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U. S. PUR! 1C . .' SERVICI
1 . D. d







THE SURVEY



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VOL. XXXIV

APRIL, 1915 SEPTEMBER, 1915



WITH INDEX



NEW YORK
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.

105 EAST 220 STREET



\ x :



N



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc.



NATIONAL COUNCIL

ROBERT \V. DE FOREST Chairman



JANK ADDAMS Chicago

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington
KOHKRT S. HREWSTER....New York

CHARLES .M. CABOT 1 Boston

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York

ARTHUR P. ESTABROOK Boston

LIVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder

LEE K. FRANKEL New York

JOHN M. GLENN New York

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego

'Died September 5, 1915.



WILLIAM J. KERRY Washington

JOSEPH LEE Boston

JULIAN W. .MACK Chit-ago

V. EVERIT MACY New York

('II ARLES D. NORTON . . . . New York

-

SI MON N. PATTEN Philadelphia

.! i ' U T S ROSEN WALD Chicago

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago

LILLIAN D. WALD New York

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn

FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec.. New York



THE STAFF

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor



ASSOCIATE EDITORS

EDWARD T. DEVINE

GRAHAM TAYLOR

JANE ADDAMS



ARTHUR P. KELLOGG

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR

JAMES P. HEATON

JOHN A. FITCH

DAVID C. DAVIS

WINTHROP D. LANE

CHRISTINA MERRIMAN

GRACE M. JOHNSTON

MARY CHAMBERLAIN

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR

FLETCHER D. DODGE

'Died July 1, 1915.



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

BERNARD FLEXNER
HENRY W. THURSTON

PHILIP JACOBS
ALEXANDER JOHNSON

FLORENCE KELLEY

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY

JOHN IHLDER

PORTER R. LEE

VIDA D. SCUDDER

MAY LANGDON WHITE 1
SHELBY M. HARRISON-
ALICE HAMILTON
KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN
I. M. RUBINOW



A JOURNAL of CONSTRUCTIVE PHILANTHROPY



y









SOTWE9"



THE QUAKERS

AND PEACE

!By Rufus M. Jones




THE UNNATURAL BOUNDARIES

OF EUROPEAN STATES

!By Simon N. Patten





"" '*fch JWvice.X 7




TWO




GERMANS






V Y 7AR has riven the great working class party in
* ^ Germany. Its members have responded to






the appeal of the fatherland on the one hand, and






to internationalism and peace on the other. This






cleavage is personified by two Socialists, fellow-






members of the Reichstag, described in this issue






LUDWIG FRANK who died at the front






KARL LIEBKNECHT whose solitary "No," last






December, rang round the world







FTY YEARS IN FORTY DAYS
H CAROLINA SOCIAL LEGISLATION
Thomas W. Salmon



X



STRAIGHT-JACKETS, MUFFS AND CAGES

IN THE ALMSHOUSES OF PENNSYLVANIA

ff)y Florence L. Sanville



'Price 25 Cents



AprilB, 1915



Volume XXXIV, No.



fork j^rljnrrl nf



UNITED CHARITIES BUILDING, 105 EAST 22d STREET
EDWARD T. DEVINE. Director



INSTITUTES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS
April 19 May 8

Neighborhood Work Mrs. V. G. Simkhovitch

Correctional Problems O. F. Lewis

May 24 June 12

Family Rehabilitation Porter R. Lee

Probation for Juveniles Henry W. Thurston

Housing Kate Holladay Claghorn



FOUR COLLEGIATE FELLOWSHIPS OF $600 EACH ARE

OFFERED FOR FIRST YEAR WORK

IN 1915-16

OPEN TO RECENT GRADUATES OF COLLEGES OF RECOGNIZED STANDING

-CLASSES OF 1915, 1914, 1913

These fellowships will be awarded to the four graduates
two women and two men who write the best paper in
the regular entrance examination to be held on Saturday,
May IS, and who, as candidates for fellowships, present
other evidence of ability and aptitude for social work.
The awards will be made not later than June 10, 1915

APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE FILED BEFORE MAY I, 1915



PUBLICATIONS: STUDIES IN SOCIAL WORK

Number 1 : Social Work with Families and Individuals: By Porter R. Lee

A Brief Manual for Investigators

Number 2: Organized Charity and Industry: By Edward T. Devine

A chapter from the history of the New York Charity Organization Society

Number 3 : The Probation Officer at Work : By Henry W. Thurston

Single copies, five cents; 25 copies, $1.00 postpaid.
Additional numbers in this series will be announced from time to time on this page.



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO THE SCHOOL, 105 EAST 22d STREET



SURVEY ASSOCIATES



PUBLICATION OFFICE

105 East 22d Street
New York



INCORPORATED

Robert W. deForeal, President
Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker. Treasurer



WESTERN OFFICE

2559 Michigan Ave.

Chicago



Vol. XXXIV, No. ,



Contents



April 3,



THE COMMON WELFARE

PENSIONS FOR THE WIDOWS OF NEW YORK

HERBERT STEAD ON AMERICAN PEACE PLANS .

ROUSING WOMEN'S INTERNATIONALLY FOR PEACE

SELF-GOVEKNMENT FOR SCHOOL SOCIAL CENTERS

PATERSON STRIKE LEADERS IN JERSEY PRISON .

THE ENGLISH PRESS ON WAR AND ALCOHOL

LABOR IN THE HANDS OF JUDGES AND LAW-MAKERS . .

FILMS AND BIRTHS AND CENSORSHIP .

THREE POEMS

OLD AGE ... Edmund Niles Huyck

A BALLAD OF THE TOWN Henry Ackley

THE MUSIC OF CHILDREN. From the Yiddish ol Morrii Winctielsky, rendered into EnU-
lish verse by Alice Stone Blackwell

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES

SOCIAL LEGISLATION IN THE KEYSTONE STATE III. STRAIGHT-JACKETS, MUFFS

AND CAGES Florence L. Sanville

SO YEARS IN 40 DAYS Thomas W. Salmon. M. D.

SOME SOCIAL PROBLFMS OF PUBLIC OUTDOOR RELIEF . . . Gertrude Vaile

THE OLD COMMANDMENTS, a poem Esther Morton Smith

TWO GERMANS

KARL LIEBKNECHT . William English Walling

LUDWIG FRANK . . Gerhart von Schulze-Gaevernitz, translated by Edward A. Rumely

DETHRONED, a poem Edward H. Pfeiffer

THE QUAKER PEACE POSITION Rufus M. Jones

WHAT SOME PARIS POLICE HAVE DONE FOR REFUGEES Valentine de Puthod

THE UNNATURAL BOUNDARIES OF EUROPEAN STATES . . Simon N. Patten

SPUING IN THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY, a poem . ... Sara Teasdale

EDITORIALS

WIDOWS' PENSIONS IN NEW YORK Edward T. Devine



National Council

KOBEKT W. DE FOREST, Chairman



JANE ADDAMS. Chicago

ERNEST 1>. BICKNELL, Washington

ROBERT S. BREWSTER, New York

CHARLES M. CABOT, Boston

J. LIONBERGEU DAVIS, St. Louis

EDWARD T. DEVIXE. New York

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK. Boston

LIVINGSTON FAUKAND, Boulder, Colo.

LEE K. FKANKEL. New York

JOHN M. GLENN. New York

WIKMAM E. HARMON, New York

WM. TKMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego



WILLIAM .1. KERBY. Washington
.IOSEI'11 LEE. Boston
JULIAN W. MACK. Washington
V. EVEKIT MACY. New York
CHARLES I>. NORTON, New York
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago
FRANK TUCKER, New York
LILLIAN I). WALD. New York
ALFRED T. WHITE. Brooklyn



THE SDKVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.. Is an adventure In co-operative journalism ; incorporated
under the laws of the state of New York. Noveraher. 1012. as n membership organization
without shares or stockholders. Memhership is open to readers who become contributors of
$10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and personal interest which
bas made THE SUBVEI- a living thing.

