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lation, vocations, statistics, and mechanical
appliances for the blind ; maintenance of a
reference lending library. M. C. Migel, Presi-
dent ; Robert B. Irwin, Executive Director.



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Im-
provement of Living Conditions Shelby M.
Harrison, General Director ; 130 E. 22nd St.,
New York. Departments: Charity Organiza-
tion, Consumer Credit Studies, Delinquency
and Penology, Industrial Studies, Library,
Recreation, Social Work Interpretation,
Social Work Year Book, Statistics, Surveys.
The publications of the Russell Sage Founda-
tion offer to the public in practical and
inexpensive form some of the most impor-
tant results of its work. Catalogue sent
upon request.



Case Work

FAMILY SELECTION ON A FEDERAL
RECLAMATION PROJECT, by Marie
Jasny. Social Research Report No. 5.
Prepared through the cooperation of the
Farm Security Administration, the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics and the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. From the de-
partment, Washington, D. C.

The procedure by which 146 families
were selected for settlement on a Califor-
nia irrigation project in 1927, and the
reasons for instability and for success or
failure of the colonists who still remain.

INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN CASE
WORK. American National Red Cross,
Washington, D. C.

A 1938 edition of the manual used as
a study text by Red Cross chapters, par-
ticularly for training volunteer workers.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CASE
WORK AND GROUP WORK IN THE
INTERESTS OF INDIVIDUALS, by
Margaret Svendsen. Presented at the Min-
nesota State Conference of Social Work.
Price 15 cents from the Emanuel Cohen
Center, 909 Elwood Avenue North, Minne-
apolis, Minn.

Crime

CULTURE CONFLICT AND CRIME, by
Thorsten Sellin. 116 pp. A report of the
subcommittee on delinquency of the Com-
mittee on Personality and Culture, Social
Science Research Council. Price $1 from
the council, 230 Park Avenue, New York.

A scientific treatise on the etiology of
abnormal conduct, contemplating the role
of culture conflicts in the motivation of
crime.



WOMEN AND GIRL OFFENDERS IN
MASSACHUSETTS, by Herbert C. Par-
sons and Beatrice S. Stone. 48 pp. A re-
port of a committee formed by Mrs. Robert
F. Herrick. Price 35 cents from the Mas-
sachusetts Child Council, Inc., 41 Mount
Vernon Street, Boston.

After three years of study and discus-
sion, Mrs. Herrick's committee presents
this interpretation of the problems pre-
sented in Five Hundred Delinquent Wom-
en by Sheldon and Eleanor T. Glueck,



THE PAMPHLET SHELF



with specific recommendations for
change in penal procedures.

Health

TWENTY YEARS OF STERILIZATION
IN CALIFORNIA, by Paul Popenoe and
E. S. Gosney. Human Betterment Founda-
tion. Price 25 cents from the foundation,
Pasadena, Calif.

The story of California's comparative-
ly long experience with eugenic sterili-
zation.

DIPHTHERIA MORTALITY AND MOR-
BIDITY IN PITTSBURGH, by Mildred
Stahl Fletcher. Bureau of Social Research,
Federation of Social Agencies of Pittsburgh
and Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Price
25 cents from the federation.

A study of diphtheria in Pittsburgh,
apropos of the immunization campaign
against that disease now being carried
on by the Pittsburgh Bureau of Child
Welfare.

SOCIAL SERVICES AND VENEREAL
DISEASE: Inquiry into Measures of Re-
habilitation of Prostitutes. League of Na-
tions Publication, 1938, IV, 1. Price 30
cents from International Documents Ser-
vice, Columbia University Press, 2960
Broadway, New York.

A study and discussion of the use of
the social services in combination with
treatment at venereal disease clinics.

CITIZENS COMMITTEE FOR PLANNED
PARENTHOOD. The American Birth Con-
trol League, 576 Fifth Avenue, New York.

A question and answer booklet on the
aims and methods of this recently formed
special committee.

THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY THE
GENERAL PRACTITIONER, by Joseph
Earl Moore, M.D. Supplement No. 5. U. S.
Public Health Service, Washington, D. C.

A helpful booklet on diagnosis for the
use of the physician.

NURSING EDUCATION IN MINNESO-
TA, report prepared by Louise Muller for
the Minnesota State Board of Education,
St. Paul, Minn.

A thorough study of the educational
facilities available to nurses in Minne-



sota, particularizing for one state some
needs and problems evident in many
parts of the country.

