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Miss Cavin has left the social work field
for business an executive position in
the Dickinson Agency of the Equitable
Life Assurance Society in Philadelphia.

Thomas H. Hoare, for several years
with the American Association of Social
Workers and lately editor of The Com-
pass, has resigned to join up with the
Greater New York Fund, -Inc. . . . Louis
Resnick, recently director of informa-
tional services of the Social Security
Board, is in Geneva until October, at-
tached to the International Labor Office.

Coming Events Cheered by the
actions of two states in passing laws re-
quiring pre-natal blood-tests, the Ameri-
can Social Hygiene Association has
marked the Prevention of Congenital
Syphilis as the main theme for the Third
National Social Hygiene Day set for
Wednesday, February 1, 1939.

The American Red Cross announces
Washington, D.C., as the setting of its
1939 national convention, April 24-27.



AUGUST 1938



269



Book Reviews



Afoul of the Law

YOUTH IN THE TOILS, by Leonard V. Har-
risen and Pryor McNeill Grant. Macmillan.
167 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of Survey Mid-
monthly.

TV/fANY years of Mr. Harrison's life
have been given to the considera-
tion of police and penal problems. His
co-author, Mr. Grant, whose untimely
death occurred last December, devoted
his life to work among boys. (And it is
prdbable, supplied most of the sentimen-
tality in this little book.)

The tale is a harrowing one, describ-
ing what happens to the boys of America
when they run afoul of the police or get
thrown into an evil smelling jail or com-
mitted to a reformatory or training
school to match their own iniquities and
depravities with those of other unfor-
tunates. Anyone who knows social condi-
tions throughout the United States can
confirm the incidents, here drawn rather
graphically. The trouble with the book is
that an uninformed person might assume
that all young rapscallions who get taken
up by the police are innocent mortals
who are being made into hardened crim-
inals by the vicious penal system of
America; second, that the evils recounted
are typical or predominant. As a matter
of fact, neither of these things is true,
but there are too many training schools
that lose sight of the fact that they are
dealing with human beings; too many
cops who seem to take delight in being
tough ; and too little concern on the part
of modern society for "youth in the
toils."

The recommendations of the authors
are not as convincing as is their descrip-
tion of the evils to be remedied. A spe-
cial delinquency code for minors between
sixteen and twenty, administered by a
new court known as the delinquent minor
court, will be merely an extension of
what we now know as the juvenile
court, with all the difficulties which be-
set this much-prized device for handling
wayward minors increased in their com-
plexity. Many of us for years have con-
tended that any court should separate
its function into the judicial and the dis-
positional and that the disposition of of-
fenders be based on a diagnostic exami-
nation by experts. The recommendations
presented by these authors differ from
existing practices only in degree.

There is, in fact, no single formula
for the cure of juvenile delinquency. But
this book may help further to focus the
attention of an apathetic public on the
dangers of what the Wickersham Com-
mission called "lawless enforcement of
the law" in respect to its own youth, and
the urgent need for community effort to



prevent the development of conditions
which make it necessary to put "Youth
in the Toils." SANFORD BATES

Boys' Clubs of America
New York

Intel-cultural Conference

EDUCATION IN PACIFIC COUNTRIES, by
Felix M. Keesing. University of Hawaii Book-
store, Honolulu. 226 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid
of Sun>ey Midmonthly.

TN a brilliant piece of conference re-
porting, an anthropologist here sets
forth what happened when an interna-
tional group of educators, brought to-
gether by the University of Hawaii,
discussed the role played by the school in
intercultural relations. Most of the larg-
er countries on the rim of the Pacific, or
with colonies there, were represented, as
well as many of the indigenous peoples
and some of the ethnic minorities. The
very composition of the conference proved
that education has no natural racial
limits.