THE SUIIVET is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded In the 90's by the
Charily Organization Society of the City of New York. The flrst weekly issue of eacii month
appears as an enlarged magazine number.

From the start, the magazine and Its related activities have been broadly conceived as an
educational enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and com-
mercial receipts.



Price



Single copies of this issue twenty-flve cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Changes of address
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice,
when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request.



URVEV ASSOCIATrS, I



The GIST of IT-

A conservative but fairly generous widows'
pension bill has passed both houses
of the New York legislature by an over-
whelming vote. Governor Whitman is ex-
pected to sign it. Page 1.

]YJR. DEVINE urges friends and oppo-
nents of widows' pensions to work
together to make it a success and to de-
velop a fruitful program for the county
boards of child welfare. Page 30.

pensions may tend to follow
the older forms of public outdoor re-
lief and become a habit-forming opiate. But
carefully administered, case by case, argues
Miss Vaile from her Denver experience,
they open up wonderful possibilities of fam-
ily reconstruction. Page 15.

QUAKERS go far beyond the modern
^ economic reasons against war. They
are not especially concerned with whether
or not war pays, and challenge it as "abso-
lutely and eternally wrong morally." Page
22.

National Bo^rd of Censorship of
Motion Pictures passed The Bjrth of a,
Nation by a divided vote and is being
roundly criticized for approving a film
which many people consider 'an unfair at-
tack on the Negro.' Page 4."

QUINLAN and Boyd, leaders in the Pat-
** erson strike, must serve their terms, by
a decision of the New Jersey Court of Er-
rors and Appeals. Boyd has appealed for
a pardon on the ground that he has changed
his views. Page 3.

^ summary of the Dutch women's call
for the women's peace congress at the
Hague. Page 2.

PENNSYLVANIANS who are going to
"go insane" better choose their resi-
dence carefully. In some parts of the state
they get care of the most modern sort. In
others, they are subjected to mediaeval
neglect as bad as Dorothea Dix disclosed
80 years ago. Page 7.

TN just 40 days South Carolina took legis-

' lative steps rather, running broad jumps

which will bring up its standards of care

for the insane from 1860 to 1915. Page 13.

the beginning of the war two German
Socialists in the Reichstag led the di-
vided ranks of the Socialist Party. Ludwig'
Frank died at the front, urging the working
people to rally to the fatherland ; Karl Lieb-
knecht remained in Berlin fighting for in-
ternationalism and peace. Page 18.

PROFESSOR PATTEN prophesies that
European peace and prosperity would
be secured if national boundary lines were
laid in economic zones. Page 24.

celebrated Seminaire St. Sulpice in
Paris, vacant because of the law of sep-
aration of church and state, was captured
by the police and by them turned into a
beehive of active refuge for Belgians and
French. Page 23.



UNIVERSITY

of

WISCONSIN

SUMMER SESSION, 1915
June 21 to July 30

346 COURSES. 190 INSTRUCTORS.
Graduate and undergraduate work in all de-
partments leading to all academic degrees.
Letters and Science (including Medicine),
Engineering, Lav, and Agriculture (includ-
ing Home Economics).

TEACHERS' COURSES in high-school
subjects. Exceptional research facilities.

NEWER FEATURES: Agricultural
Extension, College Administration for Women,
Diagnosis and Training of Atypical Classes,
Festivals, Fine Arts, Geology and Geography,
German House, Journalism, Manual Arts,
Moral Education, Physical Education and
Play, Rural Sociology, Scientific Photography.

FAVORABLE CLIMATE. LAKE-
SIDE ADVANTAGES.

