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dent homeless men and boys.

Test in Efficiency Chicago's canal
district demonstration of revised relief
procedures recommended by Governor
Horner's council on public assistance and
employment [see Survey Midmonthly,
March 1938, page 80] concluded on May
17. Emphasis in the demonstration was
on improved standards of efficiency. To
that end new equipment was added and
routines modified particularly in relation
to "paper work" and the waiting time of
clients. The clerical staff was increased
from 75 to 144; the field work and re-
lated services staff from 43 to 93. Total
increases in payroll came to $8054 per
month. Average case loads for field
workers were reduced from 132 to 52.

A complete evaluation of this experi-
ment is now under way, but it is signifi-
cant that the demonstration unit showed
less increases than all other CRA units,
during months when costs and case loads
increased all over the city. Emphasis on
special services and the examination of
resources have shown themselves factors
in reducing relief rolls.

The Chicago Relief Administration is



now trying out another recommendation
rf the Illinois council on public assistance
and employment. A central intake unit
has been set up, with a business man,
A. E. Rose, as its director.

The first test of the Chicago's central
intake service will be its city-wide use
in accepting applications for non-relief
WPA employment. (Under the new rul-
ing, one need not be on relief or asking
for it to be eligible for a WPA job,
although certification is still on a basis
of need.) Non-relief applicants for WPA
were formerly interviewed at CRA dis-
trict offices. Beginning August 15 they
will register at the central intake unit.
For the present, the central intake unit
will not be used by people applying for
relief.

In Print With figures piled on figures
and graph following graph Howard
Whipple Green of the Cleveland health
council has "put squarely before the
startled eyes of the community" the facts
about relief expenditures in his city dur-
ing the past ten years. He calls the study,
Two Hundred Millions for Relief in
Cleveland, 1928-1938. Price $1 from the
health council, 1001 Huron Road, Cleve-
land.

Across the Desk of a Relief Admin-
istrator, by Benjamin Glassberg, of the
Department of Outdoor Relief, Milwau-
kee, Wis. (American Public Welfare
Association, 1313 East 60 Street, Chi-
cago. Price 50 cents) is a thoroughly
readable and realistic diary, a cross-
section of the job showing the hetero-
geneous and complex problems which
crop up in the short space of a month.
Good required reading for those who
still think that government employes
v.-ork with their feet on the desk.

In its efforts to allocate relief funds
on an equitable basis the Wisconsin Pub-
lic Welfare Department has recently
completed its third study and analysis
of the relative financial condition of the
seventy-one counties. The mimeographed
report of the survey, directed by Hayden
H. Cady, is especially interesting to sta-
tisticians as an example of method. 64
pp. from the department, Madison, Wis.

Jobs and Workers

"\X7"HEN the press reported that the
Ringling Brothers, Barnum and
Bailey Circus had folded its tents and
retired to winter quarters in July be-
cause of "labor trouble," only part of
the story was told, according to the
labor unions involved. The American Fed-
eration of Actors has released a state-
ment on behalf of the 1600 performers
and workmen of the "big top." This
AF of L affiliate has a contract with
the circus, covering all employes except
musicians and billposters, which in-
cludes a minimum wage of $60 a month



and has four more years to run. But
on June 17, John Ringling North, heac>
of the corporation, posted a 25 percent!
wage cut for all employes. The Amer-
ican Federation of Actors, the Billpost-
ers' Union and the Musicians' Unior !
held the cut a violation of their con- j
tracts. Mr. North, according to thf
workers, refused to consider conferenct
or compromise. Union representative:
suggested that if Mr. North could provt
that the circus was losing money, thej
would recommend acceptance of the paj
cut. "Mr. North refused to permit cer-
tified public accountants to examine tru
corporation's books unless the 25 percenl
cut was first agreed to." The unions
would make no such blind agreement
Mr. North then cancelled the summei
schedule and went into winter quarters
the equivalent of a lockout for clowns
acrobats, roustabouts, and the rest ol
the circus employes.

