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and personal service occupations. Special
provision is made for learners, appren-
tices and the handicapped.

Administration A wage and hour di-
vision is to be created in the Department
of Labor, under an administrator ap-
pointed by the President and confirmed
by the Senate. The administrator will
appoint for each industry covered bv the
act a committee representing employes,


employers and the public. The commit-
tees, after holding hearings and examin-
ing witnesses, will recommend to the ad-
ministrator minimum wage rates not to
exceed 40 cents, to be set at the highest
points which will not substantially cur-
tail employment. The rates may vary not
only from industry to industry, but with-
in any given industry the committee may
recommend different wage rates as they
seem justified by differences in cost of
living, production and transportation.

The law provides for court review of
wage orders, and fixes penalties for wil-
ful violations of the provisions of the act,
or of the administrator's orders.

"Divers Good Causes"

"TN view of the ever increasing con-
JL trol of social processes by urban
standards and ideals, it is emphatically
important to recognize the vital contribu-
tions of rural communities, always the
primary sources of population and the
guardians of the Holy Earth." Thus im-
pressively does Thomas Jesse Jones, edu-
cational director of the Phelps-Stokes
Fund, state the reason for being of the
Agricultural Missions Foundation, Inc.,
the offices of which are at 156 Fifth Ave-
nue, New York. Organized in 1930, with
John R. Mott as chairman of the board,
the foundation has never had a budget
exceeding $12,000 for its educational and
administrative services. In spite of its
meager funds it has done yeoman's work
in its chosen field. In promoting coopera-
tion among missionary boards it has pro-
vided office and secretarial facilities for
the Rural Missions Cooperating Commit-
tee and the Christian Rural Fellowship;
has itself provided ninety-five fellowships
designed to enable missionaries to study
and observe rural resources and organi-
zation in America and has served as a
clearing house for rural services and as
a center for the distribution of literature
on all phases of rural reconstruction in
any land. Back of all the services of the
foundation is the constant objective "of
leavening thought and action toward
greater emphasis on the rural aspects of
the world Christian missionary enter-
prise." To that end its board is divided
equally between members from agri-
cultural colleges, from missionary organi-
zations and from laymen deeply interested
in agriculture and rural life.

Big Figures The national member-
ship of the Girl Scouts by the end of last
year had reached 441 ,964, a gain of 46,598
over 1936 according to the organization's
annual report. Girl Scout camps num-
bering 1012 were enjoyed by 100,837
girls. . . . The New York Bible Society
during the past year replaced 2814 Bibles
in hotel rooms, bringing the grand total
of Bibles which the society has placed in
transient guest rooms of hotels to 149,074

since 1836 when the first copies were
placed in rooms of the old Astor on lower
Broadway. The society's total distribu-
tion for the year, through many outlets,
reached 844,159 copies of Bibles, Testa-
ments and Bible portions, printed in i
eighty-three different languages.

Church and Social Work A plan >
to encourage cooperation between the
churches and the social agencies of Wash-
ington D.C., which has been under way
for a year [see Survey Midmonthly, No-
vember 1937, page 359] now has a well-
developed program. The department of
social welfare of the Federation of
Churches in cooperation with the Com-
munity Chest has set up a central office ,
to handle the project and some forty
churches have established "welfare coun- |
cils" or effective committees for the ]
work. Clearing of cases between churches
and social agencies is under way, research '
and surveys have been undertaken. For ]
a full account of the plan, issued by the
committee on cooperation, write to John
L. Mixon,' Federation of Chuches, 1749'
N Street N. W., Washington, D. C.

And So On A study to evaluate the'
effectiveness of community social worki
programs in Yonkers, N. Y. has beeru
undertaken under auspices of Commun-
ity Chests and Councils, Inc. E. S.
Guckert, managing director of the Flint,
Mich. Community Fund, is directing the
study. . . . Formation of the Missouri <
Federation for the Merit System recently
was announced, with the stated purpose
of "promoting the use of the merit sys-
tem in the field of government as the best
known method of assuring efficiency in
public administration." Norman Bier-
man, St. Louis, is chairman. Membership
includes organizations and individuals
representing a wide range of civic and<
social interests, including the Kansas City
and St. Louis chapters of the American
Association of Social Workers.