PROGRAM FOR LOCAL TUBERCULO-
SIS ASSOCIATIONS. Prepared by Mur-
ray A. Auerbach for National Conference
of Tuberculosis Secretaries, from state
tuberculosis associations.

A brief handbook outlining procedures
and projects involved in a well-rounded
program of activities for local tubercu-
losis associations.

TUBERCULOSIS CLINIC MANUAL, by
Herbert R. Edwards, M.D. 57 pp. Price
50 cents from the National Tuberculosis As-
sociation, 50 West 50 Street, New York.

A report of the association's commit-
tee on clinic standards outlining modern
procedures and practices.

COUGHS AND COLDS, adapted from Con-
sumers Union reports. Price 5 cents from
Consumers Union of United States, Inc.,
55 Vandam Street, New York.

On colds, purported remedies and
panaceas.



Welfare Administration

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PERSONNEL, pre-
pared by the American Public Welfare As-
sociation. 5 pp. Price 10 cents from the
association, 1313 East 60 Street, Chicago.

A list of publications concerning per-
sonnel problems and standards in public
and private agencies.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MON-
TANA POOR LAW, by Fredric R. Vee-
der. 131 pp. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago. Price $1.

A history of public aid in a state sud-
denly turned about from facing unlimited
opportunities and resources to wasteland
and vast unemployment.

DALLAS WELFARE SURVEY. The Amer-
ican Public Welfare Association, 1313
East 60 Street, Chicago. Price $1.

A study of welfare needs and stand-
ards in the Texas city and recommenda-
tions for improvement.



In answering advertisements please mention SURVEY MIDMONTHLY

336



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



SURVEY ASSOCIATES INC.

Publication and Editorial Office:
112 East 19 Street, New York, X Y.

IV KY MIDMOMIII.Y Monthly J(3 a year
SIR\KY GRAPHIC Monthly $3 a year
SUBSCRIPTION TO BOTH 5 a year.

JULIAN \V. MUK. chairman u\ thf Board;
RICHARD B. SCANDRETT, JR., president; JOSEPH P.
Cii \\IBF.RI.AIN. Jons PALMER GAVIT, ^-iee-presi-
dtnts; ANN REED BRENNER, secretary.

PAUL KELLOGG, editor.

BEULAH AMIDON, ANN REED BRENNER, JOHN
PALMER GAVIT. FLORENCE LOEB KEULOCC, LOU-
LA D. LASKER, GERTRUDE SPRINC.ER, \ ICTOR \\ EY-
BRICHT. LEON \VIIIPPLE, associate editors; HELEN
CHAMBERLAIN, assistant editor.

KmvARD T. DEVINE, MARY Ross, JOANNA C.
COLCORD, RUSSELL II. KURTZ, HELEN CODY BAKER,
contributing editors.

WALTER F. GRUEXINCER, business manager;
MOLI.IE CONDON, circulation manager; MARY R.
ANHKKSON. advertising manager.



\0\IMBIR I'MS



CONTENTS



Vol.. LXXIV No. 11



Relief in November 1938 GERTRUDE SI-RINGER 339

Around the Country: Back East Down South The Mid-
lands The Flatlands Out West

Frank Bane: in the Public Service 344

The County Worker's Job

Publicity by Way of the Barn Door JOSEPHINE STRODE 345

In-Service Training for Public Welfare

II The Hows JOSEPHINE c. BROWN 347

Here in Washington: by THE SURVEY'S Observer 349

The Common Welfare 350

The Social Front 352

Concerning Children Old Age Insurance Compensa-
tion Prison Congress Youth and Education WPA
After the Storm The Doctor's Bill The Public's
Health Professional Recreation Congress People
and Things

Readers Write 361

Book Reviews 363

Survey Associates, Inc.



I have so many things to do I am going
to bed. Savoyard proverb.

I want to talk to the man who has charge
of human emotions. Relief client at office of
Indiana State H'eljare Department.

Minorities would be no world problem at
all if it were not for another modern ailment
acute nationalism. The United States

Democracy has defeated autocracy. Mili-
tarism is overcome . . . the longed-for age ol
'humanity is dawning. THOMAS G. MASARYK,
^October 19, 1918, announcing principles lor
'the foundation of the Czechoslovak republic.

Sex, safe driving and table manners all
need to be taught somewhere, but the schools
have a limited amount of time and they re-
quire all the lime they have to develop the
minds of their students. ROBERT M. HUTCH-
INS, president, t niversity of Chicago, in Sat-
urday Evening Post.

