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safe-cracking for chicken farming only to
find that he was too late; the Black Man
who conducted automobile thefts upon
an international scale and whose arrest
caused a drop of 15 percent in insurance
rates; vicious Ma Barker; Lady Mac-
beth in modern dress, the wife of Ma-
chine Gun Kelly; and the fabulous
Gaston Means whose adventures even in-
cluded service as an agent of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation in the slipshod
days before Mr. Hoover was director.

The casual reader will find these stor-
ies entertaining, but the student will be
annoyed by homilies based upon an ata-
vistic criminology. Social scientists, who
do not think of the criminal in terms of
the Lombrosian myth and who would in-
dividualize his treatment rather than fit-
ting the punishment to the crime in the
classical manner, are derided as: "senti-
mental moo-cows of scant knowledge but
loud voices who are forever interfering
with businesslike law enforcement by
their turn-the-other-cheek theories of
crime eradication." Mr. Hoover believes
that the criminal should be regarded
with utter revulsion; that his descent is
self-willed.

Despite the fact that only seven out of
every thousand persons arrested and re-
ported to the Federal Bureau of Inves-
tigation were on parole at the time of
arrest, parole is defined as "turning loose
the human mad dog." Although a few
lines of praise are given to the federal
parole system, the book will increase
popular prejudice and retard enlighten-
ment on methods for social reassimilation
of the convict. Mr. Hoover excuses
slums from any major responsibility for
In answering advertisements please mention SUBVEY MIDMONTHLV

303



crime because some big criminals have
come from small towns, and because our
crime rate exceeds that of other coun-
tries which have slums as bad as ours.
He hints that the true cause of crime is
not the manner in which people live, but
the viewpoint which leads them to believe
they can change their mode of living by
dishonest means and get away with it.

He is more convincing when he at-
tacks the association of crime with poli-
tics, "the renegade attorney who more
than any other agency has made it pos-
sible for law infraction to gain a stran-
glehold upon America"; the doctor who
ministers to gangs; insurance men who
suborn a felony by the purchase of stolen
articles; dishonest bankers who acquire
stolen property to cover their own specu-
lations; and, in the background, the
overindulgent parent and apathetic citi-
zen. JAMES HARCAN
Former psychologist, Sing Sing Prison
Ossining, N. Y.

Profit or Loss

PROFIT SHARING FOR WAGE EARNERS.

by C. Canby Baldcrston. Industrial Relations
Counselors, Inc. 156 pp. Price $2 postpaid of
Sttn-ty Midmcnthly.

DROFIT sharing has been offered time
and again as a panacea for industrial
ills. As Professor Balderston suggests,
its proponents have often been filled with
missionary zeal. Whether because of a
sincere belief that employes should bene-
fit with owners in time of profitable bus-
iness, a hope that profit sharing might
allay or prevent labor troubles, or a
feeling that the company might better
give some of its profits to its employes
than to the government in undistributed
profits tax, the idea of profit sharing has
gained considerable impetus recently.

This book not only summarizes well
the experience with profit sharing in the
United States and Great Britain, but it



also weighs the fundamental problems
involved. The appendices containing a
detailed description of three plans and a
summary analysis of provisions of Amer-
ican and British plans are useful for ref-
erence. The discussions of the need for
a clear understanding of aims and poli-
cies are recommended to anyone study-
ing the subject and particularly to any
executive thinking of establishing a profit
sharing plan in his company. Perhaps,
after reading this, he will decide against
such a plan. At least he will know some
of the objectives that cannot be gained
through profit sharing and will study a
little more carefully the particular type
of plan to be tried.

The author divides profit sharing plans
into "immediate distribution" and "pro-
tective" types. The former provides for
the distribution of cash bonuses, the lat-
ter is designed to enhance the employes'
financial security. The conclusions defi-
nitely favor the latter type and reflect
the trend towards considering private in-
dustrial plans for employe security as
important supplements to compulsory
governmental programs. HELEN BAKER
Industrial Relations Section
Princeton University

A Liberal and His "Causes"

RELIGION AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS, edited
by H. F. Rail. Macmillan. 240 pp. Price $'2
postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.



are those individuals who are
possessed by important principles.
This book is an attempt to find a man
by looking among the causes in which he
has lost himself. The man is Francis J.
McConnell, twenty-five years a Metho-
dist bishop and an embodiment of Ameri-
can liberal traditions. Seven principles
which claim the allegiance of Bishop Mc-
Connell are discussed.