The Travelers Aid Society of Balti-
more, Md. this year celebrates a Silvei
Jubilee. It was formed in 1913 in con-'
junction with the Baltimore YWCA anc
became a charter member of the nationa
association of travelers aid societies wher
that body was formed.

New Agencies As the fruit of tw<
years' study and planning by the Sar
Francisco Community Chest and the de
partment of social work of the Counci
of Social Agencies, San Francisco no.
has a new Family Service Agency with
Prudence Kivicelen from the New Yorl |
Charity Organization Society as execu -i,
live. For the first eighteen months of ibi
life, the agency is being financed by
grant from the Rosenberg Foundation'!
Its program will be experimental with i j
small selected case load, not primarily ot> (
a relief basis.

Trenton, N. J., a city of around 125.',


000 population, is organizing its first
\ nurse association as an outcome
tudy of health needs made by the
Council of Social Agencies. Grace Un-
ricker, R.N. from the New Haven, Conn,
kiting Nurse Association is executive.
Kansas City, Kans. again has a family
r agency, after five years without
I'hr former Family Service Society
;orced to suspend in the difficult
.if 1933, but the new Family Wel-
fare Association has been set up by the
Community Chest in conjunction with a
group of citizens who were actively inter-
ested in the former agency. The new
.ition, primarily a service organi-
sation, plans to limit its case load
sufficiently to do an intensive job of re-
habilitation and personality adjustment.
Lou E. Hume, formerly with the Kan-
sas Emergency Relief Commission is

The first of its kind in a middle west-
ern state, a new neuro-psychiatric out-
patient clinic was established recently for
IWjrandotte County, Kansas, under the
state board of administration. Dr. Ralph
M. Fellows, superintendent of the state
hospital at Osawatomie, Kans., is in
charge. The clinic will be operated by
the staff of the hospital in cooperation
i with the county welfare board and the
judge of the probate court. The clinic
facilities will be available to private phy-
I sicians who have patients in need of such
I service.

Self Study

1ONG simmering discussion of co-
_> operation between case work and
group work reached the boiling point in
Chicago last winter when 160 case work-
ers and group workers sat down together
for a three months' study of principles
ractices in both fields. Seven meet-
ings, cooperatively planned by the family
service division and the division on recrea-
tion and education of the Council of
Social Agencies, were held through the
late winter and early spring.

Careful planning of these programs
was repaid by steady attendance and
brisk discussion. Two opening meetings
were staged as dialogue between a case
worker and group worker, who began
by pinning each other down to simple
explanations of purpose and practice with
such elementary questions as "But just
irhat do you do?" and "Won't you please
make that a little clearer?"

Out of the answers grew definitions
that helped the group workers to see case
work as skillful help to the individual in
trouble, first by understanding him and
his environment, then by finding and set-
ting in motion the forces capable of
changing both to meet his needs. Case
workers, too, saw group work offering
these same individuals opportunities to
develop social attitudes, acquire new

interests or skills, gain experience in liv-
ing with people and unite for social action
under trained leadership.

Having laid this foundation of mutual
understanding, the third meeting got
down to two cases: Ethel and Charles,
who needed help but were difficult chil-
dren to fit into a group. A case worker,
a group worker, and a representative of
the Institute for Juvenile Research dis-
cussed these problem youngsters, their
backgrounds, attitudes, possibilities and
limitations. Case work offered its spe-
cific service and advice, group work told
what it thought could be done, and the
audience was invited to share in deciding
on a program. Out of the sharing came
plans for a specially created small group
for Ethel and camp for Charles.

Later meetings included a panel by rep-
resentatives of seven agencies offering
case work and group work services to
Chicago's children, a general discussion
of problems raised in the actual experi-
ence of both case work and group work
agencies, and a joint report, by Leon
Richman of the Jewish Children's
Bureau and Margaret Svendsen of the
Institute for Juvenile Research, which
summarized the series and offered con-
crete proposals for better cooperation in
referral of children.

Among the many questions raised and
honestly faced by both case workers and
group workers, were these:

Does every child need a group?

