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years national director of public health
nursing and home hygiene for the Ameri-
can Red Cross, in Boston early in Sep-
tember. Burial took place with national
honors in Arlington Cemetery, Wash-
ington.

DR. LEROY W. HUBBARD, surgeon-general
of the Warm Springs Foundation, Geor-
gia until 1931 and later director of its
extension work. Dr. Hubbard formerly
was connected with the New York State
Department of Health.



328



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



Readers Write



. . . and never will be."

To THE EDITOR: I hereby voice my ob-
jection to the article, Marriage Insured
Against Syphilis by Edward A. Macy.
[See Survey Midmonthly, August 1938J.

I object for one reason: It is a lie out
of whole cloth. Marriage is not and never
will be insured against syphilis because:

First: Nothing in this world will pre-
vent a man and woman from having
sexual relations before they are married
and therefore u-ithout the blood test if
they so desire.

Second: Nothing under the blue vault
of heaven will prevent a man who is
certified free from syphilis at the altar
from going out a month later and con-
ti acting it from someone who has it and
infecting his wife.

How anyone can be so childish as not
to know these two simple facts is beyond
my comprehension.
Jackson, Mich. ANNE SMITH

Professional Objectives

To THE EDITOR: I was much disturbed
to find that the leading article in the
August number of Survey Midmonthly
[Security in Social Work by John A.
Fitch] confirms views which occasionally
are made public to the effect that social
workers are chiefly interested to have
public relief and organized social security
extended because their positions and per-
sonal incomes are thereby made more
secure. Mr. Fitch states as the first kind
of security in which a social worker is
interested is that for himself and his
dependents. I believe that such views are
unfair to social workers and very damag-
ing to the whole social work movement
to which Survey Midmonthly has hereto-
fore made a notable contribution. It may
quite well be that the conditions and
spirit of social work in New York are
quite different from those elsewhere.

Since retiring from the University of
Chicago, I have had two young social
workers as members of my household.
As \vith added experience and training
they have moved on to positions of great-
er responsibility and influence, my house-
hold has frequently changed and I have
had a chance to know well about fifty
such social workers. Without an excep-
tion they have taken as their objective,
success in removing their clients from
the public relief rolls, in restoring health,
in finding employment, in caring for the
feeble and neglected, and in doing such
effective work in lessening distress that
the community's financial load will be
lightened. I believe with them that they
are more likely to win the economic se-
curity for which Mr. Fitch pleads by

OCTOBER 1938



doing efficient work than by seeking eco-
nomic security and letting efficiency trail.
I believe it is the only way by which pub-
lic financial support and sympathy can
be secured.

I find, too, that they greatly prefer to
be classed as belonging to a profession
rather than to a trade, a view which I
had supposed Survey Midmonthly also
held. Alliance with the trade union move-
ment will, I fear, greatly lessen the
esteem and good will of the public. There
are many much better ways of advancing
the welfare of social workers. I believe
that some of the forces now at work
may result in a debacle like that pend-
ing in the American Medical Association,
and that it behooves the wiser, more so-
cially and forward-minded workers in the
profession to oppose these forces with the
utmost vigor and to devise new and effec-
tive and reputable methods of counter-
acting the evils Mr. Fitch sees.

In making this comment, I must add
that I believe thoroughly in economic
security for social workers even though
I am convinced that the majority do not
make it their first objective. I must add,
too, my hope that I shall not lose faith
in Survey Midmonthly, the opportunity
of which seems greater than ever at this
critical time in our social history.
Chicago MARION TALBOT

To THE EDITOR: I do not hold the views
attributed to me in Miss Talbot's letter,
and it is incomprehensible to me that any-
one could so interpret what I wrote. I
agree with what she says about the high
ideals of social workers. Her statement
holds good for members of the profession
everywhere, as I know them. When I put
economic security first in my article I
did so for reasons of literary construction
only. Two other objectives were men-
tioned in the article, and I wonder if Miss
Talbot overlooked them. These were pro-
fessional security, which includes all the
ideals to which she refers, and social
security, a term which I used to include
tolerance, free discussion, free press, free-
dom of assembly democracy. I put this
last in my discussion but if I were to rate
its importance I should put it first, for
two reasons: because without it no social
work, under however exalted ideals, has
any substantial or enduring basis; and
because it is now the object of assault in
many parts of the world including some
areas of our own country.

