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The panel on financing public welfare
showed itself apprehensive and cautious,
with tacit admission that this was the
toughest nut of all, calling for the most
expert specialists in public finance and
taxation. The panel on public medical
care had no doubt about the need for
"more and better" or for resolving the
confusions that now exist in the area, but
ended on the biggest problem of all,
"where's the money coming from?"

The round table discussions, so over-
subscribed that many persons who had



not registered in advance were disap-
pointed at the door, dealt with in-service
training, "planned and not opportunistic
and for all the people on the job"; per-
sonnel procedures, merit system, job an-
alysis, state-county relationships; rela-
tionships between assistance and social
insurance with warning of the danger of
breakdown of the latter under pressure
from the former; interstate problems,
with realization that careful study should
precede efforts to change the laws.

Through all the conference ran a thread
of inquiry and analysis. Emphasis was on
the nature and quality of problems rath-
er than on large solutions; on the struc-
ture of public welfare administration
rather than on social service techniques.
Practically every discussion group agreed
that further study of its subject was an
immediate requirement and asked the
APWA to form a special committee to
pursue it.

This conference, realistic down to its
heels, fully supported the judgment of
the APWA when, only a year ago, it
adopted the discussion method for its an-
nual meeting. The only present cloud on
the horizon is the possibility that atten-
dance may grow so large as to handicap
full, free, participation. The APWA
says it does not want a conference mere-
ly big; it wants a close-in conference, so
organized that everyone, small fry and
big fish alike, has a chance, with only
kibitzers discouraged.

Old Age Insurance

IV/tORE than 36 million applications
for social security account numbers
had been received by the Social Security
Board by December 1. The receipt of
applications averaged nearly a million a
month between September 1 and Decem-
ber 1. The number of approved claims
for lump sum payments certified to the
U. S. Treasury reached 38,482 by No-
vember 30. The average payment for
November was $27.76. These payments
are being made to workers in covered
enployment who reached the age of six-
ty-five during the first year of the social
security program, and to the estates of
those who died.

As of December 15, a total of 324
field offices of the board were operating.

Delinquency The internal revenue
collector for northeastern Ohio and the
chief of the social security tax division
have announced that eight thousand busi-
ness firms in that area have not submit-
ted to the federal government the infor-
mation required under the security act.
As a result, the employes of these con-
cerns have not been receiving credits
toward old age insurance. The task of
gathering the eight thousand delinquent



20






reports was assigned to a special force
of sixty agents, directed to complete their
work by December 31. . . . The
Charleston, W. Va. Mail estimates that
in that state employer delinquency may
run as high as 30 percent of those sub-
ject to the levy. A drive is planned this
month to secure correct returns. Changes
in reporting methods, it is believed, will
make it easier for officials to check com-
pliance, and for employers to furnish the
required information.

Retirement Plan The Social Secu-
rity Board and the Civil Service Com-
mission are studying the need and cost of
a retirement plan for federal employes
not now covered by the social security
act, according to a White House an-
nouncement last month. The study was
requested by the President, "to see what
we can do to take care of these people
and particularly what it will cost."

Council Studies The Social Security
Advisory Council announced, at the con-
clusion of its second meeting, in early
December , that "any recommendation
from the . . . council . . . will await at
least another month of study." The coun-
cil has devoted most of its attention to
the old age benefit provisions of the
security act. At its first meeting the coun-
cil heard representatives of the Social
Security Board ; at its second, spokes-
men for outside interests.

The Public's Health

npHE largest single grant to research
* made by the Carnegie Corporation oi
New York, during the last fiscal year,
was for research in problems of dentistry.
From a total of $3,562,000 appropriated
for all purposes during the course of the
yr.-.r, $350,000 went to the dental school
of Harvard University to increase its fa-
cilities for research. Explaining the cor-
poration's present emphasis, Frederick
Keppel, president, said in his last annual
report: "The corporation may safely go
forward in confidence that there is no
sounder philanthropic investment than the
encouragement of research, always as-
suming it has the capacity to find and fol-
low good counsel as to individuals and
projects. . . ."