The first and best treatment deals
with a principle of which Woodrow
Wilson said: "The fortunes of mankind
are now in the hands of the plain people;
satisfy them and you have not only justi-
fied their confidence, but established
peace." Heber Blankenhorn of the
NLRB describes the 1920 McConnell-
led steel study, which revealed conditions
which the government now is recogniz-
ing with tardy amazement in the La
Follette civil liberties committee findings.
It is a story scientifically and thrillingly
told. Other chapters deal less effective-
ly with the desperately vital principles in-
volved in human freedom, human secur-
ity and human relations. A philosophical
chapter is academically sound but gummy
compared with the ideas Bishop McCon-
nell himself syndicated week by week in
his column. George A. Coe has a cork-
ing chapter on the significance of public
opinion to the plain people.

It is a pity that Franklin Rail (who
begins the book with a fine essay on the
life of Bishop McConnell) closes with a



chapter on religion and social change,
without any reference to the genius of
McConnell. Had the editor made this
reference he would have achieved more
coherence in the volume. Moreover, had
this excellent theologian really analyzed
McConnell's concepts of social change he
might have been forced to refer also to
Maclver, Ogburn, Young, Lynd, per-
haps some anthropologists and certainly
some economists. Every reader will give
three cheers for Bishop McConnell if the
study of his social ideas compels theolo-
gians to sweat over the social sciences.
New York EVERETT R. CLINCHY

Crucial Questions

HOW YOU CAN GET A JOB, by Glenn L. Gar-
diner. Harper. 226 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of
Survey Midmonthly.

l-JOW can I get a job? If the answer,
sought by so many, were to be
found in books alone, I am sure that this
one would do the trick. Of the numerous
volumes on this topic published during
the past decade which I have examined,
this seems to me one of the best.

In each of ten chapters the author at-
tempts to answer a number of questions.
There are in fact 213 specific questions
from which the following four have been
picked at random: "How should I de-
scribe my experience record?"; "How
should I follow up my letter of applica-
tion?"; "How may I benefit by an em-
ployment interview even though I do not
get the job?"; "How can new prospects
for my services be uncovered?" The au-
thor's approach is straightforward, not
"preachy"; the answers to questions
usually have grown out of his practical
experience. They are direct and different.
This volume should be in the hands
not only of youth between the ages of
seventeen and twenty-five, but also of
those over forty who are faced with the
problem of seeking employment. It
would provide them with some of the
necessary techniques of selling them-
selves. It is an essential for the book-
shelf of vocational counselors, placement
interviewers, and social case workers.

ROY N. ANDERSON
Teachers College, Columbia University

Hardy Perennial

PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY, by Edward
Alsworth Ross. Appleton-Century. 728 pp. Price
$4 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

*TpHE third revision of Professor Ross's
widely used textbook is an improve-
ment both in format and phrasing, al-
though the author long has been justly
distinguished for the vigor and facility
of his style. The general organization
remains much the same, but Part XI now
consists of two entirely new chapters,
Foreshadowing of the Next Culture, and
Retrospects and Prospects, in place of the
old somewhat dubious five "sociological
principles" which have been incorporated
into the conceptual organization where
they belong. The discussion of Conflict



and Adaptation, to which has been adde(
a chapter on war, is one of the best brie
discussions of social conflict in sociologi
cal literature.

There are some points which are con
troversial, such as the author's apparen
faith in eugenics, the idea of folk-deple
tion, the handicapping of the "only child,'
but most American sociologists probabl;
would agree that Professor Ross has giv
en a fair and balanced presentation o
the current content of sociology, even
though they might prefer a different ter
minology. Some may feel that the chart
and statistics in Part I should have beer
based more largely on the 1930 census
but the author may be contemplating an
other revision after the 1940 census. Ir
any case, the data from the earlier cen
suses are just as useful for his purposes

Most sociologists would agree heartil
with the prefatory statement that anj
long time forecast of the future of soci
ety is impossible, that the immediate out
look is discouraging because of "super
heated nationalism," and that there ha;
been tremendous improvement in the in
ternal conditions of most countries dur
ing the last half century. The authoi
thinks sociology "bids fair to end th<
'panacea' cult."

This is probably as satisfactory an in-
troduction to sociology as we have, ano<
the most interesting. It could be reac
profitably by all educated adults who as-
pire to social intelligence. READ BAII-
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

Run of Shelves

LABOR PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN INN
DUSTRY, by Carroll R. Daugherty. Houghtoi
Mifflin. 984 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of Sxr
fey Midmonthly.