Jobs for Negroes Negroes are guar-
anteed at least a third of all sales posi-
tions in Harlem retail establishments un-
der an agreement announced last montl!
by the Uptown Chamber of Commerce
on behalf of hundreds of white-owner*-
stores and the Greater New York Co-
ordinating Committee for Employment
representing over 200 Negro organiza<
tions. The negotiations resulting in the
agreement began in April. Aside from
agreeing to fill vacancies with Negroes
until one third of all white-collar jobs
are held by colored workers, Harlerr
store owners promise not to discriminate
against Negro clerks in promotions, tc
pay them equal wages for equal work
agree to exert pressure on certain unions
to secure admission of Negro members
and promise not to discriminate against
Negroes in lay-offs. White employes will
not lose jobs in Harlem as a result ol
the agreement. Negroes will replace
white clerks as there are vacancies due
to resignation, discharge for cause, 01
transfer. Machinery for arbitrating dis-
putes is set up by the agreement, and
both sides agree to be bound by the de-
cisions of the arbitration board. The
agreement also provides for a central
Harlem employment bureau, to be oper-
ated by the New York Urban League,
and the Harlem YMCA and YWCA.
All positions opened to Negroes in Har-
lem stores are to be filled by applicants
certified by this bureau. The agreement
went into effect immediately.

Union School Two successive sum-
mer schools were held by the Steel Work-
ers Organizing Committee of the CIO'
at a former CCC camp site in Somerset:
County, Pennsylvania. Each session was<
attended by 100 local officers, grievance'
committeemen and members, to hear lec-
tures and participate in discussions on-j
various phases of unionism and the steel



290



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



industry. The contracts held by the
SWOC with over 500 firms were ana-
lyzed, and methods of handling grievances
in tlir mills were described and discussed.
On the "faculty" were two Catholic
priests, the general manager of the Oliver
Iron and Steel Company, Pittsburgh, the
secretary of the Elliott Company, Jean-
nette, Pa., CIO officials, and several
^Bege professors, including Sumner
liter of Harvard, B. J. Hovde of
the I'niversity of Pittsburgh, Louis Bean,
now an economist with the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.

New Jersey Survey At least 100,-

000 of the 170,000 to 200,000 women and
bors gainfully employed in New Jer-
Igf are receiving less than a "bare sub-
tence" wage, and 35,000 are earning
less than $5 a week, according to a re-
port on a survey of living costs for

>women in industry in the state submitted
to the governor by John J. Toohey, Jr.,
state labor commissioner. The survey
|(B| $588 as an annual "subsistence
Iflp" for a woman living with a family
|^P $663 for a woman living alone, with
51001 and $1147 as "adequate wage" fig-
ures. Although New Jersey has had a
minimum wage law for five years, it has
so far been applied only in the laundry
industry. Efforts are being made to set up
minimum scales for 50,000 women in the
needle trades in the state, and for 10,000
in light manufacturing industries. Labor
Department figures indicate that if all
women working in New Jersey for less
than $13 a week were raised to that
standard, total payrolls would increase
i.bjr more than $240 million a year.

Wages and Hours The third indus-
trial commission named since the New
York State minimum wage law became
effective in 1937 will set minimum wage
d maximum hour standards for the
6397 women and minors working in 257
i confectionery plants in the state. A sur-
t wages, hours and working condi-
tions now prevailing in the industry has
been prepared by the division of women in
industry of the State Labor Department
ill serve as the basis for the com-
n\ work. The study showed that
median earnings of the 3968 women in-

1 eluded were $15.73 for a busy December

but average weekly earnings for
those who had twenty-six or more weeks
iploymcnt were $12.59, and only 49
! percent of the women had as much as
v-six weeks work a year. . . . The
t of three public hearings on the propo-
make the wage and hour standards
'ie laundry industry mandatory was
held last month in New York City. If
the order is issued, violation of the wage
and hour standards will be a criminal
offense, punishable by fine or imprison-
ment.
The Supreme Court of Montana re-



cently upheld the state law fixing eight
hours as a day's work for employes of
retail stores in cities having a popula-
tion of 2500 or more. The statute was
enacted in 1933.