First Health officers were given first
attention in the follow-up on a program
fiamed a year ago by the U.S. Confer-
ence of Mayors, with the aim of improv-
ing qualifications all through the ranks of
municipal officeholders. Appointed at that
time was a national health officers' qual-
ifying board of public health authorities,
Dr. Joseph W. Mountin, U.S. Public
Health Service, chairman, to formulate
the minimum professional qualifications
of officers and commissioners of health



YOU CAN BE SURE OF THE BEST

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After a thorough Investigation of the evidence for and against at the
close of the last period of acceptance, the Council on Pharmacy and
Chemistry of the American Medical Association has again reaccepted
(1935)

MERCUROCHROME, H. W. & D.

Literature on Request

HYNSON WESTCOTT & DUNNING, INC

Baltimore, Md.

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Always avoid "acid indigestion"
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Keep a bottle of genuine
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in cities of the several grades. The report
has now been completed. Besides specify-
ing the background of education and ex-
perience which should be possessed by
health officers, the board offers to act as
"a voluntary nation-wide civil service
commission for cities," and to pass on the
qualifications of candidates who are "in
line" for jobs as health commissioners.
Details of the report may be secured from
the U.S. Conference of Mayors, 730
Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C.



In Prison A two-year survey of medi-
cal services in Illinois penal institutions,
by the Institute of Medicine of Chicago,
finds "a type of organization or lack of
organization suitable to a generation or
more ago," which "falls far short of the
requirements for the modern, aggressive
health service now regarded as essential
for large populations under similar con-
ditions." The only reported exception to
the generally unsatisfactory conditions is
the federal system of correctional insti-
tutions in the state.

The survey recommends taking insti-
tutional medical services out of local po-
litical hands and giving them responsible
professional direction. The federal sys-
In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

21



tern is adequate, the survey report ex-
plains, because: it is under the U. S.
Public Health Service; has installed a
"graded personnel, making the service
attractive as a professional career"; is
entirely independent of politics. Dr.
Franklin MacLean was chairman of the
institute's survey committee.

Health on Wheels Kentucky now
has two trailer clinics to provide dental
care for school children of the state.
Each is staffed with one dentist and an
assistant. The dental trailers go into
every rural community, drive up to the
schoolhouses, clean each child's teeth, and
give them thorough inspection and in-
struction on care of the teeth. . . . The
Utah State Board of Health, aided by so-
cial security funds, has launched a mobile
dental office. It contains a dental chair,
instruments, laboratories and all equip-
ment, housed in a trailer and staffed by
one dentist. In a state having four coun-
ties with no dentist, the trailer serves to
give dental care to needy children who
require it and is a means of dental edu-
cation. ... In Wisconsin, a twenty-three
foot trailer has been utilized for an edu-
cational exhibit on causes, prevention,



case finding and treatment of tubercu-
losis. Said to be the only one of its kind
in the country, this mobile exhibit con-
tains seventy-five feet of display sets.

International Plans for a world cam-
paign to improve physical fitness were
adopted by the League of Nations' health
committee at its recent twenty-sixth ses-
sion. National committees will be set up,
patterned on those formed by the league
for business and for housing and nutri-
tion. An international commission repre-
senting these committees will meet early
in 1938. The first item on the proposed
agenda is definition of the physiological
bases of rational physical education, by
age levels.

In Print A new handbook on records
has been issued by the National Organi-
zation for Public Health Nursing. En-
titled, Suggestions for Statistical Report-
ing and Cost Computation in Public
Health Nursing, the material includes
sections on the statistical report of public
health nursing services and on computing
the cost of a public health nurse's visit.
Definitions, instructions and tabulation
blanks are prepared to meet the require-
ments of the U.S. Public Health Service,
the Children's Bureau, and the American
Public Health Association appraisal
forms. The material on determining costs
of a nursing visit will be useful for study
by public health departments. Price 25
cents a copy from NOPHN, 50 West 50
Street, New York. . . . Case Records As
an Index of Public Health Nurses' Work
by Helen Bean and Emily Hankla de-
scribes methods of case recording for the
county health department nurse. Public
Health Reports, August 6, 1937. Price
25 cents from the superintendent of doc-
uments, Washington, D. C. . . . Nursing
and the Registered Nurse; Nursing and
How to Prepare for It; and Nursing, a
Profession for the College Graduate, are
new pamphlets of the National League
of Nursing Education and the NOPHN.
Price 10 cents for the first and 5 cents
each for the other two pamphlets, less in
quantity; from NOPHN (as above).

