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As a means of providing more accu-
rate occupational information, nine states
are making industrial studies, covering
more than eighty occupations. The stud-
ies, prepared in pamphlet form, give de-



354



SURVEY MIDMONTHLY



tails as to training, required skills, op-
xmunities, rates of pay, legal regulation
and so on, in the various fields of work.
A number of these studies are now avail-
able, notably in Illinois, Kentucky and
Texas.

Jobs and Workers

TPHE Rust Brothers, Tennessee in-
ventors and manufacturers of a me-
chanical cotton picker, are continuing
their effort to make the machine socially
desirable instead of the cause of tech-
nological unemployment and distress.
They now state that their first scheme
to refuse to sell the machine except to
buyers who would guarantee minimum
wages and maximum hours was im-
practical. Instead, they are endeavoring
to make their own factory a model plant,
and they have set up the Rust Founda-
tion through which the profits of the en-
terprise will be used to rehabilitate those
thrown out of work by the machine.

Curb for Unions California will vote
this month on a state-wide initiative
easure to regulate strikes and picketing.
The proposal is even more drastic than
the local ordinance recently adopted by
Los Angeles voters by a vote of 199,-
l00 to 152,000. It would outlaw sit-
I down strikes; define lawful and unlaw-
ful picketing, boycotting and display of
I banners and establish regulations for
their use; prohibit coercion or intimida-
tion of non-union workers by union mem-
\ >bers ; forbid unions to interfere with the
| 'freedom of highways, docks, wharves
and other public places.

Profit-Sharing A special Senate com-
l^nittee which is making a national survey
I )f profit-sharing, pension and bonus sys-
tems, finds that 4000 corporations have
i such schemes in operation. The survey
I was authorized by a resolution intro-
1 luced by Senator Vandenberg of Michi-
, ;an, who is a member of the three-man
I study committee. About 700 of the busi-
Iness concerns already questioned have
upplied the committee with complete de-
j.ails of their plans. With its report, the
I -ommittee is expected to make sugges-
tions for legislation to compensate
i^hrough tax rewards the employers who
hare profits with employes.

Minimum Wage A basic minimum

lourly wage of 35 cents and a minimum

weekly wage of $14 for forty hours for

-women and minors in the candy factories

if New York State were recommended

my the Confectionery Wage Board. The

Ant public hearing on the report was

eld November 1. Figures embodied in

he report show that, according to a

Itudy of 3968 women workers in the

industry, the average wage of those

who had twenty-six or more weeks of



employment in 1937 was $12.59. There
are 257 candy factories in the state, with
a total of more than 12,000 workers, of
whom 6397 are women. . . . The third
industry for which a minimum wage
board has been appointed in Connecticut
is that of cleaning and dyeing, with about
700 women employes in the state. A pre-
liminary study showed that 11 percent
of the women receive less than 25 cents
an hour during the busy season, 60 per-
cent less than 35 cents. . . . Louisiana
is the twenty-fifth state to enact mini-
mum wage legislation. The law, ap-
proved in late summer, creates a mini-
mum wage division within the Depart-
ment of Labor and empowers it to set
wage standards for women workers, ex-
cept in domestic and farm employment.
The law does not apply to cities with
fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, leaving
only eight cities in which the measure
operates.

Wage and Hour The new federal
wage-hour act went into effect on Octo-
ber 24. [See Survey Graphic, November
1938, page 538.] Elmer F. Andrews,
former industrial commissioner of New
York, heads the new agency set up within
the U.S. Department of Labor to admin-
ister its provisions. Paul Sifton, Mr. An-
drews' assistant in New York, is deputy
commissioner. Prof. Calvert Magruder of
Harvard Law School heads the legal di-
vision, and Major A. L. Fletcher, for-
merly North Carolina labor commis-
sioner, is in charge of cooperation and
enforcement. A third section, research
and service, has not yet been organized.
Beatrice McConnell, head of the indus-
trial division of the U.S. Children's Bu-
reau, is administering the child labor sec-
tions of the law.

So far as possible, administration will
be through existing state and local agen-
cies. The Washington office contemplates
eventually a staff of about a thousand
members. Enforcement and inspection
will be delegated largely to state labor
departments. Administration will be de-
centralized through twelve regional of-
fices which have already been estab-
lished. [See Survey Midmonthly, July
1938, page 244.]

