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Nobody knows them all. It is a shifting scene spre
out for us here in Paris and its actors are changing fn
week to week.

But the sum total of it all is to keep alive and act
those movements toward freedom that are either wholly i
possible in home countries or so throttled as to be voicelt
Not a single activity of the many-sided fight for freedom
against tyranny is missing, from anti-feudalism to pro-Co
munism. And enough French men and women are hospita



THE CAPITAL OF THE MEN Wll



to each of them to make life tolerable and activity possible.
I touched them all without feeling myself a partisan of any
group against another, whatever their differences of phil-
osophy or class origin, for they all merged into a spirit of
revolt and of affirmation greater than any program : re-
volt against the little privileged classes who hold such vast
powers by violence today in a world that still lives at bot-
tom by violence; affirmation of a faith that shall destroy
them, a faith in the people expressed either in old demo-
cratic formulas or in modern class struggle.

BOVE their conflict of ideas as to how emancipation
_ shall be won, stands clear a force of character that
makes them one. From left wing' to right, of whatever
race, they gave me the glow you get from seeing disinterested
devotion to a cause, the faith that simply will not be shaken
by defeat of everything they have striven for, the good cheer



that blesses those who know that fighting, not winning, is
all life is likely to give them.

The world they work to build is far off. They are no
reformers of minor ills. They strike deep at the roots
of ancient major evils which will stand many years between
us and the dreams of freedom and equality. If Paris has
only saved them for what they are themselves in character
and influence, she has merited well of those who build for
the future.

But I suspect that the conflicts of the world of today
will not leave them there to their deaths, in comparative
futility. Their battle is behind and lost; it is before
and to be fought again. Whether they see achieved the
goals for which they fight national freedom, political lib-
erty, workers' control in industry, colonial independence
these things will one day be won. Even in their city of
refuge they are contributing to the winning.



" Nothing to Lose but Chains"



Comite de Defense des Victimes du
et de la Terreur Blanche



Fascisme



55, Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre, PARIS
I'rcsiJcnl . Henri UARliUSSE

BULLETIN SPECIAL




En Italic.
Berceau da Fascism*



A L'AIDE



D UN PEUPLE



MARTYRISE



The cover o} the February issue of a bulletin on Fascism issued by
Barbusse's Defense Committee. The drawing is by Robert Minor



Judge Lindsey Out but Not Down




twenty years ago this month, Charities
and Commons, forerunner of The Survey,
published an editorial by Judge Ben B.
Lindsey of Denver defending the constitu-
tionality of the juvenile court of that city
about to be set up under a law which he
himself had drafted. Eight preceding years of frank and
resolute public service in Denver had made for the young
judge many strong friends and also strong enemies. In
these past twenty years there is hardly a volume of The
Survey that has not carried the story of Judge Lindsey's
achievements despite bitter political opposition.

The more pity that after nearly thirty years of continuous
service in the courts of Denver, Judge Lindsey is out of
office. The successive rounds of his three-year fight with
the Ku Klux Klan (see The Survey, June i, 1925;
November I, 1925; January 15, 1926; February 15, 1927)
recently ended in defeat when the United States Supreme
Court found it impossible to take jurisdiction in an appeal
from the decision of the Supreme Court of Colorado. The
only possibility of his continuance in office was by appoint-
ment of the county commissioners. But on July I, while
Commissioner Clem Collins was out of town, Commissioners
Charles D. Vail and Thomas F. Dolan held a meeting at
which Commissioner Dolan moved to appoint Robert W.
Steele as judge of the Juvenile Court and explained his
qualifications, while Commissioner Dolan seconded the mo-
tion and the two men elected Mr. Steele "unflnimously."
According to statements attributed to them by the news-
papers, nine other applications for the office among them
Judge Lindsey's were not even considered.

Thus ironically is ended for the time being the effort
of Denver's best known citizen to carry on the public work
which he himself originated and for which his city is known
internationally. The Juvenile Court of Denver was not
the first of its kind, though it greatly extended the scope of
some of the earlier separate courts, such as those of Salt
Lake City and Chicago, through its power to try not only
children themselves but any case in which the protection
of children was involved. Because of the energy, the
originality, and the fearlessness of its judge, however, it is
the work in Denver which has done most to write "juvenile
court" into public understanding as a place to which children
go not to be judged but to be understood and helped. Judge
Lindsey's basic demand that children be protected from the
impersonal mechanics of the law and the curiosity of the
public expresses the philosophy of the new and constructive
penology, which asks not that the crime be punished, but
that the offender be treated.

From the point of view of Denver the tragedy of the
Juvenile Court comprises even more than the resignation
of Judge Lindsey. When the decision of the Supreme Court
became known every officer and most of the members of
the secretarial staff of Judge Lindsey's court joined in a
spontaneous letter of "unreserved admiration" of his work
and his position, signed by eighteen of a group of twenty-one.