Probably no more expert assembly ever
has unrolled so colorful a canvas. Among
the questions taken up were those which
show at the same time many facets of
difference in national mentality and many
similarities of national experience in a
part of the world that is rapidly becom-
ing integrated by modern progress. The
conflicts between dominant and oppressed
groups, between indigenous and imported
cultures, between community needs and
needs of particular groups, between mas-
tery of one language and the practical
advantages of being able to use several
all these and many more vex the educa-
tors of almost the whole region.

With its scholarly handling of contro-
versial material, extensive bibliography,
and illuminating reference' of every tech-
nical question to more fundamental prob-
lems, this is an unusually valuable con-
tribution to educational sociology.
New York BRUNO LASKER

Liberal Educators Speak

EDUCATIONAL FREEDOM AND DEMOC-
RACY, bv H. B. Alberty and Boyd H. Bode.
Appleton-Century. 292 pp. Price $2.25 post-
paid of Survey Midmonthly.

EDUCATIONAL freedom is ranked
with freedom of speech, press and
assembly as an essential of democracy in
this, the second yearbook of the John
Dewey Society, an organization of liberal
educators devoted to "the study of edu-
cation in its interaction with society and
the culture." The volume is distinguished
from much of the literature on educa-
tional freedom by its emphasis on the
philosophical justifications of educational
freedom and its minimizing of tales of



teachers harried by hooded bands for
smoking in the school boiler room or
banished from the profession for smug-
gling home a copy of the Survey Graphic
beneath the family spinach.

The book is interesting not for origi-
nality or brilliance but for being as
authoritative a statement as can be found
of the attitude toward educational free-
dom of the liberal wing of American ed-
ucators. From this statement it appears
that these liberal educators look upon
the maintenance of freedom of teaching
as a duty to democracy, with this free-
dom entailing as many burdens as it be-
stows privileges; for the scholar's license
to pursue truth wherever it may lead is
paid for 'by his obligation to utter only
such public statements as are the fruit
of reason. The school must avoid indoc-
trination, even in supposed service of
democracy. For democracy is truly served
only by the freeing of intelligence for
"the continuous remaking of beliefs."
Fixed alignment of teachers with any
group, either of the right or left, is
warned against.

Being the joint product of nine writers,
the quality of the book is uneven, rang-
ing from Professor Bode's brilliant chap-
ter defining educational freedom to Pro-
fessor Hullfish's unfocused marshalling
of fine sentences on organization of the
teaching profession. The layman and
also the teacher, looking for a reasoned
summary presentation of the problem of
educational freedom, will find nothing
better than this volume.

EVERETT B. SACKETT
Graduate School of Education
Harvard University

Light for the Layman

CONSUMERS' CREDITS AND UNEMPLOY-
MENT, by J. E. Meade. Oxford University
Press. 115 pp. Price $2 postpaid of Suri'ey
Midmonthly.

TN this short book, Mr. Meade presents
a case for consumers' credits which
is intended to be both understandable to
the layman and helpful to the economist.
From the point of view of this layman
he has been remarkably successful in
guiding him through the intricacies of a
difficult subject and bringing him safely
out on the other side with a fairly clear
idea of the importance and practicability
of consumers' credits. This term is de-
fined by the author to mean direct cash
subsidies to insured old age or laboring
groups in England.

Mr. Meade devotes the first half of
his book to consumers' credits in general,
as an important if not the chief measure
which should be taken to relieve depres-
sion unemployment. In this he draws a
sharp line between seasonal and tech-
nological unemployment on the one hand
and general or depression unemployment
on the other. Consumers' credits should
be applied only to the latter case. Con-



270



versely in order to finance these credits
during depressions a tax is levied on the
employed during prosperous times.

The latter half of the book examines
the working of one specific plan for us-
ing consumers' credits and shows how
that method would have greatly relieved
the recent depression in England. Al-
though the plan as prescribed might well
have greatly reduced unemployment in
England during recent years there seem
justifiable grounds for doubt that it could
work at the present time in this country.
At least one element of difficulty would
be our comparatively limited machinery
for distributing credits and collecting
the tax. ELIOT PRATT

New York

Tonic for the Inner Life

THE SELF YOU HAVE TO LIVE WITH,
br Winfred Rhoadcs. Lippincott. 182 pp. Price
$1.75 postpaid of Survty MidmoMkly.