WPA

CTRETCHING its remaining $760
million until March is the job of
WPA administrators, recently informed
of a Presidential warning that the funds
appropriated by Congress in June must
last out the period for which they were
allotted. Though expenditures have aver-
aged nearly $200 million per month since
the appropriation was made, and the
WPA rolls have reached a record high
of 3,130,000, Deputy Administrator Au-
brey Williams, to whom the warning was
issued, refuses to be discouraged, finds



encouragement in the prospects of in-
creased private employment. "It can be
done," said Administrator Harry L.
Hopkins.

Reserves Seeing the WPA as a great
warehouse in which skills and labor are
kept fresh for use in private industry,
Lieut. Col. Brehon B. Somervell, New
York City administrator, has launched
an extensive program to educate the
business man as to the value of the
WPA worker, as well as to restore the
latter's morale. That outside prejudices
are a great factor in keeping the relief
worker out of private employment was
shown in the results of a questionnaire
sent to representative employers. Over-
whelming yes's in reply to the question
of whether a WPA background milita-
ted against a worker's possibilities of em-
ployment revealed the business man's
view of WPA workers as shiftless unde-
sirables, and prompted Colonel Somer-
vell's plan for a public relations pro-
gram to embrace newspapers, motion
pictures and the radio. A twin to this
outward program is the plan for an ex-
panded employe service to include train-
ing courses for executives and supervis-
ors, in-service training for workers
desirous of learning or improving skills,
and an "idea market" through which em-
ployes who submit suggestions for im-
proved efficiency may receive promotional
credit. There are close to 175,000
WPA workers in New York City.

Splits Labor's new disease of discor-
dant unions has spread to the field of
unemployed and relief workers, formerly
vocal only through the Workers Alli-
ance, but now possessing three voices.
Newest is the WPA Employes Associa-
tion of America, organized less than a
fortnight after the formation of the Fed-
eral Project Workers of the AF of L.
The latter, open only to workers on the
white-collar and arts projects, is a section
of the American Federation of Book-
keepers, Stenographers and Accountants.
The former has no affiliation but seeks
to embrace a wider field including labor-
ers and white-collar workers alike. Both
new groups have been set up with the
avowed purpose of representing the
"great majority" of WPA workers who
have remained silent because the tactics
of the "radical" Workers Alliance were
unacceptable to them. Testimony at the
Dies committee hearings as to the com-
munist "color" of the Workers Alliance
is said to have given impetus to the for-
mation of the rival organizations.

Head of the AF of L group is Hu-
bert Malkus, former member of the alli-
ance who balked at the "disproportion-
ate time" spent at non-union activities.
The program of the Federal Project
Workers will, he says, be non-political,
concentrating on uniting workers, pre-
venting discrimination, supporting the



NOVEMBER 1938



355



principles of the WPA. Similarly the
WPA Employes Association, headed by
Raymond B. Meisnere of the lawyers'
project, will aim to correct employes'
grievances but "will seek to cooperate
with the administrator in ironing out
any problems that may arise." Adding
to the discord occasioned by the national
rumblings are minor local notes fallen
out of key with the Workers Alliance.
Such is the Unemployed and Project
Workers Union in New York City, bro-
ken off from the alliance to become local-
ly autonomous and "free from political
assessment."

These new movements on the right
are not the only difficulties of David Las-
ser and Herbert Benjamin, Workers
Alliance leaders. On the left beat com-
plaints of wishy-washy dealings made
by militant members who were barred
from the recent alliance convention in
Cleveland. Little heed seems to have
been paid to the criticisms from either
side by the 500 delegates at the con-
vention, who adopted a program advo-
cating a $6,600,000,000 work relief outlay
in the next six years to cover the em-
ployment of four million persons on
housing, school, hospital, playground,
flood control and health projects, and a
20 percent increase in WPA wages to
bring them to the level of local union
standards. The convention reiterated the
right of the alliance to engage in politi-
cal activity by offering its support to
President Roosevelt should he desire to
run for a third term.

