Survey Associates.

The Survey (Volume 38) online

. (page 1 of 183)
Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 38) → online text (page 1 of 183)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


S.




RAKY

SfRVIC!
, D. C.







Co VOv

X* f **a*











-SERVICE







THE SURVEY



VOL. XXXVIII
APRIL, 1917 SEPTEMBER, 1917

,



WITH INDEX



NEW YORK

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.
112 EAST 19 STREET



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC



NATIONAL COUNCIL

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman



JANE ADDAMS Chicago

ERNEST P. BICKNELL Washington

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York

ARTHUR P. ESTABROOK Boston

LIVINGSTON PARRAND Boulder

SAMUEL S. PELS Philadelphia

LEE K. PRANKEL New York

JOHN M. GLENN. New York

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego
PRANK TUCKER, Trees New York



MORRIS KNOWLES Pittsburgh

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago

JOSEPH LEE Boston

JULIAN W. MACK ...Chicago

V. EVERIT MACY New York

CHARLES D. NORTON New York

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago

NATHAN A. SMYTH New York

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago

ELIOT WADSWORTH Washington

LILLIAN D. WALD New York

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York



THE STAFF

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR

JANE ADDAMS






CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

PHILIP P. JACOBS
ALEXANDER JOHNSON

FLORENCE KELLEY

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY

JOHN IHLDER

PORTER R. LEE

ALICE HAMILTON

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN

I. M. RUBINOW



HEADQUARTERS STAFF

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR*

JOHN A. PITCH

DAVID C. DAVIS

WINTHROP D. LANE

MARY CHAMBERLAIN

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR

BRUNO LASKER

ELWOOD STREET



*On leave of absence attached to the American Embassy, Petrograd.



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION






LEARNING TO USE

AN ARTIFICIAL HAND




;f he Battle-ground for Wounded Men

By Paul D. Kellogg

Trades and Courage for French War Cripples

By Bruno Lasker




From a

Patriotic Fund
Poster




Price 25 Cents



April 7, 1917



CONTENTS for APRIL 7, 1917

VOLUME XXXVIII, No. 1

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES

A Canadian City in War Time IV. The Battle-ground for Wounded
Men -

PAUL U. KELLOGG 1

Rebuilt Men. New Trades and Fresh Courage for French War Cripples

BRUNO LASKER 1 1

Lock and Key

ELIZABETH ROBBINS HOOKER 14

"Safe for Democracy." The President's Address to Congress on April 2 - 16
Learning for Earning or for Life?



COMMON WELFARE

Plans for the Care of Soldiers' Families -
Word from Madame Breshkovsky -
Taxing Wealth to Pay for War
Youth and Spring on the Stage
A Lincoln Statue for Petrograd
A City Playground in the Mountains -
When the Kallikaks Moved to Harrisburg -
New York's New Citizen Police -
Protest by Cleveland Settlements
Juvenile Crime the Nemesis of Hate -
Vindication for a Civic Reformer -
The Lure of the North for Negroes
One Point Where California Lags Behind
Social Settlements and the War
To Protect American Ideals -



\\INTHROP D. LANE 18



20
20
20

21
21
22
23
24
24
24
26
27
28
29
31



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, President

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE

112 East 19 street, New York 2559 Michigan ave., Chicago

NATIONAL COUNCIL

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman



JANE ADDAMS, Chicago.
ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington.
RICHARD C. CABOT. Boston.
J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis.
EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York.
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston.
LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo.
SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia.
LEE K. FRANKEL. New York.
JOHN M. GLENN, New York.
C. If. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif.
WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York.
WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego.

ALFRED T.



MORRIS KNOWLES, Pittsburgh.
ALBERT D. LASKER. Chicago.
JOSEPH LEE, Boston.
JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago.
V. EVERIT MACY, New York.
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York.
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia.
JULIUS ROSENWALD. Chicago.
NATHAN A. SMYTH, New York.
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago.
FRANK TUCKER^New York.
ELIOT WADSWORTH, Washington.
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York.
WHITE, Brooklyn.



SUIVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., is an adventure in cooperative journalism, incorporated under the laws of the

state of New York, November, 1912, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders

Membership is open to readers who become contributors of $10 or more a Tear. It it this widespread

convinced backing and personal interest which has made THE SOVEY a living thing.

THE SUHVEY is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the Charity Organi

zation Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month appears as an enlarged

magazine number.

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an educational

enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and commercial receipts.

PRICE

Single copies of this issue, 25 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once-
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment
is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1917, by SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act
of March 3, 1879.



The GIST of IT

TO ADJUST the discards of war to civil
life again, physically, vocationally, spiritu-
ally, the Canadian Military Hospitals Cora-
mission makes use of volunteer service as
the Patriotic Fund does in the care of sol-
diers' families. Doctors and nurses, teachers
and vocational counselors, shoemakers and
employment agents all play a part. The
greatest wounds come not from hullets but
from tuberculosis. Page 1.



EXPERIENCE from the field of workmen's
compensation following industrial accidents
has been of prime service in replacing French
war cripples among the self-supporting.
These cripples are themselves contributing
to the understanding of organic habituation
to mutilations. The schools for the handi-
capped are full of soldiers and their work
is a success. Page 11.



AMONG some of the cripples of peace, tr
the nervous invalids and the convalescents
from sickness or strain there is need of
occupation not only useful but inspiring
something to put a poor, fidgety soul back
on his feet again. Growing flowers, to be
sold cheap to the flower-hungry in the
rities, suggested as the ideal combination.
Page 14.



PRESIDENT WILSON went the whole way
in his address to Congress Monday night
war, alliance, universal service. He recites
the invasion of our sea rights, but it is
toward the overthrow of the German gov-
ernment, for the sake of the people of all
Europe, that he calls on the American dem-
ocracy to throw its full strength into the
struggle. The text of the address. Page 16.

INDIANA'S school survey was an elaborate
study not only of vocational education, but
of its application to a given industry in a
given city of specified size. Page 18.



PRACTICAL training for volunteers in the
care of soldiers' families is to be given by
the New York School of Philanthropy, with
field work in the large relief agencies.
Page 20.



THE proposal of a pay-as-vou-enter war,
financed by taxes laid on this generation,
has met with such a response as almost _to
bury under approving letters the three social
workers who invented it. Page 20.



SAN FRANCISCO newspapers are uphold-
ing their newsboys in opposing an extension
of the child-labor law in street trades, fol-
lowing thereby the discarded practice of
eastern papers a decade ago. Page 28.



GERMANY has had a great increase of
juvenile crime since the war began, due, it
is believed, to the bitterness and hate of
newspapers and general public feeling.
Page 24.



SIX years ago Los Angeles moved a munici-
pal recreation center out into the neighboring
mountains. Not only rest and recreation, but
civic pride and community spirit have re-
sulted. Page 22.



CIVIC reformers in Pittsburgh are rejoicing
over the vindication of A. Leo Weil. A
mountain vendetta, applied through the
West Virginia courts, was employed to
"get 1 ' him because of his prosecutions for
the Voters' League. Page 26.



WHOLE church congregations even train-
loads of southern Negroes have moved up
to the high wages of Philadelphia. A joint
committee is at work on the resulting prob-
lems of health, housing and schools. Page 27.




A Canadian City in War Time

IV. The Battle-ground for Wounded Men
By Paul U. Kellogg



THE GREY NUNNERY they call it and the name
seems to fit the great half-quadrangle of that weath-
ered limestone which gives to warehouse and church
alike in Montreal the quality of etchings. But the
name has to do with more than walls, for this is the mother
house of Les Soeurs Crises, whose branches in the United
States and western Canada have made the work of the
order known throughout the continent.

In Montreal, that work reaches back to the French and
Indian war, when the Grey nuns nursed wounded English
soldiers who had been taken captive. Today, row after row
of beds, floor after floor, one entire wing of the nunnery has
been stripped of its customary furnishings and insignia and has
been given over to wounded men, French-speaking, English-
speaking, convalescents from the battlefields of another great
European struggle in which, this time, France and England are
making common cause, and in which stand together the de-
scendants of the men who fought in the eighteenth century
for control of the valley of the St. Lawrence.