Let anyone sign his name anyway he
wishes to. But there ought to be a law to
compel him to print or typewrite it also. And
:i who sign letters without indicating
whether they are Mrs. or Miss should be
heavily fined and sometimes imprisoned.
Editorial. \etc York Times.

ny of our legislators still talk in terms
<s and if you (social workers) are to

be understood you must talk their language
by that I mean that you must be articulate
as IM the long-run political consequences of
your social aims. RALPH E. JENNEY in presi-
dential address to the California Conference
of Social Work.



So They Say

Father's here for his Ph.D.,

Mother's studying canning:
Sister's in New College now

Learning Community Planning.
Brother John's in Horace Mann,

Little Jane's in Spcyer.
And Baby goes to Nursery School,

\Vheic they feed and dry her!
Teachers College keeps them moving,

Going through their paces;
All they have in common now

Are six briefcases.

JOSEPHINE WRIGHT in Recollections of
Teachers College (Columbia University).

The dictators are all spoiled children and
they will go on asking for more until they
die. PHYLLIS BOTTOME, English novelist.

In all this suddenly revealed purpose to
launch an almost unlimited armament pro-
gram it would be a swell idea to keep out
shirts on. GEN. HUGH S. JOHNSON, news-
paper columnist.

Fascism is the neurosis of a maladjusted
social order and a maladjusted world. It can-
not be cured by bloodletting. It can only he
cured as the dominant powers in the world
are willing to cure themselves. Editorial in
Common Sense.

The first characteristic of American life
as it relates to children which becomes ap-
parent in a cursory lurvey is its inequality:
an inequality based not alone on differences
in individual capacity, aptitudes and habits,
but what is more important, on differences in
economic opportunity. KATHARINE LENROOT,
Chief, US. Children's Bureau.



Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is
the measles of mankind. ALBERT EINSTEIN.

What's a sadder sight in the field of gov-
ernment than a band of hard realities ganging
up on a dream. Detroit News.

A radical is one whose inclinations and be-
liefs are liberal but whose methods are badly
thought out and if put into practice would
not work. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT.

Social workers love to talk. ... He (Harry
L. Hopkins) undresses his remarks to that
intellectual nudity common among sociology
and psychology professors. FLETCHER KNEHEL
in Ken.

One ought to approach a new book as one
approaches a new country, with curiosity and
expectation, not wanting to find only what one
knows and likes, but with the zest for learn-
ing about something new. PEARL BUCK in
1 'he Journal of the National Education Asso-
ciation.

The genius of democracy lies in its ability
to reduce the problem of the masses to its
component parts of individual needs and de-
sires and to solve the problem on that front.
CHARLES W. TAUSSIG, industrialist; chair-
man advisory council. National Youth Admin-
istration.

In the subject of penology, no less than
in any other branch of the social sciences,
we can find no substitute for truth, nor can
we can fail to face facts. We cannot solve the
long standing and perplexing problems of
crime by strong language or prejudice or
ignorance. SANFORD BATES to the National
Conference of Social Work.



" ' ''-



!SilfRmK5-'s;*f




Human Stakes



Fitzpatrick in St. Louis Past-Dispatch



TO MAKE THAT LAST) /\ ono^!

[ FOU EIGHT MOHTHS/ / / QEE.POP.YOURe
''' GETTIN' AWFUL /

TIGHT




Berryman in Washington Star



Fitzpatrick in St. Lonis Post-Dispatch



One Chimney Smoking



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



NOVEMBER 1938




VOL. LXXIV NO. 11



Relief in November 1938

By GERTRUDE SPRINGER



IN these United States, with winter just around the cor-
ner, a sum in excess of $258,748,000 is being expended
each month for public relief of one kind or another,
reaching into more than 6,500,000 American homes, touch-
ing the lives of some 21 million persons. These round figures
convey first, a sense of shock that after all the years of wrest-
ling with depression-born distress the need is still so great ;
second, a sense of satisfaction that so large a sum is being
directed by more or less orderly procedures to meet the con-
tinuing need. It is at that point that most of us stop think-
ing about relief and go back to worrying about the Euro-
pean situation, the fall elections and the football prospects.

The trouble with these round figures is that they are
round ; they carry no picture of the peaks and valleys which
they encompass. Take the figures apart even a little and the
true topography of relief-land begins to emerge. First to
show itself is WPA, towering with a monthly expenditure
of $149,200,000. Far below it, but mounting steadily are
"the categories," the social security services for the aged, de-
pendent children and the blind with expenditures of $42,-
615,000. Back of these two peaks is general relief, a relative
valley, with $36,863,000.