Off and On Officials of the WPA are

greatly cheered by the fact that during
August some 195,000 persons went off its
rolls, about three fourths of them volun-
tarily. This was an encouraging rise
from the 166,490 who went off in July.
Of those who left in August, 54,861 sta-
ted that they were leaving to take pri-
vate employment, and more than 75,000
just quit without giving a reason. Dis-
charges and layoffs accounted for 54,814
and transfer to other federal projects for
about 10,000. On the other side of the
August picture were accessions to the
rolls of 309,869 persons, of whom slightly
more than half had never before been on
WPA.

Research Results of 2000 research
projects in nearly every field of natural
and social sciences are summarized in
Volume I of the Index of Research Proj-
ects recently issued by WPA. Its 291
pages contain concise statements of the
main conclusions of each study, the re-
ports of many of which have appeared in
the standard technical and scientific jour-
nals. Published primarily as a tool to aid
individuals with a serious interest in re-
search the index, designed to prevent
duplication and overlapping in scientific
investigation, will be distributed to the
larger public and university libraries. A



limited supply of copies is still available
at the WPA headquarters, 1734 New
York Avenue, N.W., Washington.

Constituting less than 3 percent of the
whole WPA the federal research pro-
gram supplies personnel for locally spon-
sored and approved research projects.
Typical of resulting publications are A
Guide to Studies of Social Conditions in
the Twin Cities, sponsored by the Uni-
versity of Minnesota and published by
the Minneapolis Council of Social Agen-
cies; Employment and Unemployment in
Philadelphia in 1936 and 1937, Part I:
May 1936, published by the WPA Na-
tional Research Project in collaboration
with the industrial research department
of the University of Pennsylvania.
Printed by the photo-offset process, the
first is an annotated bibliography cover-
ing 435 large typewritten pages; the sec-
ond, neater because of typewriter type,
contains 97 pages of unemployment sta-
tistics. Many WPA research reports,
however, are still in manuscript form and
arrangements have been made with the
American Documentation Institute
whereby microfilm copies of the originals
will be furnished to research specialists
at nominal rates.

After the Storm

A FULL month has been needed to
bring out the real extent of the
ruin inflicted in one day, September 21,
by a misplaced tropical hurricane that
swept through New England and a part
of Long Island, N. Y. Only as relief
work got underway could the damage
wrought by a wholly unprecedented dis-
aster of wind and water be appreciated.
Thus the American Red Cross which
asked for a fund of $500,000 six days fol-
lowing the storm, by the middle of Octo-
ber had trebled its goal. This fund is
planned to include Red Cross rehabilita-
tion work in Charleston, S. C. suffering
from the ravages of three successive
tornadoes which struck on September 29
major disaster at any other time, but
an anti-climax to a then storm-surfeited
press. The total number of families re-
quiring aid now is estimated at 20,000.
The Red Cross work in New England
began almost with the subsiding of the
winds. Field stations appeared like mush-
rooms after a rain with doctors, nurses,
ambulances, first-aid equipment and in-
noculation clinics. To their aid rushed
various federal agencies, particularly
WPA, NYA and CCC. But the ex-
tent of need for emergency work was
also underestimated as shown by the
recent authorization of 35,000 WPA
workers to be added to the 100,000 al-
ready employed at clearing away the
fallen timber and debris. During the
danger period hundreds of WPA work-
ers were used in building sandbag levees
to block the rising Connecticut River.



Boys from the NYA and CCC helped
in evacuating families from flooded ter-
ritories and in cleaning up to combat
health hazards. The NYA also operated
a clearing house for information about
the dead, injured and missing persons.
The Red Cross is now engaged in the
second phase of its disaster work, the
slower process of family rehabilitation.

President Roosevelt's prompt program
for flood control in New England to be
financed by WPA, PWA and War De- .
partment funds struck a snag of oppo-
sition from those who saw in it a poten-
tial TVA. The program would involve
a total expenditure of $28,630,000 with
$11 million to be made available during
the current fiscal year. One great objec-
tion held against it is the permanent
flooding for reservoir purposes of now
productive farm lands.

No minor tragedy resulting from the
catastrophe is the swelling of the "great
army of unemployed" and probable cor-J
responding swelling of relief rolls due
to the destruction of means of livelihood.
Most dramatic was the disappearance of
whole fleets of fishing boats. But inland
the economic loss was equally devastat-
ing, particularly to farmers who suf-
fered severe crop damage. More than
half the year's crop of apples in New/
England was blown from the trees, and
harvests already in crates and sacks were!
destroyed or damaged by flood. One
Red Cross official's statement that the
destruction of homes and public works is
the most complete he has seen in twenty-
five years of disaster relief experience
gives some indication of the force of this
latest rampage of nature.