I differ with Miss Talbot at two points :
her assertion that efficiency alone will
bring economic security; and her sugges-
tion that it is not quite reputable for so-
cial workers to associate with trade
unionists. The former is contradicted by



the figures published in my article. As to
the latter, it seems to me that class con-
scious aloofness from the struggles of
organized labor is much more likely to
prove a menace to high ideals in social
work than is the newly acquired con-
sciousness on the part of social workers
that the maxim, "the laborer is worthy
of his hire," applies also to themselves.
New York JOHN A. FITCH

Approach to Living

To THE EDITOR: The symposium, Dear
Billy Cogswell, in the Survey Mid-
monthly of April was very interesting to
me. For about eighteen months I have
been experimenting with an educational
approach to constructive living for boys
at the difficult late 'teen age who usually
are not greatly concerned about such
things. The experimentation group of the
North End Union is called the "SEE"-
Men's Association. The method of ap-
proach and practice has grown from a
single simple plan and purpose to em-
brace a maze of apparently efficacious
means of attaining the goals of clear
understanding and conscious practice of
right living. Today, that organization of
approximately fifty older boys, dedicated
to the search for truth and intelligent
understanding, looks back on a short past
in which predominates a pronounced con-
trast between the rewards of social and
anti-social living. Ahead lie educational
possibilities which, worked out on the
basis of interest and wished-for guidance,
should lead to new qualities in the com-
munity leaders and voters of the future.
By means of self-government, by com-
mittee studies and explorations into rec-
reation, neighborhood conditions, law,
safety and civics, individuals come to
close grips with actualities of the world
of mature adulthood. Outstanding per-
sons in the fields of social relationships
make valuable contributions to the edu-
cation of the group by lecturing, encour-
aging frank discussions and answering
questions.

The program content and methods of
procedure reside in large part with the
boys. The organization is set up as demo-
cratically as possible with the usual com-
plement of officers, and is subdivided in
active working committees with a volun-
teer college student as adviser or con-
sultant. The committees, which meet
weekly, include neighborhood conditions,
law and police, safety, and recreation.

Accompanying the educational part of
the program is an equally necessary rec-
reational emphasis, important as a popu-
larizing factor with the boys.

Although no criteria for the education
of youth along the lines of crime preven-
tion have evolved from this process, I do
feel that experimentation in itself signifies
progress. FRANK L. HAVBY

Director Boys' Work
North End Union, Boston

329



Book Reviews



Labor on Two Fronts

THE RIGHT TO WORK, by Nels Anderson,
152 pp.

LABOR'S NEW MILLIONS, by Mary Heaton
Vorse, 312 pp. Modern Age Books. Price SO
cents each postpaid of Survey M-idmontkly.

T N The Right To Work, the director

of the section on labor relations of the
WPA gives a clear, common sense defense
of the policy of public work relief as under-
taken by the federal government. The
author takes the position that the usual
operation of the economic system results
in throwing a number of people out of
employment through no fault of their
own. Some of them may be reabsorbed
by private industry; others, because of
age or other circumstances, will be on the
marginal side of the labor market per-
manently. Private enterprise will not hire
them and under a profit-making economy
cannot be expected to do so. Therefore,
the assumption by government of the
task of salvaging labor which otherwise
would remain idle appears to be a wise
and necessary procedure. As to the cost,
the author says: "Set the cost of relief
or work relief against the cost of an
equal number of man-years of idleness,
and the verdict must be in favor of the
work."

Mr. Anderson writes with an eye to the
problems of evolving a policy and admin-
istering a program. There is little of the
"politics of relief," but one of the most
realistic sections, Work Relief and Pres-
sure Groups, indicates some of the proces-
ses at work behind the headlines. The
volume contains a number of photographs
showing the variety of projects under-
taken with relief labor.