Syphilis Campaign

TV/IANY and diverse are the reverber-
ations of the current country-wide
campaign against syphilis. Perhaps the
primary gain is the spread of public
awareness both of its menace and of the
importance of treatment. On the tangible
side are new state laws requiring blood
tests for venereal diseases and certificates
of health from applicants for marriage
licenses. [See The Survey, November
1937, page 357.] Michigan has now
joined the states with "marriage hygiene"
laws. A real gain in public education is
the almost universal lifting of the one-



time ban on free public discussion of
syphilis though occasional exceptions
still arise. Support from the press, club-
women, private civic and social agencies,
as well as public health departments, has
so accelerated that the campaign has at-
tained the proportions of a popular cause.
Effects are showing statistically in a
greatly increased demand for blood tests
in city and state health department labor-
atories notably in Chicago, Illinois, New
York City and State, and Georgia, where
a campaign of popular education is going
on under state health department auspices.
Total marriages are showing a marked
decrease in states having new laws against
hasty marriage and requiring blood tests.
In the case of New York which recently
passed a law requiring a 72-hour waiting
period between license and ceremony, the
decline is attributed to the fact that sur-
rounding states of Connecticut, New Jer-
sey, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Massachu-
setts previously have had some sort of
statutory provision against hasty mar-
riages. Before the new law, about 34 per-
cent of the upstate New York marriages
were from out of the state.

In the course of the vigorous campaign
of the Chicago Board of Health, Dr.
Herman Bundesen, directing the cam-
paign, received blackhand threats after
placarding and quarantining for gonor-
rhea a vice resort.

Both wise precautions and some unjus-
tified fears have arisen in regard to em-
ployment of syphilitics who are under
treatment. [See a forthcoming article in
The Survey, Are You Afraid of Syphi-
lis? by Ruth Ellen Lindenberg.] In North
Carolina an old law has been invoked
which requires all domestic servants to be
examined for syphilis and other commu-
nicable diseases. Jail sentences can be en-
forced against any who fail to comply
with laws requiring treatment. A labor
union affiliated with CIO recently threat-
ened to strike rather than sign an other-
wise beneficent contract which gave the
employer the right to discharge workers
makers of children's toys "suffering
from venereal diseases or diabetes."

On the matter of testing, U.S. Surgeon
General Parran said: "Assuredly sound
policy suggests Wasserman testing, and it
would be relatively simple to put into
practice for all applicants for positions in
the public service. In my opinion, how-
ever, we should not make the mistake of
limiting blood tests to the policemen and
the postmen, the messengers and the jun-
ior clerks. Police commissioners and post-
masters, and the heads of departments
and major executives all should go
through the same mill. Partly for the sake
of being a good example, of course. Ma-
jor executives, both in public and private
business, include a large proportion of
men past middle life whose infectious
syphilis is several years behind them. But



as a matter of fact and not of face-sav
ing, there is enough late and latent syphi
lis among the whole group, many o
whom think themselves free of it by now
to make finding it a great personal booi
to the individual concerned."

Clubwomen in New Jersey, officials ii
Chicago, and others in the public ey<
have submitted voluntarily and publicly ti
blood tests for syphilis, as examples am
"to bring the campaign against syphili
out in the open." A delegation of studen
editors at the Intercollegiate Newspape
Association recently adopted a resolutioi
for cooperation against syphilis betwee
student publications and medical an
health authorities.