Now $36,863,000 is no mean sum, but it too is round.
Take it apart and you find that $19,917,444 of it is added
up by only three states, New York, Pennsylvania and Illi-
nois. Bring in California and Michigan and you have $25,-
035,111, leaving only $11,827,889 as the total expenditure
for direct relief in forty-three states and the District of
Columbia. These figures are of July, the last month for
which full data are available, but we know that since that
month VVPA and the categories have risen; general relief
has become a deeper valley.

It is not possible to generalize very much about what is
going on in that valley where state and local responsibility
are without benefit of federal funds. No one really knows
the whole story. Only in time of crisis, as in Cleveland
last summer, does local relief become news, temporarily.
Then something else comes along and the acute situation
shakes down to chronic. In fact a depressing aspect of the
whole "business of relief," apart from WPA and the cate-
gories, is a growing public willingness to accept it as the
inevitable even the proper way of life for the unem-
ployed. "Nobody cares any more but 'us,' " said a social
worker in a midwest city, "and we seem to be helpless



to do anything but take in each other's moral indignation."
In an effort to discover something of what is happen-
ing in the shadowy valley of relief where at least 1,644,000
families are known to exist, the editors of Survey Mid-
monthly queried a number of informed people all over the
country. The editors did not ask these people for figures
to be tabulated but for an informal ofT-the-record sizing
up of the situation as they saw it in their respective com-
munities, "just as you would tell it to us if we could drop
in on you for half an hour." Their prompt and generous
response has made this article possible.

THOUGH no general picture can be drawn of conditions
as they exist now in November 1938, a few elements
appear from this country-wide correspondence to be fairly
constant. In most places, in spite of increased WPA quotas,
the relief rolls are up, sharply, over this time last year. Some
tendency to stabilize relief rolls is evident, attributable it
seems to three factors: increased WPA employment, rigid
policy on closing and opening cases on account of lack of
funds, pick up in private employment.

There is, of course, a chronic shortage of funds every-
where, a persisting hand-to-mouth policy and in many places
a fair case of jitters as to the winter's outlook. In a few
places, notably New York, where a sales tax finances a
pay-as-you-go policy, relief authorities are not too down-
hearted, but quickly qualify their faint optimism, ". . . but
we've got our fingers crossed." The same attitude is found
where bond issues can be used to finance relief deficits,
"Under control at the moment, but ... if ... but . . ."

As to the coverage of need in a given community there
is no single answer. In cities where applicants are accepted
on the basis of their need, with no other limitation, there
seems to be fairly good coverage, particularly if state funds
are available. But where the basis of acceptance is not the
need of the applicant but the cash on hand if any there
is no such thing as coverage. "All we know about covering
the need is that we aren't covering it."

The same rule governs adequacy of allowances. Where
individual budgeted need is the measure, with deficit financ-
ing to meet the total costs, allowances are, well, not really
adequate to a decent way of life relief is never that
but they seem adequate in comparison with those in com-
munities where a lump sum is appropriated and then



339



stretched to cover the greatest possible number of cases,
and devil take the hindmost. In such communities the mys-
tery of how people exist on their relief allowances is ex-
ceeded only by the mystery of how others exist without
them. In individual budgets the greatest gap is the item for
shelter. Most places with many honorable exceptions
simply wash out consideration of rent and let nature take
its course, or reduce it to a figure so unrealistic as to be
meaningless.

It is difficult to estimate the effect of the security ser-
vices on local relief rolls some effect certainly, especially
in respect to aid to dependent children. But no clear answer
is possible either in terms of people or of dollars and cents.
The services seem to have uncovered new areas of need
rather than to have reached the big undifferentiated general
relief area. Conclusions as to the effect of unemployment
compensation on relief are pretty much limited as yet to
"We only know it would have been much worse without
it." The best documented figures now available are those
of the Pennsylvania Department of Public Assistance which
cautiously and with reservations, estimates a saving of about
$5 million for the first seven months January through
July of benefit payments.

With the growing indifference of the public to the hu-
man aspects of the direct relief problem, accepted reluct-
antly as permanent and hopeless, is a sense of utter confu-
sion over the whole business, WPA, categories, and what
have you. To Mr. and Mrs. Taxpayer, all are "reliefers."

Presumably they must be kept alive, but . Many com-

petent observers fear that after the elections there will be
a sharp reaction against the cost of relief -relief meaning
everything with direct relief taking the brunt.