Mrs. Vorse might be called the dean
of labor reporters. For twenty-five years
she has exhibited a rare facility for being
at the right place at the right time to get
a story. She writes with vigor and enthu-
siasm, tinged with a strong sympathy for
the struggles of the laboring man. There-
fore, her reporting in Labor's New Mil-
lions of stirring chapters in labor's re-
cent history makes excellent reading.
Most of the volume is concerned with the
rise of the CIO. The story of the strikes
and organization campaigns in rubber,
steel, autos and textiles is dramatically
told. New techniques of employers such
as back-to-work-movements and some of
the revelations of the La Follette Com-
mittee are elaborated. The final chapters
are entitled Labor in Politics and What
Labor Wants.

This author is an optimist who con-
stantly reveals her fervent belief in the
destiny of the organization of the masses.
At times her faith leads her into short
cuts in analysis. The material she deals
with here is vivid and dramatic, but since



the book covers a wide range of subject
matter and is essentially a "reporting"
job, those wishing to get at the bottom
of trends in the labor movement would
do well to supplement it with more ana-
lytical material.

Incidentally, it should never be out of
order to express gratitude to Modern
Age books for giving us books of this type
at low prices. Lois MAcDoNALD

New York University

Against Calamity

SAFETY FIRST AND LAST IT CAN HAPPEN
TO You! by Charles E. Dull. Holt. 241 pp.
Price $1.75 postpaid of Survey MidmontMy.

" KITTEN by a supervisor of sci-
ences for junior and senior high-
schools, this book "is intended primarily
as a text for safety classes in highschools"
and also to be "useful to many older per-
sons." After introductory chapters on the
general importance and nature of the ac-
cident problem, more than half of the
book is devoted to highway hazards, the
mechanics and the operation of automo-
biles, and many practical things that
drivers should and should not do. Final
chapters take up fire prevention, safety
at home, in the factory, on the farm, in
school and at play. A useful glossary and
bibliography are included.

The style is interesting and readable and
the technical information, with a few
possible exceptions, is accurate. Some of
the information included, such as how
highways are built and the internal mech-
anism of automobiles, may be regarded
as unnecessary in a safety textbook.

SIDNEY J. WILLIAMS
National Safety Council, Chicago

Challenge to Educators

EMOTION AND THE EDUCATIVE PROC-
ESS. A REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE
RELATION OF EMOTION TO THE EDUCATIVE
PROCESS, by Daniel Alfred Prescott, Ed.D.
American Council on Education. 323 pp. Price
$1.50 postpaid of Surrey MidmontMy.

HP HE committee reports on explora-
tory study and tentative conclusions.
In essence, this carefully prepared docu-
ment emphasizes the need for a better
understanding of the inner meaning of
personal relationships. It stresses the
significance of making greater use of
mental hygiene criteria, insofar as they
are available, for evaluating personnel,
school organization and administration
and the training of teachers in normal
schools.

Holding "professional training as the
keystone in the arch of hygienic educa-
tion" the committee makes wise recom-
mendations concerning preparation for
teaching. Although and because the com-
mittee recognizes that complete, general-
ly accepted data concerning problems in-

330



volving mental hygiene are by no means
numerous, it is conceded that the pattern
of emotional behavior has definite ef-
fects upon the objectives of education
and presents numerous challenges to ed-
ucators who desire to put before the
children helpful living experiences.

The report urges continuous experi-
mentation and investigation in order to
determine the practical difficulties that
exist in establishing proper educational
emotional situations in the formal train-
ing of children. There is full recognition
that clinical psychiatry, in and of itself,
is not able to solve the problems which
are regarded as fundamental by educa^
tors. Furthermore, it is admitted that
educators themselves are in no position
to convince the public of the scientific re-
liability or necessity of mental hygiene
procedures. While the trend of the report
is liberal, a conservative note is sounded
in the statement that data are not at
hand to defend the experimentation "that
will be necessary to find out how to
carry a valid character education in a
changing social order."
New York IRA S. WILE, M.D.

Prices in the Making

PRICE AND PRICE POLICIES, by Walt
Hamilton and associates. McGraw-Hill. 565 pp.
Price $4 postpaid of Survey MidmontMy.