Numerous abuses by individuals an
private groups seeking to capitalize th
present public interest in the campaig
have been reported. (See the Journal o
the American Medical Association, Octo
her 2, 1937, page 47B.) Most of these oi
fer sensational sex material under th
guise of education and with the aim o
private profit.

Heading up the whole nation's effort
for abolition of venereal diseases and fo
better marriage hygiene will be the sec
ond Social Hygiene Day, set for Febri
ary 2 by the American Social Hygiene As
sociation. With this year's slogan, "Stam
out syphilis, foe of youth," the associz
tion hopes for a response even greate
than the flood of interest stimulated la:
year by the initial observance of the da;

New Resources Big news in the wa
against syphilis in North' Carolina is th
allotment of the entire income from th
$7 million Zachary Smith Reynolds Four
dation memorial fund to the campaig
within the state. A first check for $100
000 has been presented to the state Boar
of Health, to add to other 1938 funds fc
the purpose. State health officers say th;
this is the largest single donation eve
made for disease prevention in Norl
Carolina. The state has been fightir
syphilis since 1919, under the direction <
the state Board of Health, Dr. Carl >
Reynolds, director.

Sizing Up the Problem Illinois an
Chicago health authorities, cooperatir
with the U.S. Public Health Service, ai
working to discover the extent of tl
syphilis problem in Chicago. Every clin
in the city and 99.6 percent of the privai
physicians supplied data from a total (
19,000 case records of patients who wei
under authorized medical care during tl
period March 1-June 30, 1937. The dat
completely anonymous, of course, fu
nished information both as to quantii
of cases and treatment factors.

Among important findings were tl
facts that: 10,638 patients with syphil
were constantly under care in Chicag



22



SURVEY MIDMONTHL



O;I:.L> during the period studied; preva-
lence rate in the clinics is 33 per 10,000
of population tor whites, eight and a half
times that rate for Negroes ; clinic cases
include 74 percent of the total being
treated; of those under treatment, 85
percent had delayed seeking care until
the disease had passed its early stages
and 60 to 80 percent seeking treatment
in the late stage had had no prior treat-
ment. Only about half of those who du
seek such medical care, it was discovered,
remain until they have completed the
minimum required course of treatment.
It was estimated also that about 45,000
individuals are in need of clinic care for
syphilis as against the 10,000 or so who
are receiving it. A measurable increase
during the survey period, in the number
seeking early treatment for the disease
from private physicians, is interpreted as
the effect of the Chicago syphilis control
campaign on the middle economic group.
There was no similar increase in the
clinic group.

Chests and Councils

/CONTRIBUTIONS to community
chests for 1938, incomplete returns
from the fall campaigns indicate, will
show a gain of around 3 percent over
1937. If these figures, reported to Com-
munity Chests and Councils, Inc., by 285
out of the total of 464 member chests,
may be considered indicative, chests are
climbing steadily back to the pre-depres-
sion level of giving. Comparable figures
show, however, that the present level
of giving still is about 7 percent below
that of 1929. With $59,882,317 now re-
ported, it is anticipated that complete
returns will bring the total for 1938 con-
tributions to community chests, country-
wide, to around $83 million. It may or
may not be significant that the 3 percent
gain indicated for 1938 funds is paral-
leled by a similar gain made in 1929 in
the face of falling business indices.

This indicated gain in total funds still
leaves many goals unmet, as chests gen-
erally aimed considerably higher than last
year. Those which have reported have
averaged 94 percent of their goals. Nota-
bly successful campaigns so far reported
include: Houston, Tex., which made a 29
percent increase over last year; Balti-
more, Birmingham, New Orleans, Nash-
ville, Charlotte, Columbus, and Dayton,
Ohio, Denver, Pittsburgh, Peoria and
Bloomington, 111., Roanoke, Duluth,
Fort Wayne, Ind., Montreal (Protestant
Financial Federation), Davenport, la.,
Little Rock, Ark., and Portland, Ore.
Cities which made marked increases but
did not reach their goals are: Detroit,
Oklahoma City, Syracuse, Washington,
D.C., Akron, Grand Rapids, Milwau-
kee, Stamford, Conn., Tacoma and Van-
couver, B.C.