What children are not ready for
group experience?

How much individual attention can
even a skillful group worker be
expected to give a problem child?

How far should problem children be
allowed to disrupt a normal group?

How freely may a case worker dis-
cuss confidential history with a
group worker?

The group workers (44 percent) and
case workers (56 percent) who joined
in these discussions agree that "supple-
mentation" rather than "integration" is
the right word for their relationship.
They have increased their understanding
and respect for each other and believe
that they have begun to build, together,
a groundwork for increased helpfulness
to Chicago's children. Verbatim reports
of the seven meetings were kept, and may
be secured for a dollar a set from the
Council of Social Agencies of Chicago,
203 North Wabash Avenue.

With the Co-ops

A_L the commercial enterprises of the
model town of Greenhills, the sub-
urban housing project on the outskirts
of Cincinnati, will be operated as co-
operatives, according to an announcement
of the Farm Security Administration.
Leases for a cooperative self-service food
store, general store, drugstore, service

station and garage, barber shop and
beauty parlor have been signed with
Greenhills Consumer Services, acting for
the residents. This cooperative organiza-
tion, operating under Rochdale principles,
was set up by prominent members of the
United Cooperatives of Cincinnati, with
the aid of Consumer Distribution Cor-
poration. Its purpose is to establish stores
and other services and operate them on
a non-profit basis. Profits will be dis-
tributed to members of the cooperative
according to their patronage. Two hun-
dred families are already residing in the

Consumer Distribution Corporation,
established by the late Edward A. Filene,
has been successfully operating the retail
stores of Greenbelt, Md., under a similar
arrangement since last September.

Cafeteria Chain Consumers Coop-
erative Services, which operates a chain
of ten cafeterias in New York City, a
central bakery, three grocery stores, a
credit union and library service, closed
its eighteenth year with an increase in
business, a small surplus, and a hopeful
outlook, after the acute labor troubles
of the preceding year. [See Survty
Graphic, February, page 90.] Mary Long,
manager, reported a total business of
$449,000 for the year, an increase of
$15,000 over the preceding year. The
co-op increased its payroll for the year
SI 2,000 under a contract with the Cafe,
teria Workers Union, Local 302.

To Nova Scotia The Cooperative
League of the United States is sponsoring
two tours to the cooperatives of Nova
Scotia in August. Both tours will attend
the Rural and Industrial Conference
of local Nova Scotia cooperators at
Antigonish, August 17-18. [See Survey
Graphic, June, page 340.] The members
of each division will have three days of
lectures and discussion periods at St.
Francis Xavier University, and a twelve-
day tour by bus and car, to the coopera-
tives of eastern Nova Scotia and Cape
Breton Island. The total membership is
limited to 300. Details from the league,
167 West 12 Street.

Field Work Twenty students of the
Cooperative League Institute, a "co-
operative college" for training prospec-
tive executives and educational directors,
finished their three-month academic
training the end of May and are now in
the field for two months' "laboratory
work" in cooperatives throughout the
country. The members of this second
class to complete the course at the insti-
tute have been assigned to cooperatives
from Caldwell, Idaho to Greenbelt, Md.,
and will do all types of work during their
training period. Practically all of the first
class have obtained positions in co-ops.
The third session of the institute opens
September 22.

JULY 1938


Book Club The Cooperative Book
Club, a mail order co-op with members
in all sections of the country, reports
growing membership and business vol-
ume at the end of its first six months of
actual operation. Dr. Henry Pratt Fair-
child of New York University, chairman
of the educational committee, announced
at the first annual meeting of the co-op
in June that fifty groups have joined the
club under the organization's plan to
sponsor book forums, reading circles, cir-
culating libraries and cooperative book
shops. Gerald McDonald of the New
York Public Library reported that a
committee of librarians is working on a
program of book buying by libraries
through the co-op.