The idea that the clients themselves could or would fig-



ure effectively in opposing reaction is not supported by cur-
rent reports. WPA seems to have drawn off the protesting
element and left a relatively inarticulate group who take
it as it comes. They grumble individually but without the
force of numbers or organization. There still are pressure
groups in the largest cities but their leadership changes
constantly and they lack the vigor and drive of a year or
two ago. "In a way perhaps the social workers are re-
sponsible for this," comments a correspondent. "They have
explained so long and so patiently that nothing can be
done because there isn't any money, that the clients have
come to believe it."

The intimation from Washington that WPA is about
to contract, certainly that it will not expand further, fills
social workers with apprehension. The vast numbers that
it has taken from relief rolls have not exhausted by any
means, except in smaller places, the list of employables on
relief, especially white-collar folk. Any arbitrary or blanket
cut in WPA would throw great numbers back onto the
precarious mercies of direct relief. What everybody knows
but no one can prove is that a growing employer prejudice
against "reliefers," one and all, will slow up placement in
private employment to an extent that the "higher-ups" in
Washington do not realize or at least admit. "God help
us this winter if WPA cuts down. The people have no
place to go but relief, and relief has nothing to give them."

This then is the present picture of "the business of relief"
so far as it can be drawn from Survey Midmonthly's in-
formed correspondents. Because every local situation is dif-
ferent, let us attempt a brief close-up of various cities and
a few states, beginning in New England, swinging south,
then up through the middle of the country and west to the
Pacific Coast.



All Around the Country



BACK EAST



Boston The direct relief load is about
2500 cases below last fall. The need
seems fairly well covered, with clothing
and medical care the outstanding defi-
ciencies. About a third of the relief
funds of private agencies go to supple-
ment public allowances and WPA wages.
Most of the employables on direct re-
lief are white-collar folk; the remainder
probably unemployable by any standard.
The security services have had a marked
effect on the rolls particularly in respect
to the aged. There is considerable grum-
bling over the continuing cost of local
relief in the face of large federal expen-
ditures. Employer prejudice against
WPA workers is rising. "They come to
us with so many mind hazards that they
are no good to us." Clients are not no-
ticeably restive never have been.

New Haven, Conn. Direct relief is
up over last year by about 730 cases.
WPA expenditures for the first seven
months of 1938 were down by $482,229,
"because our city has not been too enter-
prising and generous in setting up local



projects." Relief allowances are "without
question minimum," but probably not
"grossly inadequate." Rent and utilities
are the "least admirable" items. Social
security services have had no appreci-
able effect on direct relief. The clients
seem to be just "taking it."

New York City Direct relief has
been relieved the past two months by
the transfer of 21,000 cases to WPA.
The city's employment index is rising and
the improvement is being reflected slight-
ly in relief. During the first three weeks
in October the Department of Welfare
closed more cases than it opened. Last
year's peak load came in December with
177,572 cases; this year's, so far, in Feb-
ruary with 187,117. August's load of
167,461 was reduced to about 160,000 in
September. Social workers seem to feel
that need is being fairly well covered and
that with the usual ifs and buts there
should be no severe suffering this winter.
The greatest budget inadequacy, the
clothing item, is slowly improving thanks
to WPA production and purchases.
About 7000 cases have been transferred
to aid to dependent children. Unemploy-
ment compensation in relation to relief



cannot be measured directly. From Feb-
ruary 5 to September 10, some 6000
applications for relief were rejected be-
cause of benefits; 9100 active cases were
closed because benefits, accumulated
earlier, began to be paid ; and 2700 cases
were opened because benefits had ex-
pired.

No one will hazard a guess as to how
many employables are still on direct re-?
lief; a majority probably are white-col-
lar folk. Client pressures are constant
but orderly. Employer prejudice is evi-
dent not only against WPA workers but
against "all these people on relief."

Nassau County, N. Y. The case
load figures have ranged from 400 to
1000 per month above last year. The
budget has been exceeded and about
$500,000 must be borrowed to last out
the year. Next year's budget probably
will be fixed at this year's actual expen-
ditures. "Coverage of need in the coun-
ty is believed to be fairly complete and
family budgets fairly adequate." Public
opinion on WPA seems to be mixed, with
definite employer prejudice: "They get
out of the swing of real work and have
too many grievances." Clients are quiet.



340



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



"Prf>sure organizations, clamorous in
earlier days, seem to have collapsed.
Onr would like to believe that this is
due to more adequate relief, more justly
administered." Although probably half
of the large increase in old age assistance
and aid to dependent children the past
year represented transfers from direct
relief the "new unemployed" more than
filled their places. Unemployment com-
pensation is still too "mixed" to be



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