ECONOMISTS are at last yielding to
the long evident need for realistic
discussion of the process by which price
are made in industry. In this volume
Walton Hamilton and a number of asso-
ciates examine the automobile, automo-
bile tire, gasoline, cottonseed, women's
dress, whiskey and milk industries
terms of the influences playing upon the
prices they charge. Although theories of
prices and value have been the heart ol
economic theory, this volume is no dull
elaboration of past theories. It treats the
work of the earlier as well as a numbei
of contemporary economists with a scorr
that is only partly deserved. It approaches
every industry as a complex and chang-
ing organism to be observed with care
and understanding. Prices are the focus
of interest because they are "the best
available symbol through which industry
may be approached and its performance
assessed." It emphasizes the restrictions
placed upon .the play of reason by trade
usages and tradition. The process of price
making is dramatized against a colorful
setting, well illuminated.

Those who are caught up in the grow-
ing interest in consumer problems and the
activities of organizations concerned with
these problems should turn to this volume
for aid, though it offers no quick and
easy recipes for the regulation of indus-
try. They may even find their hearts soft-
ened by the humanization of the pricing
process and be discouraged by the reitera-
tion of the complication of the problem.
But at least they can obtain a better



understanding, and their reading will not
be dull. The picture of industry in mo-
tion will come to them often in suggestive
and illuminating phrases. However, the
writers are too inclined to leave generali-
zation and broader interpretation to be-
come explicit in the mind of the reader.
In the effort to bring a new concreteness
into the study of price making, they have
laid bare the generality amounting to
vagueness in much that has been written
about prices, but they have not given a
newer and more real general picture. As
Mr. Hamilton himself remarks, the book
is but a prologue to the study of industry.
ARTHUR ROBERT BURNS
Columbia University

Own Stories

SEVEN SHIFTS, edited by Jack Common. Dut-
ton 271 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of Survey
MitmontUy.

' I " HIS is a good book for anyone inter-
ested in what seven English workers
in seven occupations think about their
work. Aside from differences in vocabu-
lary, they think about like American
workers. Mr. Common has done an un-
common and worthwhile editing job.
There is no literary strutting. The seven
men write simply and eloquently about
work or the lack of it. The absence of
women writers is no accident. A book by
women about women and their work is
promised later.

I was most impressed with the chapter
written by a plasterer, and most de-
pressed by the story of the unemployed
man. The book as a whole brings out the
workers' profound liking for their work,
and their feeling of insecurity against
unemployment. There is no crying out
against hard work, only against people
who make hard working conditions. All
seven writers are manual laborers. The
white collar man and the farmer are
missing, but if included, they probably
would have written in much the same
vein as the steel worker, smelterman,
gas worker, curbstone peddler and rail-
road man. NEI.S ANDERSON
Washington, D. C.

Premises of Business

BUSINESS AND MODERN SOCIETY, edited
bjr Malcolm P. McN'air and Howard T. Lewis.
Harvard University Press. .410 pp. Price $5
postpaid of Survey Midmonthty.



TPHIS collection of fourteen papers by
members of the faculty of the Har-
vard Business School is offered as "a
more or less random sample ... of the
thinking and interests" of the several
authors. No effort is made at consistent
development or coherence of view. But
the editors are correct in observing that
there is a certain basic and implied unity
"in the form of certain concepts of the
task of business leadership." Indeed, the
less technical and more philosophical pa-
pers of Dean Dunham, Professors Roeth-
lisberger, Isaacs and Slichter attain a high
level of insight and forward-looking grasp,



Lawyers and the Promotion of Justice

By Esther Lucilc Brown

A trenchant report on the legal profession, its failure to accept certain
social responsibilities, and recent more hopeful trends. Uniform in
treatment and general style with SOCIAL WORK AS A PROFESSION and
the other titles in our series of Studies in Professions.



RUSSELL

130 East 22d Street



298 Pages

SAGE



Price, jlJOO

FOUNDATION

New York



Their Popularity Undiminiihed Third Printing Now Ready

The Social Worker's Dictionary

Young, McClenahan and Young

Brief usable definitions of several thousand terms from the social and biological
sciences, medicine, psychiatry, law and education, as well as from social work itself.

71 pages, paper. 75c

The Case Worker's Desk Manual

Erie Fiskc Young, Editor

A compendium of information for daily use by practitioners of social case work.