The Doctor's Bill

"rjOSPITAL care insurance broad-
ened into health insurance is po-
tentially capable of making a substantial
contribution to the provision of security
against sickness," said Louis S. Reed,
assistant chief of the health studies divi-
sion of the Social Security Board, to the
4000 delegates to the annual meeting of
the American Hospital Association, held
recently in Dallas, Tex. "Its real test,"
he added, "will be the degree of coverage
it is able to effect among the self-sup-
porting urban population." After dis-
cussion occupying the best part of two
days, and after long distance consultation
with officials of the American Medical
Association in Chicago, the delegates
voted to recommend the extension of
non-profit hospital care insurance to med-
ical care for persons with incomes "above
the relief but below the comfort level."

Parade Biggest of the hospital insur-
ance groups to move toward doctor's bill
insurance is the Associated Hospital
Service of New York with close to a
million members. A general plan to.
broaden benefits to include medical care



356



when the patient is hospitalized already
has been approved, but details as to the
cost of insurance and the exact services
to be included await the completion of
a study of medical costs of 100,000 cases
hospitalized under the insurance system.

In Washington, D. C., the Medical
Society of the District of Columbia, its
bitter fight against the Group Health
Association still in the courts, has ap-
proved a general insurance program by
which any person earning less than $2500
a year may subscribe to membership in
an association entitling him to medical
care by a physician of his choice.

In Cincinnati, the Academy of Med-
icine has approved a plan by which sub-
scribers would choose their own physi-
cians and make periodic payments into
a fund which the participating doctors
would share according to the value of



YOU CAN BE SURE OF THE BEST

MERCUROCHROME, H. W. * D.

(Dibrorn-oxyrnercuri-fluorescein-sodiurn)

After a thorough investigation of the evidence for and against at the
close of the last period of acceptance, the Council on Pharmacy and
Chemistry of the American Medical Association has again reaccepted
(1935)

MERCUROCHROME, H. W. & D.

Literature on Request

HYNSON WESTCOTT & DUNNING, INC.

Baltimore, Md.




Rochester, N. Y., produced the lowest



services rendered under a unit system of infant mortality rate for a large U. 4 S.
accounting for office calls, home visits c ; ty j n I937 i thirty-two deaths per thou-



and so on. No family income figures are
mentioned in the preliminary draft of
the plan.

Full Coverage The California State
Employes' Association has signed a con-
tract with the Pacific Employers Insur-
ance Company providing for medical,
surgical and hospital insurance for all
its members at a monthly premium rate
of $1.75 per member. Included in the
benefits are four weeks' hospitalization
at $5 per day with $50 for extras such
as X-ray and laboratory fees; $150 max-
imum for a major surgical operation and
$35 for a minor operation; fifteen visits
to a doctor's office at $2 per visit; ten
visits by a doctor to the home at $3 per
visit; fifteen visits by a doctor to a hos-
pital at $2.50 per visit. Provisions of
the contract may be extended to mem-
bers of an employe's family, but in such
cases they will cover only diseases com-
mon to both sexes.

The Public's Health

A ROLL of honor is planned by the
^^ New York City Department of
Health for the names of the 2000 persons
who have contributed blood to the banks
established last spring in the municipal
hospitals when it became apparent that
funds for paying professional donors
were near exhaustion. In 1937 the de-
partment spent $171,600 for blood. Chi-
cago and Philadelphia were earlier suc-
cessful experimenters with blood banks.



sand births. New Orleans with a rate of
seventy-eight was highest. The lowest
general deathrate occurred in Detroit,
less than nine per thousand; the highest
in Denver, nearly sixteen.

The lowest maternal mortality rate in
the history of England and Wales, three
out of one thousand, has just been an-
nounced by the British Ministry of
Health, giving Great Britain a fair place
among national records. The United
States, on the other hand, has one of the
highest rates for civilized nations.