Record and Report Anti-Labor Ac-
tivities in the United States, by David J.
Saposs and Elizabeth Bliss lists and dis-
cusses four anti-labor techniques: inde-
pendent unions, back-to-work movements,
vigilantism, pseudo-patriotic organiza-
tions. Price 15 cents from the League for
Industrial Democracy, 112 East 19
Street, New York. ... A description of
current policies and practices in regard
to the seniority principle is provided in a
preliminary mimeographed report, The
Seniority Principle in Employment Re-
lations, by the Industrial Relations Sec-
tions, Princeton University, Princeton,
N. J. Price 50 cents. . . . The National
Railroad Adjustment Board by William
H. Spencer describes the latest piece of
machinery devised by Congress to assist
in settling railway labor disputes, and
now functioning in the current contro-
versy over a proposed wage cut for rail-
road workers. Price $1 from the Uni-
versity of Chicago Press.

Against Crime

'"pHAT probationers are improbable
future criminals is upheld by statis-
tics at least in New York County,
N. Y. where figures show that more
than 90 percent of the adults placed on
probation in the last ten years have made
good. According to Irving W. Halpern,
chief probation officer of the court of
general sessions, only two out of every
hundred have returned to crime, re-
ceiving consequent prison sentences. He
adds that 75 percent of the county's pro-
bationers were employed during the
worst periods of the depression.

Charles L. Chute, executive director
of the National Probation Association,
sees greatly improved services in Ver-
mont and Rhode Island, the two states
which administer all their probation
work, adult and juvenile, through one
state bureau. Thirteen states now have
adopted a system of state administration
of adult probation whereby state-paid
probation officers are appointed either
by a state board or bureau. But there
are still nine states, mostly southern,
lacking any adult probation law, and
one, Wyoming, without a juvenile law.

WPA and Rehabilitation The

help given by a WPA project in put-
ting modern methods for rehabilitation
into New York penal institutions re-
cently was recognized by Commissioner
of Correction Austin H. MacCormick.
"Without the project the establishment
of such a program would have been de-



ferred for several years," he said, and
added that the work of the project
would result in consolidation of the
program into the regular budget of the
department of correction. The aid of
WPA workers has made possible edu-
cation of illiterates, expansion of library
facilities, organization of recreation to
relieve monotony for idle prisoners and
development of a social investigation
unit which gathers data on each in-
mate, for the use of officials in work
assignment and in treatment. WPA per-
sonnel also is being used in these in-
stitutions to augment neuro-psychiatric,
medical and dietetic service and even
"barbering" of penniless prisoners de-
tained for trial, who thus are enabled
to make a more favorable courtroom
appearance.

Pals New York's Police Athletic
League, in making its last annual re-
port, stressed the fact that its initials
really mean that the "cop" on the corner
is a "pal" to some 75,000 children on the
sidewalks of New York. One of the
aims of the league is to reduce juvenile
delinquency ; another to build citizen-
ship. The membership, which includes
police and children, increased by 40,-
000 within the last year. The junior
members pay 10 cents annual dues.

Police in the league aim to prevent
crime by watching for the neglected
child, talking to his parents and warn-
ing them of the dangers and at the same
time cultivating the child's friendship
rather than fear. All kinds of recrea-
tional activities are promoted by the
league. The crowning event last year
was the "Parade of Stars" at Yankee
Stadium when 40,000 children turned
out to see the celebrities. The league is
an activity of the Juvenile Aid Bureau
of the city which reports that last year
out of 40,000 individuals with whom
the bureau's field workers made contact
only one was an actual law violator.

Punishment, Old Style In Mass-
achusetts, Representative Charles W.
Olsen is making an attempt to revive
the whipping post, ducking stool and pub-
lic stocks of colonial days as punishment
for intoxicated drivers. A former police
chief, Representative Olsen embodied
his ideas in a bill for the legislature.
He would exempt women from the pro-
vision which authorizes whipping. ... A
news dispatch from London reports that
a government departmental committee
has recommended the abolition of flog-
ging as a court penalty in England. The
committee recommends also the abolition
of birching for juveniles. The results
of an analysis made by the committee
"lend some support to the view ex-
pressed to us by probation officers that
corporal punishment is apt to produce



SEPTEMBER 1938



291



feelings of resentment and bitterness
which may make the offender more anti-
social and more, rather than less, liable
to commit other offenses."

Bill to Date In a monthly letter is-
sued by Kenyon J. Scudder, probation
officer of Los Angeles County, Calif.,
an itemized bill of what it has cost the
public to bring "Mike," age twenty-
two, into a cell in San Quentin prison
is presented for Mr. Taxpayer's con-
sideration. The total given is $5370,
itemized to include: police and juvenile
court, $500; Whittier (jail sentence of
twenty-four months), $1800; Preston
(sentence of eighteen months), $1170;
superior court and San Quentin (three
years' sentence), $1900. Mr. Scudder's
letter, in pointing to the need for slum
clearance, directed attention to "de
lousy dump" which Mike had called
home.

