
were billed. However, this unavoidable and not very serious
disappointment was the only one recorded.



227



An Eastern observer, veteran of many conferences,
called this meeting an educational experience, only a part
of which came through the program. "The widening of
horizons," he said, "has been more valuable to me than
the speeches. Certainly those who didn't go because
'Seattle's so far away' missed the revelation that sectional-
ism and geographic barriers fade out when one crosses a
broad expanse of prairie and mountain. We are better
Americans for being here."

Right there was struck what comes as near to a key-
note as the conference developed. Recurring through many
programs and from many slants was that strong emphasis
on the American democratic principle and its preservation ;
sometimes it came as a sharp warning against fascism ;
sometimes as an inspirational appeal to make the most of
our resources, natural and human ; sometimes as an appeal
for social justice but always it ran a vivid thread through-
out the conference.

Side by side with the democratic ideal, was a general
awareness of the need for closer integration of the whole
fabric of the social services, in all branches of endeavor.
Conference-goers did an integration job of their own by
disregarding the formal divisions of the program and at-
tending just what meetings suited their fancy. Whether
meetings were called sections, committees, associate groups
or what not seemed to be of no significance either to the
size or to the make-up of audiences. The crowds at trade
union meetings seemed to reflect a mixture of personal
interest, professional curiosity and seeking after truth.

Along with the interweaving of individual interests was
a planned correlation of program between many groups.
The Social Work Publicity Council held joint meetings
with practically everybody ; problems of medical care
cropped up all over the program ; group workers discussed
social action, and public welfare folk discussed group
techniques. All the people interested in aliens and migrants
joined forces. Through the whole week ran an emphasis
on the importance of interpretation of social work to the
community it serves. From David C. Adie's masterly ap-
peal for common sense public relations in the language of
the public, to the expert discussions of techniques by the
publicity workers and the tactics held essential to action
by trade-unionists, there was keen awareness of the neces-
sity for public understanding.

ALTHOUGH MOST OF THE EVENING SESSIONS WERE 'WAY
beyond walking distance from the rest of the conference, a
good proportion of the registration turned out, plus a good
showing of townspeople. Out-of-town hearts were warmed
to western hospitality at the opening session on June 26
when they found the lobby of the auditorium filled to over-
flowing with bushels of generous nosegays provided by the
Kings County Department of Welfare for the women of
the conference. In the absence of Solomon Lowenstein,
held in New York by illness, his wise and scholarly presi-
dential address, The Test of American Democracy, was
read by Robert P. Lane of the New York City Welfare
Council. Margaret Bondfield, Sanford Bates and David C.
Adie, at later evening sessions, maintained the high level
of thought set by Mr. Lowenstein. The brief excerpts
from these addresses, to be found elsewhere in these pages,
can do no more than suggest their quality and content.

At the last general session, the conference luncheon,
where the gavel of the president passed to Paul Kellogg
of The Survey, James M. Bertram, author, of Berkeley,

228



Cal., spoke on the subject, Behind the War in China. He
brought first-hand testimony from the Orient, contrasting
the military clique that had suppressed liberal forces in
Japan with the rise and struggle of Chinese democracy.

To follow the intricacies of the daily programs of the
conference would be an elephantine and thankless task.
To follow its formal organization would be artificial, no
true picture of the Seattle gathering. However, out of the
crowded week emerge strands of continuous interest, high
points and happenings which serve to outline the wide
thought landscape of the week.

THERE WAS GENEROUS INTEREST IN THE SPECIAL CONFER-
ence committees, that on inter-relations of the new services,
that on the adult offender; likewise in the joint committee
on trade unions in social work. As was expected, social
action meetings and those on medical care, drew crowds.

In three morning sessions the Committee on Inter-Re-
lations of Unemployment Compensation, Placement and



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