One fee for all courses, $15, except Law
(10 weeks), $25. For illustrated bulletin,
address,

REGISTRAR, University, Madiion, Wiiconsir



Chicago School of Civics
and Philanthropy

GRAHAM TAYLOR. President

Summer Session, 1915
June 23 -July 30

Three Credit Courses: The Depend-
ent Family and Principles of Relief;
Wards of the State; The Law and
the Courts in Relation to Socia'
Work.

Special Courses in Methods of Social
Advance and Principles of Effici-
ency in Charitable Institutions.

Field Work with one of the social agen-
cies and Visits of Inspection to the
great social institutions in or near
Chicago.

Course for Playground Workers

Eight special courses in theory and practice of
playground work ; classes in gymnastics,
team games, folk dancing and story telling.

Bulletin of the Summer Session now ready.
Apply to the Registrar, 25 59 Michigan Ave.



home-making should be regarded at a pro-
* fessioa.

"T^H AT right living should be the fourth " R " in
* education.

THAT health is the business of the individual, ill-
ness of the physician.
*T*HAT the spending of money is as important as the

earning of the money.

TPHAT the upbringing of children demands more
* study than the raising of chickens.
*T*HAT the home-maker should be aa alert to make
* progress in her life work as the business or pro-
fessional man.

American School of Home Economics

If you agree, send for the 100-page illustrated handbook, "The
Profession of Home-Making." giving details of home-study,
domestic science courses, etc. It's FREE. Address postal or
ote.-A. S. H. E.. 519 W. 69th St.. Chicaao. 111.



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Registered Trade Mark




Established Half a Century



The Greatest Treasure House
of Linens in America

Trousseaux and Outfits of All Kinds
a Specialty

JAMES McCUTCHEON & CO.
FIFTH AVENUE, 34 AND 330 STS., NEW YORK



SCHOOL OF EUGENICS

Summer Session July 5-30, 1915

Purpose:
Scientific Sexual Enlightenment

fl Every parent needs a general working
knowledge of the sexual development
of the child, and some idea as to the
methods of imparting sex instruction.
Every teacher needs to have a sympa-
thetic understanding of the significance
of the physical and psychologic develop-
ment of the adolescent. Every social
worker needs to understand something
of the complexity of the sexual instinct,
and its bearing upon conduct in all
human relations. For these and others
who have daily association with young
people, these lectures are intended.

Address SCHOOL OF EUGENICS

Evangeline W. Young. M.D.. Director
168 Newbury Street Boston, Mass



CIVIL SERVICE



The Fairhope Summer School

THIRD SESSION

At GREENWICH. CONNECTICUT
Under the direction of

Marietta L. Johnson

Founder of the School of Organic Eduction at

Fairhope, Alabama

A six weeks course of unusual value to
parents, teachers and social workers

Normal Course Children's School

Courses by Specialists in

Life Class Activities

For further particulars, address

SECRETARY OF THE FAIRHOPE LEAGUE

GREENWICH. CONN.



Examination for

Secretary on Recreation

(Committee on Social Welfare,
Board of Estimate)

Salary $4,000 per annum

Applications will be issued from

March 24 until 4 p. m. to April 7.

The duties of the Secretary on Kecrea-
tion will be To conduct Investigations;
To formulate and submit the flndings re-
sulting from such Investigations: To ex-
amine and prepare material for the cal-
eudarn of this Committee.

liiilitinmintu: Kxtended administra-
tive experience In planning recreation
facilities for large groups of persons Is
required.

Applicants must be citizens of the
t'nlted States. The requirement that
applicants must lie residents of the
State of New York Is waived for this
examination.

The subjects and weights for this
examination are : Training and ex-
perience 4; 70% required; Written
examination 4; 70% required; Oral
examination 2; 70% required.

A physical qualifying examination
will be given.

Candidates will not bo assembled for
the written examination, but will be
notified to appear for the oral examina-
tion. Application blanks will be mailed
upon reijuest provided a self-addressed
stamped envelope or sufficient postage is
enclosed to cover the mailing.

Minimum age is 25 years.