Compensation

A NATIONAL system of unemploy-
ment insurance, with all reserve
funds in a single pool and a uniform tax
rate for all industries in every state, was
recommended in a report by Prof. James
W. Horwitz of Harvard, published in
mid-August by the university's bureau of
business research. The study shows great
differences in unemployment among the
states. With a national pool, the author
urges, a single tax rate would give equal-
ity of protection. It would be relatively
simple and inexpensive to administer such
a scheme, which would avoid costly read-
justments made necessary by the use of
differing rates.

Florida Dispute The quarrel be-
tween Florida and the Social Security
Board over establishment of a merit sys-
tem for the staff of the state's public em-
ployment service was ended by the pay-
ment of $60,233 to Florida for adminis-
trative expenses of the unemployment
compensation division of the Florida in-
dustrial commission. The state com-
plied with the board's requirements as
to a merit system.

Administration in New York

The division of placement and unemploy-
ment insurance will require written
authority from the claimant before sup-
plying information to a benefit claimant's
agent or attorney, under the provision of
the law requiring the division to keep its
records confidential. . . . The new week-
ly certification procedure which went in-
to effect July 16, requires unemployment
insurance benefit claimants to report
weekly in person, to give evidence of
continued unemployment. This means a
weekly procession of more than 100,000



persons through the 124 local offices of
the state employment service, the great
majority of them already receiving week-
ly benefit checks of $7 to $15. The for-
mer monthly reporting schedule has been
converted to a weekly schedule. The
change is in compliance with require-
ments of the Social Security Board. . . .
The division of placement and unem-
ployment insurance is making a renewed
drive for one social security account
number for every worker in the state,
and only one. Failure of eligible claim-
ants to provide themselves with account
numbers, or duplication of accounts, has
resulted in numerous delayed claims for
benefits.

Canadian Bill The Canadian govern-
ment has drafted a national unemploy-
ment insurance bill to be submitted to
Parliament as soon as the provinces ap-
prove it. Early this year the government
asked the provincial governments to agree
to an amendment to the British North
America Act which would give the fed-
eral Parliament jurisdiction over unem-
ployment insurance. Some provinces
agreed, but Quebec, Ontario, New
Brunswick and Alberta refused.

Delinquent Employers More than
a quarter of a million dollars has been
collected from employers subject to the
New York State unemployment insur-
ance law by the attorney general's office
since January 1. Most of the settlements,
which resulted in bringing $271,453.26
into the insurance fund, have been volun-
tary as the result of about 1500 infor-
mal hearings. In the seven-month period
only two warrants have been issued in
civil actions against delinquents. One
criminal action is now pending, and two
criminal actions have resulted in con-
victions. The largest group of cases in-
volved bankruptcies and reorganizations.

Proposed Changes The Connecti-
cut unemployment compensation advisory
council will propose eleven changes in
the state unemployment insurance law
for study by the 1939 general assembly.
Among them are: amendment of the def-
inition of "employment" to cover work-
ers who may work part time in another
state ; elimination of the confusion re-
garding the service of an independent
contractor; limitation of "agricultural
labor" to farm employes; giving the ad-
ministrator power to subpoena payroll
records; increasing the interest penalty
on delinquents; providing a criminal pen-
alty for employers who fail to file re-
turns.

Commissioner Melvin C. Haze of the
District of Columbia announces that he
will propose a bill to Congress providing
a flexible schedule of unemployment com-
pensation taxes for the District, subject



to adjustment by the commissioners whe
necessary, with a minimum rate of 01
percent and a maximum of 3 percent.

Record and Report Unemployme
Compensation in the United States, a 3'
page analysis and critique by Eveline
Burns, a member of the advisory counci
of the Social Security Board, appears
the last International Labour Revie;
dated May 1938. . . . The proceedings
the eleventh national conference on s
cial security, with a "census" of soci
security in the United States, are ava
able in book form from the Americ . i
Association for Social Security, 22 E
17 Street, New York. Price $2. The v.
ume is valuable not only for the factt
data brought together but also for f
analysis, criticism, and suggestions
sented.