. . . But far greater even than his incomparable achieve-
ments in giving Colorado the leading place it has in child wel-
fare legislation and procedure is, we feel, his tireless and un-
compromising fight against the causes of economic and social

injustice Those of us who have had the exceptional

privilege of daily contact with him in his work and in his strug-
gles to help create a juster and finer community wish to
acknowledge our debt to him for the clear vision he has ever
held before us of what human relations and human lives might
mean. With such national and international recognition of his
work as he has long received our expression of opinion can
mean but little save this: So strongly do we feel these things
that should he be prevented from continuing the service he has
given these past twenty-seven years our own relation with the
work he has created would instantly cease with his going.

When the letter was read at a dinner given to Judge
I indsey on June 13, he urged the staff to remain if an op-
portunity was given. Yet the day after Judge Steele took
office the resignations of fourteen officers and other members
of the court were placed on his desk and the fifteenth was
given him later. A special meeting of the Denver Chapter
of the American Association of Social Workers was called
to discuss their action, at which a number of persons ex-
pressed the opinion that it was the first duty of social
workers to stay by the job, come what may. A letter ex-
plaining the position of the group was made public by
Josephine Roche, who had resigned as referee and clerk of
the Juvenile Court, quoting Judge Steele's expressed de-
termination to act "in the capacity of a judge and not that
of a social psychologist or reformer," his intention to make
the court "as nearly like other courts of record in the state
as is possible under the law," and his opinion that cases in-
volving an issue in law "should be handled in the manner
customary in law rather than by private consultation with
the judge." Miss Roche declared:

This announced policy can be characterized only as a re-
pudiation of the ideals and a wiping out of the foundation of
juvenile court work. The effect is that there is no juvenile
court in the sense we have known it. We refuse to go back
because we would be but lending ourselves to an effort to create
an impression that juvenile court work is still going on when, in
fact, it was destroyed by Judge Steele's statement on the date
of his induction into office. And no one, so much as we, can
realize the extent of the tragedy to innumerable men, women
and children who desperately need the human service which the
court has heretofore rendered and who are being made the
sacrifice in the situation by the industrial and political interests
which have long been bitterly determined to punish Judge Lind-
sey for his fight for economic justice.

While public statements and private letters are pouring
in to express sympathy with Judge Lindsey's position and
hope that some way can be found to enable the city again
to gain by his services, another direct appreciation came in
the little stream of parents and children who find the way
to his house and insist that he talk with them in a parlor
if not in a courtroom. Among those who came the first day
of his absence from the court were two boys, accompanied
by. their mother, who asked to "consult the judge."

"But I'm no longer judge," he pointed out.

"Ah, gwan,!" declared the delinquent admirer, "you're
always judge."



468




Letters &. Life

[n which books, plays and people
are discussed



Edited by LEON WHIPPLE

Whither India?

MOTHICR INDIA, by Kathcrine Mayo. Harcoitrt, Brace & Co. 440 pp.
Price $3.75 postpaid of The Surrey.

EW books deserve the blurb "challenging."
They are no more challenging than a sponge.
Miss Mayo's Mother India is challenging,
prickly with facts and neglected angles of
approach as a fretful porpentine. It forms
a social worker's approach and takes the
individual Indian as a problem in biology and psychology,
and so happily removes itself from the field of romance, of
disputation over nationalism, and of religious controversy. I
confess I learned more from this book on the inner Indian
and why the East is East than I ever knew before. It seems
to look at elementals, and while not complete, either in
viewpoint or evidence, and certainly not all true, for nothing
can be all true of India, it is true enough to provide a great
light. Whether you are sending a missionary to India, or
laboring for Indian nationalism, or concerned with world
health, or just humanely zealous to reduce the gross suffering
in the world, you will find new knowledge and stimulation
in this clear-eyed outsider's appraisal of the mystery of India.
The book is a kind of case-work survey of certain things
that we should know of India. It is not always convincing
for evidence is not given to prove how widespread are the
evils of which individual cases are presented. It lacks
statistical foundation for Indian statistics are, if possible,
more uncertain than statistics in general. Its main thesis
is that the Indian people by their sex-life, by the deadening
fatalism of their religion and religion-descended folkways,
by their indifference to sanitation, and by their blindness to
economic reality, have fallen into a present state of race
inertia and illusion that makes it impossible for them to
muster strength in themselves to take advantage of whatever
blessings western civilization has to offer.

The metaphysical problem of whether these blessings are
unmitigated or whether everybody should want them, Miss
Mayo does not take up. She assumes that happy wives,
healthy children, pure milk and water, grade schools,
maternity care, and successful agriculture are good things
whatever you think of the destiny of man, here or hereafter.
She is interested in the practical things that a wise woman
might want for a community she had been sent to serve.
She believes these things are prerequisites for self-govern-
ment, and politically she thinks the trouble is not with the
British governors nor the lack of swaraj, but with this sex-
and disease-weakened Indian human being. Her mind runs
to biology, not to politics. For example:




Illustration by Aaron Douglas from Qod's Trombones,

by James Weldon Johnson, The Viking Press. Mr.

Douglas won first prize in a recent art contest held

by the Negro magazine, Opportunity

The whole pyramid of India's woes, material and spir-
itual . . . rests upon a rock-bottom physical base. This base
is, simply, his manner of getting into the world and his sex-
life thenceforward. The Indian girl, in common practice, looks
for motherhood nine months after reaching puberty, or any-
where between the ages of fourteen and eighteen.