AN excellent little book of the tonic
*^ sort, simple, direct and moving in
style, with ample illustrations from the
author's experience in dealing with per-
$ons. The psychology is sound. The clos-
ing chapters introduce a religious foun-
dation for the building of an "honorable"
elf. The conception of God here intro-
duced and the application made of it is
one which could be utilized by persons
of all religious faiths.

Religious leaders will find the book
widely useful. To great advantage they
could slip it to any perplexed, anxious,
troubled or unadjusted person for read-
ing. Its substance is easily grasped and
its challenging sentences cling to the
mind. The reader is certain to put it
down with a resolution to master his in-
ner life. The cues for doing so are effec-
tively presented.

JOHN ROWLAND LATHROP
,Ckurch of the Saviour, Brooklyn

Lectures for Laity

^MILESTONES IN MEDICINE, by Drs. Mil-
ler. Jclliffc, Stockard, Vogel, Tilney, Sigcrist,
Wayson. and Timme. Appleton-Century. 276
pp. Price $2 postpaid of Surrey MidmontUy.

*HE laity lectures given last year at
the New York Academy of Medi-
Icine proved to be so very popular that it
Iwas decided to publish them in book
form. In introducing this compilation Dr.
I James A. Miller, the academy's presi-
dent, remarks that the enthusiasm with
[which these health educational talks were
[received clearly shows that "the public
wishes not only to know but to under-
stand."

"There is a substantial difference," Dr.
(Miller points out,- "between knowing and
(understanding. To know, is to have ac-
quaintance with, to recognize, while to
understand is to appreciate the meaning
[and import of what is known."

Psychiatry is here discussed by Dr.



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lished of books on social work and kindred fields.

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271



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Administered through National Headquar-
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AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND,

INC. IS West 16th Street, New York. A
national organization for research and field
service. Activities include : assistance to state
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Promotes a better understanding of problems
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Smith Ely Jelliffe; Heredity, by Dr.
Charles R. Stockard; Medicine at Sea,
by Dr. Karl Vogel; Evolution, by Dr.
Frederick Tilney; Medical History, by
Dr. Henry E. Sigerist ; Leprosy, by Dr.
Newton E. Wayson; Glands, by Dr.
Walter Timme.

Each subject is treated in an interest-
ing and popular style.
New York BEULAH FRANCE, R.N.

Problems in Medical Progress

THE FIGHT FOR LIFE, by Paul de Kruif.
Harcourt, Brace. 342 pp. Price $3 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

l^XTREMELY sensitive to every form
of human suffering, Paul de Kruif
has unusual ability in making his sympa-
thy contagious. His feelings are becoming
more and more disciplined but they still
carry him at times beyond the bounds of
scientific prudence.

The Elliott treatment has been used
successfully in chronic and subacute in-
fections of the pelvis. Mr. de Kruif wants
to know why it is not also used in the
treatment of puerperal septicemia, which
causes thousands of maternal deaths. He
charges that an effective method of con-
trolling maternal mortality is being neg-
lected because it is time-consuming and
therefore uneconomic for use in an indus-
try that is governed by the profit system.

The difficulty with this line of argu-
ment is that Elliott's treatment is being
used throughout the country every day.
Each number of the Index Medicus still
contains an entry of the articles published
on the "Elliott treatment.' 1 Reference to
these articles in the literature proves that
Dr. Charles Robert Elliott is always giv-
en full credit for his development of a
quite old discovery that heat within the
vagina cures local pelvic infection. In an
article published last May Dr. Frank H.
Krusen suggested to the American Con-



gress of Physical Therapy that six hours
should be devoted to the technique rather
than the one- to two-hour treatment of
the original Elliott technique.