Child Welfare

TTHE Michigan Child Guidance II
stitute is inviting interested perse
to criticize and offer suggestions il
revision of a form it is working out fi
rating communities on their facilities fi
delinquency prevention. (Copies free fn>
the institute, 103 Trick Building, A\
Arbor.) It is hoped ultimately to pi l
duce a simple rating form, which wi|
show communities just how they stail
in relation to those facilities and
fluences which are now more or less a
cepted as factors in preventing juven
delinquency.

Exceptional Children Special cla.i
es in public day schools have been est:
lished in forty-six states and have l<
rolled at least 300,000 children, accordi!
to data compiled in the U.S. Office
Education. Greater public interest a
more adequate financing are two esse-t
tials for continuing progress in spec
education, according to Katherine ]
Cook, chief of the division of spec j
problems, who spoke to the recent co i
ference on Education and The EXCJ
tional Child held under the auspices |
the child research clinic at the Woo
Schools, Langhorne, Pa.

Better Parents Not only nurseri.
to care for children but laboratories f?[
the training of parents are provided by
joint WPA-board of education nurse
school project in New York City. . 1
present fifteen experimental centers hajj
been opened, which handle each mon ]
around eight hundred children betwe if
the ages of two and four and have a loiij
waiting list. Although the centers ser
only families on home relief, it is es Jj
mated that there are about 100,000 ch:*|
dren in the city who could qualify, I
well as thousands of parents who wou|
profit by such an opportunity to obser j



292



proper methods of feeding, habit training
and other techniques of child raising. Be-
maintaining nursery centers, the
project sends trained teachers into homes
MM- parents and gives opportunity
I Miission and conference with par-
n individual needs of their children.
Dr. Benjamin Greenberg, assistant sup-
erintendent of schools, is in charge of the
project.

For a Modern Program - Child
re workers in New Jersey are
:ning a movement to bring about
understanding and more integrated
effort among the various child caring
agencies and institutions of the state.
I 'ruler the leadership of Judge Harry
V. ( )sborne of the Essex County juve-
nile court, president of Bonnie Brae
Farm, an educational institution for
;in all-day meeting was held in the
early summer to which came more than
a hundred persons representing family
welfare societies and children's agen-
:id institutions, public and private.
From this meeting is growing an or-
ganization which proposes to develop a
us state-wide program for chil-
dren in line with current trends and
needs, revamping existing work where
that is indicated, and directing resources
and energies into areas now relatively
^bcted.

far the organization calls itself
simply the New Jersey Child Caring
Group. Judge Osborne is serving as
temporary chairman until further meet-
* are held this fall and the program
takes definite form. A recent census
showed New Jersey institutions for
children with a bed capacity of 4214,
but with only 2725 children under care.

The Public's Health i

COOPERATIVE health associations
recently have formed an organiza-
tion of their own, The Association of
Medical Cooperatives, to promote volun-
tary health insurance, to provide a clear-
ing house of information on the subject
and to assist groups wanting to form
medical cooperatives. Offices are at 5
^7 Street, New York. Dr. Kingsley
Roberts is medical director and Martin
W. Brown, executive secretary.

The first issue of a new publication,
Cooperative Health, was brought out un-
der a July dateline as the official jour-
nal of the new association. The Bureau
of Cooperative Medicine at the same ad-
drc^, of which the new association is an
affiliate, has announced a weekly news
service giving "spot news" of develop-
ments in that field.

Utah's first cooperative health asso-
ciation is announced in San Juan County,
largest county in the state, population
3500, without a doctor until the new



YOU CAN BE SURE OF THE BEST

MERCUROCHROME, H.W. A D.

(Dibrom-oxymercuri-fluorescein-sodium)

After a thorough investigation of the evidence for and against at the
close of the last period of acceptance, the Council on Pharmacy and
Chemistry of the American Medical Association has again reaccepted
(1935)

MERCUROCHROME, H. W. & D.

Literature on Request

HYNSON WESTCOTT & DUNNING, INC

Baltimore, Md.




co-op was formed. A hundred families,
the initial membership, agree to pay $25
a year for all needed medical care, plus
a mileage fee to the doctor for home vis-



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