The ground floor had been thrown into a recreation room,
and patients lined the benches the morning of my visit, or
hung about the piano where local talent was doing the honors
of visiting day. At the billiard table, a one-legged man with
his crutch laid aside and a cue in its place was meeting all
comers on unequal terms and in a sense personifying the
genius of the place. For in the adjoining rooms were invalided
men at work at the shoe-makers' and carpenters' benches and
school desks that made up the simple equipment of the first
of the vocational classes which are gradually turning the con-
valescent homes of the Military Hospitals Commission into
training schools.

Here was an Irishman, an ex-stage driver from out Van-
couver way ; and next him Joe Desrosiers, a quiet-spoken young
French-Canadian from the rural districts of Quebec. Two
months before, just back from the war, Joe could neither read
nor write, but he had made such rapid progress that he was
now addressing daily notes to his instructor and multiplying in
four figures. He showed me his copy-book with its proud label,
For Canada and Empire; and inside, beginning on the first
page with crudely formed letters, were the exercises which



stood for nothing less, step after step, than the opening up of
civilization to a starved intelligence. There in the half-formed
handwriting of this soldier of the expeditionary force, who was
wounded in the side in the first battle of Ypres, were such
painfully engrossed practice sheets as "Dickey bird, dickey bird,
whither away?" When Joe Desrosiers can read, he is to
take up motor mechanics ; and when the doctors discharge him,
he will face the world with some compensation for his life-
long physical handicap.

The spirit of humane care in all medical service reaches
back to the hospices of the Middle Ages. But the work in
these convalescent homes draws its inspiration from some of
the newest sources, not only in medicine but in industry and
education. It draws on the latest developments in the schools
for the blind and hospitals for crippled children, on psychiatric
ward and tuberculosis sanatoria, operating room and research
laboratory, on the technical colleges and the work shops of
scientific managers and efficiency engineers.

And this convalescent home in the Grey Nunnery is but
one of. the way-stations on the return road which begins at the
ports of debarkation, Halifax, St. Johns and Quebec, and
reaches back to every cross-way and city neighborhood of the
dominion from which men have set out for the front, whole
and vigorous.

Perhaps there is no better way to visualize it than to tell
at the start the story of one group of Jamaicans whose partici-
pation in the fortunes of war ran the whole gamut of bitter
personal loss and partial reparation. Of these, nine had to have
both legs amputated below the knee, eight lost one foot or
most of one foot. In the West Indies, they had been cul-
tivators, earning from ten to fourteen shillings per week.
Their case was taken up by the Canadian Military Hospitals
Commission with the government of Jamaica, which reported
that if the crippled men could get training as shoemakers or
garment makers they could earn a livelihood on the island. In
less than five months, eight of the men were trained to the
point where they could do ordinary shoe-repairing as well as
the average journeyman; two showed such aptitude for cob-
bling that they could make custom-made shoes; three showed
60 per cent efficiency as garment makers; one, in tinsmithing,

1



THE SUR7EY FO& APRIL f,




CLASS IN WOODWORKING AT THE GREY NUNS CONVALESCENT HOME, MONTREAL



could make an ordinary utensil if given the pattern, although
he was of such a primitive type, that he could not distinguish
differences smaller than a quarter of an inch. One was trained
to be a chauffeur (he had had some experience before) ; and
one completed two-thirds of a course in stenography and type-
writing.

All this process of re-education was carried on during the
period of convalescence in Halifax, where W. J. Clayton, a
clothing manufacturer, gave up his house, which the Red Cross
furnished as a military hospital. The men were supplied with
artificial limbs made in the government factory at Toronto,
established and run by the Military Hospitals Commission.
One month after they were fitted to these limbs and just before
they left for Jamaica, they had a dance on their Canadian
legs. But while this festivity appealed most to the popular
imagination, it was less of a miracle than their transformation
industrially. Jamaica paid the cost of maintaining, equipping
and training the men. Instead of the unskilled farm hands
who had left the island, instead of helpless war-cripples, pro-
spective dependents for unnumbered days, seventeen producers,
with enough artisanship to earn for themselves more than they
had ever earned before, sailed south from Halifax to take up
life hopefully in spite of their desperate maiming.