Is it not more probable that obstetri-
cians hesitate to apply the method to the
treatment of puerperal infections with
hemolytic streptococcus because they are
there dealing with an infection of the
general blood stream?

This is not to deny that the profit mo-
tive may hinder medical progress and pre-
vent some people from getting care by
the more expensive methods of treatment.
Research on this subject is desirable but
the evidence sought must be other than
that here presented.

Despite its scientific limitations, The
Fight for Life is a book worthy to be
welcomed for its insight into the prob-
lems of maternal care, for its descriptions
of the work of the President's Commis-
sion for Infantile Paralysis Research to
which the author has acted as honorary
secretary during the last two years, and
for its presentation of the thesis that
the capitalist may still realize profits in
material wealth through material outlay
for the control of communicable disease.

Department of Health J. R. EARP

Albany, N. Y.

Run of the Shelves

SOCIAL LIVING, by Paul H. Landis and Jud-
son T. Landis, Ginn and Co. 672 pp. Price
$1.80 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.



the living, growing, working, normal
system which society is."

PUBLIC SERVICE IN GREAT BRITAIN, by
Hiram Miller Stout. University of North Caro-
lina Press. 189 pp. Price $4.50 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

WITH civil service as the central focus,
this volume describes the evolution of gov-
ernment in Britain over the last hundred
years, and the working of the British civil
service in relation to the parliamentary
system. Among other major topics, the
author discusses specifically the induce-
ments to public life which have attracted
one out of every hundred Britishers, and
the type of persons attracted. Much of
the outstanding success of Britain's civil
service is attributed to the permanence
of appointments, the unimportance of
party affiliation, and the importance of
merit. Thus the problems of securing the
responsible bureaucracy so necessary to
the functioning of a modern state under
democratic control has been effectively
approached.

NEW OCCUPATIONS FOR YOUTH, by T.



Otto Nail. Association Press. 192 pp.
$1.75 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.



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text supplemented by many skillfully
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The aim of the book is to help the high-
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der and stability, not only the grievous
problems that vex our society but also
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247 pp. Price 50 cents from the society, 50
West 50 Street, New York.

A NEW low cost edition, for wide dis-
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safety engineers, industrial physicians and
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Si !! I MKI'R I'MS



CONTENTS



\'oi.. I, XXIV No. 9



Frontispiece 274

The Clean Up BARBARA ABEL 275

New Jersey Looks at Its Young Delinquents

JAMES S. PLANT, M.D. 277

It Has Happened Before RICHARD w. HALE, JR. 279

Women Alone KATHRYN CLOSE 281

Dear Miss Bailey:
"Am I a Social Worker?" CHARLES A. NEAL, M.D. 282

Old Age Reserve BEULAH AMIDON 283

The Common Welfare 286

The Social Front 288

Schools and Education Public Assistance Relief Jobs
and Workers Against Crime Compensation Child
Welfare The Public's Health Nurses and Nursing
Among the States Recreation Professional People
and Things

The Pamphlet Shelf 297

Book Reviews 298

Survey Associates, Inc.



Common sense may be crushed to earth
by prejudice, but it will rise again. HENRY
GODDARD LEACH in The Forum.

I am still old-fashioned enough to think
and believe that the only ultimate solution
to our present unemployment is through in-

i business. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER.
JR., New York.

The problem in creating an informed pub-
lic opinion is not in putting the information
before the public, but in making it stick.
An appeal to the emotions makes it stick.
(IIKVLD \V. JOHNSON in The Survey, 1923.

Once they [migrants] aspired to a whole
.citiun of good prairie land and herds of
white-faced cattle; now they hope for ten
acres with "wood, water and a garden"
and. if UFA or FSA is merciful, one milk
cow. PAUL H. LANDIS, State College o\
Washington.

:n time to time throughout the course
of history the state has attempted to mold the



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