Approximately 100 pages, cloth. $1.00

Save by buying both for the SPECIAL PRICE, carriage paid SI. 50

(To secure this saving, mention this ad and send cash with order.)

SOCIAL WORK TECHNIQUE

3474 University Avenue Los Angeles



AUTUMN BOOKS

The December issue of SURVEY
GRAPHIC will include a special section
devoted to authoritative reviews of the
season's new books principally those
concerned with social problems and
public affairs.

DON'T MISS IT!



The revised edition of
Gordon Hamilton's Social
Cafe Recording is ready.
The price is 2.50. It is
published by Columbia
University Press, Box C-
129, 2960 Broadway, New
York.



while the more specialized discussions of
the rest naturally vary in the extent to
which they rise above the purely meth-
odological.

The premises of the social responsi-
bility of business and of the permanent
need for high management talent and skill
are moderately well in mind throughout.
But they are seen almost exclusively as
operating within the framework of capi-
talistic relationships. If one may fairly
criticize such a work for not doing what
it did not intend to do, one may say that
the outlook tends to be too static despite
the note struck as to "progress" in the
first essay.

In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

331



The book is, in fact, all too indicative
of a certain complacence and acceptance
of the status quo as inevitably projecting
into the future a characteristic of even
the best of our colleges of business ad-
ministration.

At a time, however, when throughout
the world wherever the institutions of
large scale capital operate directly or
indirectly, economic institutions are being
subjected to the heaviest strain they have
known since the industrial revolution, one
ventures to think that essays conveying
the total impact which these do, are a
little bland. The hackneyed phrase that
"business is business" was never less a



fact than today. And to teach business
as business only (even with the qualifica-
tions stated) is to mislead rather than
to lead.

This volume pleads for a new business
leadership. But it does less than it should
to articulate the philosophy underlying
that leadership as it looks ahead. A sub-
sequent volume collating a more organized
body of exploration on the relation of
business to modern society is suggested
by the present reviewer as a contribution
which the same group of students might
presently make to the clarifying of con-
temporary thought on the theme in hand.
It is possible that had the editors con-
ceived their task as one of more than
random sampling, a more impressive vol-
ume would have resulted.
New York ORDWAY TEAD

Power to Plan

THE MASTER PLAN, by Edward M. Bassett.
Russell Sage Foundation. 151 pp. Price $2
postpaid of Survey Midmonthly.

AS the author points out, planning with
"^ the help of a master plan described
as "an easily changed instrument which
will show a planning commission from
day to day the progress it has made"-
will serve to avoid duplication and re-
building, resulting in a more livable com-
munity to say nothing of saving millions
of dollars. The first third of the book is
devoted to an analysis of community land
planning more commonly called city
planning with the remainder given over
to a discussion of the master plan, its
need, purpose, and essential elements.
The master plan for all practical pur-
poses at the moment is a device applica-
ble only to those states in the country
where enabling legislation has been
passed; hence perhaps even more impor-
tant than theoretical discussion are the
sections based on the experience in several
states where municipalities have taken
advantage of the power conferred on
them.

With the increasing realization by gov-
ernmental units whether towns, villages,
cities, counties or states of the need for
coordinating improvements compared with
the land, this volume is especially timely.
LOULA D. LASKER

Tale of Tailors

TOMORROW'S BREAD, by Beatrice Bisno. Live-
right. 327 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of Survey
Midmonthly.

*~pHIS book, which won the Edwin
*- Wolf award for the best novel of
Jewish interest, gives a vivid account of
industrial struggle centered in the life of
a young Jewish tailor in the Chicago
Ghetto. Sam Karenski, his family, their
relatives, and the men and women who
with him are fighting for existence in the
sweatshops, become real people to the
reader. It is a moving story, that of the
tailors in and out of their shops, their
patient, persistent, but almost hopeless



efforts, as they trudge the streets with
bundles of half-made clothing, to secure a
few cents more for their stitching. With
the organization of the union, a little
brighter prospect was in sight. The story
of the union, through which Sam Karen-
ski finds his own philosophy of labor and
of life, is interesting from the historical



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 89 of 109)