Quebec is the clearing-house for invalided men, but with
the St. Lawrence frozen fast, Halifax and St. Johns are the
ports of entry in winter. Hospital ships for all the sick or
wounded, a debarkation hospital at the water-front, and special
hospital cars for helpless patients, are links recently forged in
the chain of care which mark great advances over the earlier
provisions. Ordinary troop and passenger ships have been
much used to bring back men from the English hospitals, but
these often have proved to be crowded, the accommodations
inadequate, and classification difficult.

More and more invalided men are being brought in English
hospital ships, 500 at a time. In these ships with their four
red crosses, port and starboard, forward and stern, and a large
electric red cross at night, there has been less danger from
submarines. Yet, in March, such a ship was attacked in
English waters regardless of its markings and freightage. A



doctor is in high command and outside of the officers and crew
there are none aboard the ship save wounded men, orderlies
and nurses. Moreover, the ships are divided into wards, which
facilitates classification. Each man has a separate cot. If he
is helpless and might roll out, he sleeps in something like an
old-fashioned baby's crib, which can swing with the motion of
the ship or can be made fast.

At Halifax the immigration building on Pier 2 has been
transformed into a large clearing hospital. It can take care of
425 patients, so that a ship can be emptied practically at once
and a man carried on a level from his cot aboard the boat to
a cot on shore. One frequently told story of the port is of a
chap who came down the gang-plank, hobbling along on crutch
and cane with one leg off. A friend in front carried for 'him
his kit-bag and his artificial leg, which he had not yet learned
to manipulate, at least down a gang-plank. The friend, ex-
cited on getting back, rushed ahead onto Canadian soil until
he was hailed by a howl from the rear, "How in hell do yez
think this left leg can catch up wid that right one? For God's
sake wait."

But it is the paralytics, especially those who must be carried




CLASS IN MECHANICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, KHAKI
LEAGUE CONVALESCENT HOME, MONTREAL




INVALIDED SOLDIERS AND INVALIDED SHOES



on water beds, that have caused greatest concern. In one
shipload were nine men, paralyzed from the waist down, who
had to be swung off in hammocks. Some had been blown up,
others hit by shrapnel, one sniped and one kicked by a horse.

It was through experience in handling this group of bed-
ridden cases that the third advance in equipment, the hospital
cars, came about. Until these cars were provided, with their
big side doors, it was excruciating business to transfer such
cases from the ships to the train. The hospital cars are ar-
ranged in units of two cars each. In the first, cots are put in
place of the lower berths ; the upper berths being left for the
use of orderlies at night. The companion car has a smaller
number of cots, doctors' and nurses' quarter?, and a side en-
trance. The Canadian government railway has provided five
such units, and the Canadian Pacific, three or sixteen cars
in all.

Human Cargoes

A HOSPITAL ship's list is made up somewhat like a manifest,
with the man's name, company, regiment, residence and dis-
ability a human cargo, if you will, of invalided and conva-




ONE OF THE CLASSES IN MOTOR MECHANICS OF THE MILITARY
HOSPITALS COMMISSION



lescent men, and more recently, of active cases. For with
roughly fifteen thousand sick and wounded Canadians under
treatment in England, and prospect of immense additions to
their number after the spring campaign, the cross-seas trans-
port of patients at an earlier stage of treatment was entered
upon in mid-winter to relieve the English hospitals. Not a
few of the men have open wounds still.

One fellow came through with sixty-nine wounds. He had
been reconnoitering with five others. As a mortar shell burst,
he dove head first into a trench and all sixty-nine wounds were
from his hips to the soles of his feet. Even so, he was more
fortunate than his companions. A second man of the party
died of his wounds ; a third was killed outright ; a fourth had
to have a leg amputated ; and a fifth was found dead against
a post, whole, but killed by the concussion. Another wounded
man brought twenty-eight pieces of shrapnel down the gang-
plank with him still in his body. He had three stiff joints,
but the metal had reached him in no vital part. The home-
comers range from cases such as these, to men in apparent good
health, whose injuries merely incapacitate them for further
active military service.