The Public's Health

PROPOSALS for a new program de-
signed to eradicate tuberculosis in the
TJnited States were adopted by the Na-
tional Tuberculosis Association at its
recent annual meeting and endorsed by
U.S. Surgeon General Thomas Parran.
The suggested program, to start in 1939,
would require $140 million to provide
40,000 hospital beds for tuberculosis pa-
tients and would include, at a cost of
about $5,500,000, X-ray examination of
all persons who have had family contacts
with known cases. As drawn up by a
special committee, Homer Folks, chair-
man, the plan would leave the initiative
and drive for the program to the U.S.
Public Health Service and would depend
upon federal funds and some flexible
form of federal-state cooperation in its

Out-of -Town The substantial amount
of service given by Boston hospitals to
patients from outside the city has been
studied by the Boston Council of Social
Agencies and the Hospital Council. Of
72,964 patients in twenty-one voluntary
hospitals in 1937, two thirds lived in
cities and towns outside Boston. A series
of "one-day censuses" have given results
remarkably similar to those of the last
regular census of this situation. Although
relatively more Bostonians than outsiders
are treated at part rates or free, 31 per-
cent of the out-of-towners were charged
part rates and 19 percent were given free
treatment. This was in addition to the
many outsiders in out-patient depart-
ments who were not charged full rates.
It is pointed out that even ward patients
who pay the so-called full rates cover
only approximately half their cost to the

Health Battlefronts Striking gains
made in recent years in the protection of
eyesight are listed in the annual report
for 1937 of the National Society for the
Prevention of Blindness. The past twelve

months are notable particularly for the
progress made through the campaign to
stamp out syphilis, an important cause
of blindness. The premarital medical ex-
amination and the blood test for expectant
mothers, which some states have enacted
into law, are expected to result in a large
decline in blindness, such as followed leg-
islation requiring prophylactic drops in
the eyes of infants at birth. During 1937,
forty-four sight-saving classes for the
education of children with seriously de-
fective sight were established, bringing
the present total of such classes to 558
in 182 cities throughout the United States.

That almost two thirds of the more
than two million women who give birth
to infants in the United States each year
are delivered in their homes was empha-
sized by Dr. Edwin F. Daily of the U.S.
Children's Bureau at the recent annual
luncheon of the Maternity Center Asso-
ciation, New York. In that city however
85 percent of all live births occur in hos-
pitals. About ten million people in the
United States do not have an approved
hospital within thirty miles of their homes,
Dr. Daily stated, but allowed that hos-
pitals are not essential to the safe deliv-
ery of the average maternity patient,
given clean surroundings and competent
attendants, provided of course that there
is a good hospital readily available in case
of serious complication.

In carrying out maternal and child
health plans approved by the U.S. Chil-
dren's Bureau over $7 million of federal,
state and local funds is being spent in
the nation this year. The money pays, in
whole or in part, for the salaries and ex-
penses of approximately 2700 public
health nurses, 120 full time physicians on
state staffs, and the part time services of
more than 2500 local practicing physi-
cians. Prenatal clinics conducted by physi-
cians now have been established in 2932

Straws Rushing in where at least some
angels fear to tread the American Insti-
tute of Public Opinion, coincident with
the meeting of the American Medical
Association in San Francisco, released
two polls indicating how the ordinary
people of the country and the doctors
themselves feel about health insurance.
The former poll showed: that about four
out of every ten Americans have had to
forego needed medical care at one time
or another because of its costs; that a
majority of the people would be willing
to pay some fixed charge, by the month
or year, to be assured full medical and
hospital care; that about one voter in
three figures that $2 per month per per-
son would he "about right" for such

The poll of the profession, which cov-
ered representative physicians in all states,
showed that seven out of ten doctors
favor the principle of health insurance,

and that eight out of ten believe that its
practice will advance rapidly in the next
few years. On the question: "Do you
think the standards of medical practice
are raised when physicians practice in
groups, as in clinics?" the doctors inter-
rogated were about equally divided in
opinion. A substantial minority (37 per-
cent) believed that not many people in
their communities lacked medical care
because of inability to pay doctor's fees.
Representatives of the institute inter-
pret the poll as indicating a real market
for voluntary health insurance with the
$2 per month per person fee as a prac-
tical basis and also as indicating a will-
ingness on the part of the majority of the
medical profession to accept a compro-
mise scheme which would embody the
idea of budgeting medical care by means
of some form of insurance while avoiding
the twin bogies of "state medicine" and

News Notes A study of alcoholism,
its causes, costs and consequences, which
was launched early in 1937 at Boston,
Mass. City Hospital with the aid of
$44,000 of WPA money, is being con-
tinued with the aid of an additional grant
of around $27,000. Dr. Merrill Moore is
in charge.