Marriage Laws New Hampshire be-
comes the eighth state to enforce a eu-
genic marriage law requiring pre-marital
blood tests for both bride and bride-
groom. Oregon has just presented a sim-
ilar plan to a referendum of the voters.
Kentucky's law becomes effective in 1940.
. . . Rhode Island is the only state which
has made provision to prevent residents
from fleeing to other states for the nup-
tial ceremony but returning to reside in
the home state. Under the law, residents
married in other states who return to
live in Rhode Island must submit to
blood tests within six months. ... In
New York City 9119 pre-marital blood
tests were made in the Department of
Health laboratories in September; 205
were positive.



Good News and Bad Only seven
times in the history of New York City
has the weekly infant mortality rate
dropped below thirty per thousand, and
all have been since July 1937. The sev-
enth occurrence which came the first
week in October was the fourth for
1938, and brightens the hopes for a new
low annual record this year.



Suicide Self-destruction killed 114
persons in New York City last July
more than half again as many as in the
corresponding month of 1937 thus rais-
ing the state suicide rate almost to the
equal of the rate for fatal automobile
accidents. Suicide among policemen in
New York City has reached such pro-
portions that the Patrolman's Benevolent
Association has established a psycholog-
ical clinic for its members. The associ-
ation finds financial difficulties induced by
unwise economic management to be the
immediate reason for most suicides on
the police force.
In answering advertisements please mention SUEVEY MIDMONTHLY

357



On the other hand, a study of 327
attempted suicides in Boston places the
largest number of known motives under
the category of domestic difficulties, and
recommends that attempted suicide be
treated more frequently as a symptom of
mental disturbance.

Sudden Death Automobile accidents,
killing some 40,000 persons a year, are a
major leakage in the levies built against
a high mortality rate by modern medical
science. Kansas, making a comprehensive
study of accidents of all types, finds they
rank fifth in the causes of death, pre-
ceded only by heart disease, cancer, cere-
bral hemorrhage and nephritis. A third
of the accidents are due to automobiles.
In North Carolina in the period from
1928-1936 auto casualties ranked second
in the causes of all children's deaths be-
tween the ages of five and nine, first in
deaths of white children aged fifteen to
nineteen.

Quick and Accurate Chicago's cam-
paign against venereal disease was im-
plemented, in the late summer, by a
unique mechanism for reporting clinic
services to patients. One of the stumbling
blocks in the way of knowing exactly
what was being done was the fact that
vital information got buried in bulky
folders and had to be dug out again be-
fore it could be used.

Impatient at delay, but sympathetic
toward the overworked staff of crowded
clinics, representatives of the Chicago
Board of Health, the health division of
the Council of Social Agencies, the U. S.
Public Health Service and the Illinois
State Department of Health went into
a huddle and came out with a new cen-
tral tabulating unit for the Chicago
Board of Health.

Thirty-nine public and private clinics
in Chicago are plentifully supplied with
punch cards on which to check every item
of treatment for each venereally diseased
patient. No additional staff is needed.
The checking takes a fraction of a min-



ute. The cards are collected at the end
of each day and sent to the Chicago
Board of Health, which puts them
through the works.

The result, at the end of each month,
is a summary statement of each clinic's
work: number of patients, with facts on
sex and age; type and number of treat-
ments; lapses in treatment; cures. The
central tabulating unit also sends each
clinic a brief summary of every patient
under treatment. This eliminates the need
of thumbing through records.

Copies of these records are sent, each
month, to the individual clinics which use
the service, to the health departments of
city and state, and to the U. S. Public
Health Service.

The new system has reduced clinic re-
porting to one eighth of the number of
minutes formerly spent in summarizing
the treatment of venereal disease. Accu-
racy has been immeasurably increased.
The Central Tabulating Unit is staffed
by the Chicago Board of Health and
financed by local and federal funds.

CHRISTMAS The candle in the win-
SEALS dow on this year's Na-

tional Tuberculosis As-
sociation seal is doubly
symbolic: while spread-
ing Christmas cheer it
also lights the dark-
ness caused by a dis-
ease which is first
among the killers of
Help lo Protect the young and vigor-
Your Home from ous . Since the turn of
Tuberculosis the cent ury a reduc-
tion of two thirds has been made in the
deathrate from tuberculosis, but it still
takes more lives between the ages of fif-
teen and forty-five than any other disease.

Cheery Note Patients at the Public
Health Clinic in South Bend, Ind., did a
little prescribing for themselves recently



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesSurvey midmonthly : journal of social work (Volume 74) → online text (page 96 of 109)