First the men of the maritime provinces Nova Scotia,
Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick are taken to the
discharge depot and go before a medical board. This has on
hand the documents from the corresponding English medical
board, but it is on the basis of re-examination in Canada that
the men are divided into three classes:

I. Men for immediate discharge without pension those unfit for
overseas service, but capable of taking up their previous civilian
occupation, or those whose disability was neither the result of service
nor aggravated by it.

II. Men whose condition may be benefited by further medical
Ireatment.

III. Men with permanent disability who will not be benefited by
further treatment, and whose cases come before the board of pension
commissioners'

The men of class I go to the pay-master for transportation,
are paid off, given civilian clothing (or $13, as they prefer),
and 15 days' extra pay, to tide them over until they get em-
ployment. This procedure is true to a degree of class III, ex-



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917



cept that they are kept on pay until their pensions are adjusted.
Red Cross committees look after these maritime men while in
Halifax, giving them auto-rides, entertaining them in private
houses, etc. Meanwhile the provincial Returned Soldiers Com-
mission notifies its representative in each home town that the
man is on his way, so that he may not arrive unknown, un-
heralded, and unwelcomed.

The men of class II get $10 down, the balance of their
pay is sent by check to their homes, and after a ten days' leave
(if they are well enough) they come under the care of the
Military Hospitals Commission, army pay and subsistence al-
lowance continuing during their period of treatment.

Men of all classes whose destinations are west of the mari-
time provinces are entrained for Quebec, where they in turn
come before a medical board, and are classified. Elaborate
case histories are taken down for those of class II, covering
not only their army and physical record, but such items as
their former occupation, earnings, schooling, technical training.
These records are sent in duplicate to the various govern-
mental departments. For it is at this point, and with these
men of class II, who, after medical and vocational treatment
may either be rehabilitated into self-sufficient civilians (like
class I) or drop into the pensioners (class III), that the pri-
mary work of the Military Hospitals Commission begins.

Almost by accident, Canada put into the hands of a civilian
commission the handling of this return current of men from
overseas. The far-reaching social significance of so doing is
only now beginning to lay hold of the public. In testifying
before a parliamentary committee in March, the general
charged with mustering battalions in the Montreal district,
said tersely that he had no time to consider the handling of
returned convalescents; his business was to produce fighting
men for the front. Not only do the currents run in opposite
directions, but their whole functioning is different. The goal
of the Military Hospitals Commission is to take the discards
of war and readjust them physically, vocationally and spir-
itually to civil life. Gradually, as the return current grows
in volume, and as the commission becomes better known its
work is being visualized as a great economic and patriotic re-
sponsibility and service.

To date upward of 15,000 men have gone through its
hands. These are only the advance guard of no one knows
how large an army of invalided men. Until three or
four months ago, they came only gradually, and the first to
reach Canada were not the most seriously disabled. Ampu-
tation and other serious cases would stay on in England for a
long time. People in most of the provinces are only now




beginning to meet the real war cripples to shake men by the
left hand or try to talk naturally to one whose painfully
labored breath and speech are due to gassing. At the outset,
the heads of the medical corps, engineering and clothing bu-
reaus of the Canadian Department of Militia and Defense
were made a special committee to look after returned soldiers.
A few convalescent homes were started, and there was one file
at Ottawa to contain the correspondence. Today there are
1,000 files. The commission was formed by an order in coun-
cil dated June 30, 1915, under the presidency of Sir James A.
Lougheed, member of the Cabinet without portfolio, and was
composed of representative men from all parts of the dominion,
some of them nominated by the provincial governments. As
secretary, E. H. Scammell was chosen, an Englishman who
had lived ten years in Canada and who, before the war,
had organized the Canadian end of the celebration of
one hundred years of peace with the United States. Inci-
dentally, Mr. ScammeH's father had been active in rehabili-
tation work for returned soldiers in England following the
Boer war. His own experience in mining and industrial
operations in Canada and Australia has stood him in good
stead in projecting the social and economic phases of the work.
For increasingly, those phases, no less than the medical, have
become important.

The Canadian Army Medical Corps had been developed



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 38) → online text (page 1 of 183)