THE fourth edition of this notable text'
book includes new material on employers
anti-union tactics, industrial unionism
the CIO movement, sit-down strikes, thd
organization of the unemployed, and
the present part of government in indus-
trial relations. The author, professor o)>
economics at the University of Pitts-
burgh, has also added an analysis of tht
social security act and the national laboi
relations act, and a chapter on problems
of industrial autocracy.

THE NEGRO'S STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL
by S. J. Holmes. University of California Press
296 pp. Price $3 postpaid of Survey Midmonthly

SUBTITLED "a study in human ecology,'
this is a careful analysis from a broad
biological point of view, of the Negro s
physical survival in the face of the admit-
ted handicaps of higher mortality rates'!
of both chronic and epidemic disease. The
author concludes that gradual immunity
is being established, which if combined
with improved socio-economic status, may
increase the population ratio of the N
gro. From that situation, itself a favor-f,
able eugenic demonstration of improved
adaptability combined with inherent vi-
tality, the author anticipates an increase^
in racial tension. A. L.



304



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.

Publication and Editorial Office:
l\7. Ear 19 Street New York, N. Y.



SLR\I.\ MIDMONTHLY Monthly *J a year

SfRVEY GRAPHIC Monthly *3 a year

SUBSCRIPTION TO BOTH 55 a year.

JULIAN W. MACK, chairman of the Board;
RICHARD B. SCANDRETT, JR., president; JOSEPH P.
CHAMBERLAIN. Jons- PALMER GAVIT, vice-presi-
dents; ANN REED BRENNER, secretary.

PAUL KELLOGC, editor.

BEULAH AUIDON, ANN REED BRENNER, JOHN
PALMER GAVIT. FLORENCE LOEB KELLOGG, LOU-
LA D. LASKER, GERTRUDE SPRINGER, VICTOR WEY-
BRICIIT. LFOX WHIPPLE, associate editors; HELEN
CHAMBERLAIN, assistant editor

EDWARD T. DEVINE. HAVEN KUEKSON, M.I),
Ross. JOANNA C. COLCORD, RUSSELL H.
HHKN CODY BAKER, contributing editors.

WALTER F. GRI F.VINCER, business manager;
MOLLIE CONDON, circulation manager; MARY R.
ANDERSON, advertising manager.



OCTOBER 1938



CONTENTS



VOL. LXXIV No. 10



Graham Taylor FRONTISPIECE 306

Social Work at the Grass Roots 307

An Open Letter to Miss Bailey

Rural Social Workers Do Everything JOSEPHINE STRODE 308

In-Service Training for Public Welfare

I The Whys and Whats JOSEPHINE c. BROWN 310

Institution Libraries in Minnesota LOUIS TOWLEY 311

The Fat Is in the Fire ARTHUR EVANS WOOD 313

Ohio and Old Age Assistance BEULAH AMIDON 315

Placement for Social Workers ARTHUR DUNHAM 317

The Common Welfare 318

The Social Front 321

Aid to the Aged Jobs and Workers Relief and WPA
Compensation Schools and Education Sickness Insur-
ance The Public's Health Among the Hospitals
People and Things

Readers Write 329

Book Reviews 330

The Pamphlet Shelf 336

O Survey Associates. Inc.



_rcss is made by explosive moments
A \\ VXN WILLIAMS, Manchester Guardian.

trouble with local government is that
itn't local. MURRAY SEASON-GOOD, jurntfr

of Cincinnati.



U hy
\uiu- s



I think the sufficient antidote to intcllec-

idc is analysis. P. \V. BRIDGEMAN in
\e Intelligent Individual and Society.

One can hardly blame a bewildered voter
who docs not know the difference between a
ihort cut to 1'iopia and the more abundant
life. \eu> York Times.

tYou can have excessive armaments or you
can have social progress, but in the long run
you cannot have both. JOHN C. \ViN\.\r.
r, International Labor Organization.

fools are endowed by nature with
much louder than sensible folks
s a my.-tery. It is a fact emphasized
ut history. ARTHUR E. HERTZLER.
M.D.. in The Hurst and Buggy Doctor.

1 here is no peace except as it is based on
'the will and the final relinquishment of the in-
tention of one state to destroy another, either
.enting internal revolution or by con-
quest. DOROTHY THOMPSON. AVer York Her-
aU Tribune.