Municipal Civil Service Commission,

New York City



THE APPOINTHENT BUREAU of the

Women's Educational and Industrial Union,
264 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass., wishes
to know of opportunities in Social Service
affording living expenses, for college grad-
uates (1915) who have majored in Eco-
nomics and Sociology, but have had little
field work.



"The National Training School prepares lor
executive positions in Young Women's Chris-
tian Associations. Address Secretarial Depart-
ment, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City."

The Story of the Mary Fisher Home

ITS INMATES Oroteoque, comical, pathetic
Tim saddest CHHB in the Wuite Sla\ e Truffle. The
Story of the Poe OttHge The POP P.irk. Edwin
Bjorkman's letter to President Wilsouoonoaruini:
American men of letters.

Shakespeare Press, 114 East 28th St. SI. 2 5




PENSIONS FOR THE WIDOWS OF
NEW YORK

ONLY GOVERNOR WHITMAN'S sig-
nature which is confidently expected
is needed to give widows' pensions to
New York. The Hill bill, which had
passed the Senate unanimously, went
through the Assembly by a vote of 129
to 8, the first measure of the session to
submerge party lines.

The Hill bill is considered a conserva-
tive measure. The pensions "allow-
ances," they are called may "not ex-
ceed the amount or amounts which it
would be necessary to pay to an institu-
tional home for the care of such widow's
child or children." This means, in most
cases, $2.50 a week, or about $11 a month
for each child. For the widow with one
or two children the amount will be small,
though it will compare favorably with
that granted in other cities, should the
maximum allowance be given. For
families of three or more children the
amount may be relatively generous.

The New York bill includes only
mothers whose husbands are dead. They
must be "suitable" persons to bring up
their children, must have been residents
of the county for two years preceding
the application, and their husbands must
have been citizens of the United States
and residents of the state before death.
The children must be under sixteen
years of age.

A provision not found in any other
state law is one requiring that a pension
shall not be granted unless it appears
"that if such aid is not granted the child
or children must be cared for in an in-
stitutional home." This provision, strict-
ly interpreted, would sharply limit the
number of widows eligible for pensions.

The administration of the law is to be
in the hands of a local board of child
welfare in each county. Of the seven
members, one is to be the county super-
intendent of the poor ex-officio, and the
others, two of whom must be women, are
to be appointed by the county judge for
a term of six years each, one expiring
each year. In New York city the appoint-
ment is to be by the mayor. The com-
missioner of public charities is to be a
member ex-officio, and there are to be
eight other members serving eight-year

Volume XXXIV, No. 1.



terms, at least three of them women.
Members are to serve without compensa-
tion, but may be paid their necessary ex-
penses.

Allowances are to be granted by a
majority vote of the board. The State
Board of Charities is to have general
supervision and may revoke allowances
for cause. Appropriations, which are
not compulsory, are to be made by the
county board of supervisors in New
York city, the Board of Estimate and
Apportionment and the Board of Alder-
men.

The local boards may establish their
own rules and regulations, but these
"shall provide for the careful investi-
gation by the board or otherwise of all
applicants for allowances and of ade-
quate supervision of all persons receiv-
ing allowances. Such investigations and
supervisions, when consistently possible,
to be made by the board or by authori-
ties now intrusted with similar work and
without incurring any unnecessary ex-
pense." This provision makes possible
the closest sort of co-operation with the
present poor authorities, particularly
with the Department of Public Chari-
ties in New York city, and with volun-
teer social agencies.

The bill is to take effect July 1, and
the members of the county boards of
child welfare must be appointed within
sixty days thereafter.



H



ERBERT STEAD ON AMERICAN
PEACE PLANS




Klrby in New York World
THE GOOD ANGEL



CALLING ON THE United States
for definite leadership anent the war and
carrying a message of optimism con-
cerning the spiritual gain and larger de-
mocracy which England is finding in her
ordeal, F. Herbert Stead of London, has
been speaking to social workers and
other groups in eastern cities. Mr.
Stead is warden of Browning Hall, so-
cial settlement in Walworth, London,
and brother of William T. Stead, the
journalist and peace advocate who went
down on the Titanic. His visit was
planned a year ago and he expected to
include many cities. But the situation
in his own country led him to give up
all except the appointments he had orig-
inally made.