A special trachoma advisory committee
has been appointed for the Indian Ser-
vice by the Secretary of the Interior.
Harry S. Gradle, Chicago, is chairman,
with a committee including Drs. Law-
rence T. Post, St. Louis, William L.
Benedict, Rochester, N. Y., Louis i
Greene, Washington, D. C.

More than a third of the members
of the Massachusetts State Medical So-
ciety have signed a protest against the
infringement of medical rights involved
in a state supreme court decision which
in effect enjoins even physicians in Mas-
sachusetts from giving contraceptive ad-
vice. The court upheld the conviction for
selling or giving away contraceptives of i
four women attached to an affiliate
agency of the American Birth Control
League [see Survey Midmonthly, No-
vember 1937, page 350] although the
defendants contended that they had acted
with the advice of physicians.

Field Service Grows The Ameri-
can Social Hygiene Association is increas-
ing its field service, frequently sending
help "on the spot" to communities re-
questing it. A liaison office has been
opened in Washington, D. C. (Room
1009, 927 Fifteenth Street, N.W.) with
Bascom Johnson, director of the ASHA's
legal and protective division, in charge.
Its function is cooperation with official
and voluntary agencies having headquar-
ters in Washington, and the provision of (
a field work base for Atlantic Coast
states. Trips by staff and special field i
workers, a public health nurse consultant i


service, an investigation field service
studying commercialized prostitution and
Ce conditions, and a study of sex edu-
cation in educational institutions are
King current field activities. Staff mem-
bers visited and conferred with social
!nj r Mr societies and public health work-
rrs in nearly every state in the union in
early months of 1938.


THE awards for "outstandingness,"
made this year by the Social Work
Publicity Council were solely for quality
of writing. With some 600 entries sifted
iimmittec headed by Mollie Sullivan
of the National YWCA, final judgment
was rendered by Leane Zugsmith, novelist,
Genevicve Parkhurst, feature writer and
Leon Whipple, Survey author and editor
and professor of journalism at New
York University. Honors went to:

Family Welfare, bulletin of the Bos-
ton Family Welfare Society, for two
fie i>>ues written by Basil Beyea.

Comments on ". . . one third of a
nation . . ." written by Dr. Norman
Goldsmith for the Pittsburgh Medical

A booklet of case stories, There but

tor the Grace of God, written by Alfred

ughton of the New York YMCA.

The Daily Texan vs. Syphilis, a com-
pilation of articles from the Daily Texan
(University of Texas) "authored" by the
(editor, Ed Syers, with the advice and col-
laboration of Dr. George W. Cox, state
health officer.

Notes The New York School of So-
cial Work has just rounded out its fortieth
year. Beginning in June 1898 as a sum-
inner training course for twenty-nine stu-
idents, it now attracts some 700 young
imen and women yearly. Through the years
(more than 20,000 persons have passed
through the school, many of them now
it. positions of leadership in government,
and all areas of social welfare work.

A student applying for admission to
the School of Social Work of the Uni-
of Buffalo listed as her major
interest, "abnormal case work." ... By
means of a grant of $7000 by the Russell
Sage Foundation, the Joint Vocational
service is undertaking a year's study of
t* program of services and its methods of
support. . . . The Alfred P. Sloan Foun-
lation of New York has granted $29,000
:o the University of Denver for use in
training students in a new profession de-
-cribed as "appraiser of efficiency of city
md county governments." Graduates of
he eighteen-month course will be granted
:he degree of Master of Science in Gov-
rnment Management.

By a cooperative agreement between
Weslevan University. Middletown. Conn,
the Neuro-Psychiatric Institute of
tford the university will grant the




After a thorough investigation of the evidence for and against at the
close of the last period of acceptance, the Council on Pharmacy and
Chemistry of the American Medical Association has again reaccepted


Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 66 of 109)