If it is true that one third of the people
:annot get proper medical and pharmaceutical
.are, the answer is not to abolish the practice

f medicine and pharmacy but to abolish
werty. DR. WILLIAM J. CARRINGTON, presi-
tent, Medical Society of New Jersey.



So They Say



Fancy me and you.
And Harriet and Hugh.

All these years, boys, and Lord, we never
knew

We was all life-members of the Proletariat.

The Proly-oly-roly-poly-proly-tari-at!
A. P. HERBERT, English author and member
of Parliament.

In spite of the risk of injury to the insti-
tution, the objections to restraint upon what
professors may say as citizens seem to me far
greater than the harm done by leaving them
free. A. LAWRENCE LOWELL, president emeri-
tus, Harvard University, in What a University
President Has Learned.



It simply will not do for us to rest content
with achieving gains in our own particular
field of social interest. What will they avail
us when our most conspicuous performances
are sabotaged by other factors in the social
order quite beyond our ability to control?
RABBI IRVING F. REICHERT to California Con-
ference of Social Work.

The furtherance of human freedom requires
more in our time than the prevention of offi-
cial tyranny. The problem of today it to
meet the threat of freedom that comes from
another source from poverty and insecurity,
from sickness and the slum, from social and
economic conditions in which human beings
cannot be free. U.S. SENATOR ROBERT F.
WV..NER, New York.



I am in favor of making this a perfect
world. CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT, New York.

Doing nothing is not a very exciting policy
in times like these. HARRY L. HOPKINS, If PA
administrator.

Character, like charity, begins at home.
It cannot be instilled by daily teaspoonfuls of
education. RICHARD FECHHEIMER in Hygeia.

The transient of today is the product ol
an American heritage and an American ne-
glect. CONGRESSMAN H. JERRY VOORHIS, Cali-
fornia.

Overalls have for years been less popular
than tweeds in spite of the fact that Uncle
Sam wears them. PAUL H. LANDIS, State
College of Washington.

Price is the method by which goods move
from production toward need. It is, so far
as I can see, the only reason why price has
any importance at all. A. A. BERLE, JR., to
the National Economic Committee.

I have often wondered why social workers
spend so much time and effort learning to
talk so that no one but another social worker
can understand them. RALPH E. JENNEY in
presidential address to the California Confer-
ence of Social Work.

The school can teach the child to read and
write, but it cannot isolate him from such
powerful agencies as the home, the movies, the
newspaper, the radio and the boy next door.
ROBERT M. HUTCHINS, president, University
of Chicago, in Saturday Evening Post.




GRAHAM TAYLOR

May 2, 1851 September 26, 1938



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



OCTOBER 1938




VOL. LXXIV NO. 10



Social Work at the Grass Roots



"/"\UT in the country in the county
r seats and villages and crossroads
that's where things are happening in so-
cial work, where it's being hammered
into forms as indigenous as buffalo grass
in Kansas."

Josephine Strode, dropping into the
Survey office one hot summer morning,
knew all about Kansas and its buffalo
grass. She had spent the depression years
helping plant modern social work prac-
m the windblown soil of the dust
bowl. Now, with a brand new M.A. from
Northwestern University tucked into her
brief case, or wherever one keeps degrees,
she was back on what she admitted was
1 her favorite subject.

The editors of Survey Midmonthly
did not need to be convinced of the im-
i pact of rural needs on modern social
j work. They knew that down at the grass
roots in every state in the union a new
application of accumulated experience,
>rinciples and practices is under way.
They knew too that social workers every-
where sense in the unfolding situation an
outstanding challenge to their philosophy
md techniques. Last year the editors,
lided and abetted by the American Public
Velfare Association, sent out one of their
lumber to observe just what was hap-
xning in the highways and byways at
hat crucial point where benefit meets
jeneficiary, the real test of the efficacy
if all our striving toward security for the
ndividual. The result of those observa-
ions were published in a series of ar-
icles, Miss Bailey Says. . . .
Meantime the editors were "spearing
round" for material of direct service to
he growing number of extraordinarily
ager workers in the rural field. Material
vi$ not easy to find. Workers were some-
what inarticulate, their problems not
vholly clarified, their practices not wholly
tdjusted to the realities of their setting.
But," we asked Miss Strode, "what
lo rural workers actually do that is
lifferrnt?"