Mr. Stead criticized much of the peace
agitation in this country. The programs
and suggestions put out in the United
States to date are so vague and various,
he maintains, as to be confusing and
even detrimental. Instead of discussing
platitudes and visionary schemes for
federating the nations, he believes that
the United States should focus its at-
tention on definite plans for making the
international agency we now have more
effective. The third Hague conference,
already overdue, should be convened, he
urges, by the United States immediately
upon the conclusion of the war. Before
the Twentieth Century Club in Boston
he even declared that one of the former
presidents of this country should be
made the head of the Hague adminis
trative council, the "first world prem-
ier."

The urgent need, according to Mr
Stead, is to start now the work of form
ulating a program of action for the con-
ference. The latter, he said, "should
consist of the most powerful and respon
sible statesmen that can be sent by the
nations, and when convened it should
proceed, not to emit pious wishes, or
academic resolutions, but to take prompt,
peremptory and drastic action. Definite
decrees should be passed by the confer-
ence that war shall henceforth cease,
that no war shall be tolerated except
that initiated by the central power in

1



The Survey, April 3, 1915



enforcement of the decrees of the tribu-
- nal, and that any wars shall be treated
on 1-md as brigandage and on sea as
piracy. The best deterrent would be the
declaration of an economic boycott
against any recalcitrant nation. That
would be more powerful than any armed
force. The mere threat of it would be
effective in 90 out of 100 cases, and the
application of the boycott would be ef-
fective in nine out of the remaining ten.
But in the hundredth case the applica-
tion of armed force might be necessary.
Disarmament obligatory and universal
except for the minimum requisite to
maintain order within each nation could
then be decreed."

In the united feeling of the British
nation, which the war has brought about,
Mr. Stead sees the beginning of a new
era of understanding and common pur-
pose among all the people. With the ex-
ception of Ramsay MacDonald and Keir
Hardie, all the principal labor leaders
are standing with the representatives of
other groups in supporting the nation,
as are also the militant suffragists.
There is difference of opinion on many
points connected with the causes and
start of the war. And many are strong
in their objection to secret diplomacy,
which they feel contributed to the out-
break of the war. But this and other
divisive matters are, he maintains, rele-
gated to the background in the face of
the national crisis.

"The old distrust of one another and
bitter political antagonisms have gone
and those who shared in this intense
unity will never go back to them," says
Mr. Stead. The nation as a whole, he
explained, is doing things for the entire
people. Some of these before the war
would have been the subject of great
controversy. For instance, the appro-
priation of four million pounds for im-
proved housing, a measure partly to re-
lieve unemployment in the building
trades, might have taken a whole parlia-
mentary session to secure under ordin-
ary circumstances. It went through
easily and with scarcely any debate soon



after the war started. Other examples
of collective action, the significance of
which will not be forgotten by the peo-
ple, are the governmental control of the
railways, governmental monopoly of
sugar, and the nationalizing of the work
of all engineering firms engaged in pro-
ducing munitions of war.

With this new and larger conscious-
ness of democracy there is, says Mr.
Stead, a great spiritual regeneration, a
higher ethical sense which has inevitably
accompanied the multitudinous self sac-
rifice of the people. There is a new re-
alization of the old truth that without
the shedding of blood there is no remis-
sion. And even the tremendous loss of
life is not too great a price to pay, Mr.
Stead holds, for the great moral ad-
vance which he sees the nation making.



R



OUSING WOMEN'S INTER-
NATIONALITY FOR PEACE



GIRDED BY clashing armies, an
International Congress of Women at the
Hague, Holland, April 27 to 30, will
unite women of every nationality in an
appeal for peace.

The congress is the outcome of a



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