Many cities campaigned under the slo-
gan, "Be a Good Neighbor," using the
national poster on that theme. Minne-
apolis centered its appeal around the
picture of a smiling boy who said,
"Thanks for the break." New Orleans
presented facts about human needs with
the carrying line, "You can't close your
eyes." "Sunshine or Shadow," for dis-
tressed Scranton, Pa. families was dram-
atized to emphasize the initials SOS.

Citizens to Speak Representatives
of the National Citizen's Committee of
the Community Mobilization for Human
Needs will testify before the Senate
Committee on Relief, Senator Byrnes of
South Carolina, chairman, during pub-
lic hearings at Washington this month.
A special committee of the mobilization,
Charles P. Taft, chairman, has formu-
lated a platform which will be presented,
calling specifically for:

Federal appropriations to the states on
a grant-in-aid basis, for a general relief
program including work relief; state
apportionments to local committees to be
made on any basis compatible with re-
lief needs; interstate transients to be
provided for by federal grants adminis-
tered by the states.

Standards set by the federal govern-
ment looking toward a unified adminis-
tration, within each state and city, of
all public assistance and relief programs
in which the federal government has a
financial interest.

A national commission, working in
conjunction with the present committees
of Congress to draft a long term pro-
gram for relief, security, public welfare.

Professional

C OCIAL security programs swinging
into action all over the country are
putting new strains on the resources of
schools of social work, according to a re-
port in Public Welfare News by Eliza-
beth Wisner, president of the American
Association of Schools of Social Work.
As in the days when emergency relief
programs were mushrooming, the schools
find their services at a premium and their
budgets, curricula and professional stand-
ards hard pressed. During 1935-36 over
10,000 students were enrolled in the as-
sociation's thirty-two member schools. An
increasing number of universities are
now organizing curricula in social work.
While expansion of existing facilities is
indicated, Miss Wisner believes that so-
cial work education should be offered at
the graduate level, and that the schools
should "find themselves educating the
majority of their students for a career
service in government and should orga-
nize their courses and field work prac-
tice so that these students will be pre-
pared for civil service examinations."



She puts up to the schools the problem
of helping states devise some sort of in-
service training for the large number of
workers now being inducted into state
social services without benefit of special
training.

Red Gross Counts Noses A table
recording growth of the American Red
Cross over thirty-three years, to June
1937, showed at last count a total of
4,904,316 adult members and 8,577,198
juniors in 3711 chapters. In 1905 the to-
tal membership was 3337, enrolled in
eighteen chapters and local committees.
The high point of enrollment was reached
in post-war 1919, when there were 20,-
660,163 adults and eleven million juniors,
in 3700 chapters. A subsequent decline to
around twelve and a half million mem-
bers all told in 1923, turned to growth
again about 1928 with marked develop-
ment since 1935.

News Notes Jane Addams House,
operated by the New Jersey College for
Women as a laboratory for its sociology
department, has just completed its first
year. It has given fifty-three sociology
majors their first taste of practicing so-
cial work and has supplied new recrea-
tional interests for two hundred boys and
girls of the community of New Bruns-
wick, N. J. Eleanor J. Flynn, assistant
professor of sociology, directs the house
with the college departments of home
economics, physical education, music and
library science advising.

The National Recreation Association
dedicated the entire December 1937 issue
of its publication, Recreation, to memor-
ial materials honoring the late Joseph
Lee. (From the association, 315 Fourth
Avenue, New York.)

The employment service which the New
York COS and Riverside Church have
been conducting jointly for six years, at
the offices of the New York State Em-
ployment Service, has moved to quarters
of its own at 289 Fourth Avenue under
the name, Kennedy Employment Service.
State cooperation has been withdrawn
on account of heavy responsibilities
incident to the administration of un-
employment compensation. Emily Strauss
continues in charge of the office which
serves people known to the COS and to



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