That was enough. "Do? Do? They do
verything and most of it without benefit



of anything but their own integrity and
ingenuity." And reaching into a plump
brief case she brought out a sheaf of
paper which looked like a questionnaire
but was in reality a list, pages long, of
"duties" that county social workers may
and frequently are, called upon to per-
form. "It isn't what they do that worries
them," she insisted, "but how to do it
better."

AT THIS POINT THE EDITORIAL INSTINCT

asserted itself and presently Miss Strode
had agreed to write an article which
would pose the problems of rural work-
ers, and the methods by which, more or
less isolated as they are from the pro-
fessional associations enjoyed by their
urban colleagues, they are endeavoring to
raise the level of their work. Then, to
our surprise, she dived again into her
brief case and came up with a manuscript
which, a fortnight later, was to blow a
good lively Kansas breeze into the Na-
tional Conference of Social Work. Asked
to contribute something on publicity in
rural areas, workers in thirty-nine west-
ern Kansas counties had pooled their
experience and observation, had prevailed
on Miss Strode to ghostwrite a paper for
them and had appointed Helen Maxwell
of Grant County to present it at a session
of the Social Work Publicity Council.

We didn't need to wait for the con-
ference to know that this paper was "Sur-
vey stuff." Promptly and firmly we pinned
it down for future publication and went
on from there. What about the education
of workers on the rural jobs? What
about group relationships in country dis-
tricts? Miss Strode, out of her experi-
ence, her knowledge of the realities of
rural work and the ambitions and aspira-
tions of the workers, had answers, not
always final as she was quick to point out,
but answers indicating the forces that so-
cial workers themselves are exerting to
nourish a native growth at the grass roots.

The upshot of that summer morning
confab was a scheme for a series of ar-
ticles to run in Survey Midmonthly on



the process and problems of social work
where the county is the unit of adminis-
tration and practice runs out over the
back roads to the villages and remote
farms. The backbone of the series will be
a number of articles by Miss Strode, their
content already suggested in this over-
long foreword. Her present article, cast
as a letter to Miss Bailey, The Survey's
itinerant observer of the social work
scene, sets the stage for those to follow.
First of these will be Publicity by Way
of the Barn Door, drawn from the paper
which Miss Strode "ghostwrote" for the
Kansas workers to send to Seattle.
These scheduled articles will deal with
the realities and humors of the day-to-
day job and the practical methods that
are growing out of experience. Along with
them and supplementing them will be
articles by other authors we call them
"backlog articles" which will delineate
the applicability of fundamental social
work philosophies, techniques and aspira-
tions to practice in the rural field. Such
for example are two articles on the much
discussed subject of in-service training by
Josephine Brown, once field secretary of
the Family Welfare Association of Amer-
ica, but associated since their inception
with the FERA and WPA. The first of
Miss Brown's articles will be found in
this issue ; the second, in November.

FINALLY THE EDITORS OF Survey Mid-
monthly have a scheme, not yet fully
fledged, to bring into their pages more
and more live material from workers
themselves, material hot from the forge
so to speak. More about that next month.
This then is Survey MiJmonthly's
special project for the months ahead: to
examine, evaluate and pass on to its read-
ers the new adaptations of social work
practice that are being evolved by social
workers themselves in the county welfare
offices up and down the country. These
offices are today's laboratory of social
work methods from which will come the
shape of future social work practice in
a great sector of American life.



307



AN OPEN LETTER TO MISS BAILEY

Rural Social Workers Do Everything



By JOSEPHINE STRODE



DEAR Miss BAILEY: It's open season, now, on the range.
The quail fly in coveys over the sagebrush and, for a brief
time, the cans of surplus beef rest on the commodity shelves
gathering dust.

While the cans rest, and my '28 jalopy cools its axles
behind the relief office, I thought I'd write you an open
letter which would give me license to take a few shots on
behalf of rural social work.

Ever since 1933, when we set up our first orange crate
to file instructions from the higher-ups, we rural workers
have been listening to city social workers tell us how to do,
and lately some of us have been wondering if they mightn't
like to hear what we do!

Of course, you understand, we're not big game hunters
in the field of social work theory, but we figure we've
bagged some pretty good ways of doing things, just from
having to do them.

It's funny, but when most people think about rural prob-
lems they usually think of land, crops and cattle. Millions
are spent every year to conserve material rural resources,
but how we crowd every dollar that's spent to save human
resources! Folks don't seem to realize that rural people
count up to almost half the population of our country, and



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