The Indian male is the victim of an insatiable sex impulse,
and the female the victim of the male. Their mysticism is
not ascetic nor rises from any hysteria of suppressed desire.
The train of evils is pictured in several appalling chapters.
There are no virgins after puberty. The girl is simply not
safe. This leads to child-marriage as a protection and to
assure the son the father needs for his soul's safety. Miss
Mayo quotes authority, both native and English, for the
statement that the primary school system needed above all
else is impossible because native unmarried teachers on whom
it must depend dare not go out to teach for fear of the men.

The child wife is mistreated sexually, is too young and
weak to bear fit babies, suffers martyrdom in the delivery,
and is often made sterile by disease or maltreatment. She
is abysmally ignorant of child hygiene. Every year 2,000,000
babies die in India. She is unoccupied and often in purdah
(permanent seclusion) and fills her whole life with sex,
emphasized by religion. She passes on this preoccupation to
the child, even teaching it to abuse its body. The vicious
circle is repeated. The men are worn out from excesses at
thirty, and being promiscuous, infect both themselves and
their women with venereal disease. The average expectancy
of life is 23 years. The rest of the sad tale must be read
in the book the fate of widows, the sickness and ignorance
due to seclusion in the zenana, the horrors of native mid-
wifery with the cow often a participant in the event. The



469



470



LETTERS & LIFE



race so born is too weak to bear its own burdens. That is
the root of the trouble.

If you turn to education, the job is to bring some
220,000,000 Indian villagers up to the beginning of de-
mocracyliteracy. But 121,000,000 females and 28,500,000
untouchables, or 60 per cent of the population of British
India, are kept in ignorance by the deliberate will of the
orthodox Hindu. Even the educated man wants only to
get an office and does not return to serve his own people.
The Indian regards a college degree as a pension.

THEN there is the dead weight of religious tradition and
tabus, not of the mystic and spiritual religion we read
of, but the religion of mere inherited folkways. Take the
sacred cow. It is declared that half the present number of
cows would supply exactly the same amount of milk if they
were of good breeds and well-nourished. But the poor
cows remain, often starved to death, because the cow is a
religious not an economic institution. Her dung is burned
for fuel or used for wall plaster and so lost for fertilizer;
and her bones may not be ground into bone-meal because
religion forbids. The slants on Indian agriculture with its
need for carefully bred cattle, crop rotation, and machine
aid are illuminating.

These hints must stand for the color and content of the
book. The same keen, common-sense observation is directed
at the present workings of the governmental reforms, at
the relations of Hindu and Mohammedan, at the problem
of castes and the untouchables. And every segment of this
hie depends on the biological factor mentioned above plus
the omnipresent, inter-penetrating, mind-puzzling psychology
of the Indian and his religion.

The author offers no remedy; she merely made a survey
of certain fields not commonly exploited in literature on
India. She admits other facts left untouched, and even that
the evils found in India are found in other parts of the
world. Humility and patience are virtues in the face of
this incomprehensible ancient and vast agglomeration of
tropical life. Nothing can be hurried, for timeless India
will take her time and high-powered uplift and clean-up
drives will be wasted on this quarter of a billion people,
rooted in fatalism. The very motives the West uses are
not there. How can you sell insurance to a man with one
eye cocked hopefully on eternity? How work democracy
when you have no schools, 8 per cent literacy, and no books
or newspapers? How make men kill rats to stop the plague
if they think that by killing rats they lose a millenium or
so in their soul's progress? They are on an express bound
through eternity and the earth is just a local stop. To the
Indian, life is a tunnel between two lights ; to the West,
death is the tunnel. Kipling was right the twain shall
never meet. Near the equator where by the lay of the land
much of the East is, you have to stay quiet to live ; toward
the poles you have to hustle. There nature invites you to



breed and live; here she challenges you to fight or die.

But despite these polar differences, India is slowly im
proving according to western standards. The beneficen:
forces are weak singly, but in toto, they are changing th(
changeless. The Christian influence is meagre but healthfu
in that while it too as religion is concerned with eterna
life, it preaches that a present humanitarian zeal is the besi
way to win everlasting peace. Miss Mayo is a propagandist
in that she expresses scant criticism of the British rule and
implies it is doing as much as it can as fast as the peoph
will allow. She praises their efforts and discounts theii
exploitations, pointing out that in 247,000,000 people ther(
are only 64,432 governmental English. She is franklj
skeptical of Indian nationalism and judges that what is
wrong with India is the Indian, not the Englishman. Sht
does not think the time is ripe to turn the country over tc
the Indians with their present biological and psychological
traits. Their religion, castes, and folkways will perpetuate
the present evils. From the logic of her thesis that the
trouble is in the nature of the people she cannot believe in
su'araj. The enervation of the physical stock so con-
vincingly pictured cannot give birth to the energy and self-
serving ambition that would drive the state forward. Yet
she argues vigorously for compulsory education the be-
ginning of discontent with overlords.

Miss Mayo is caustic on the ignorance and sentimentalism
of the native legislator and agitator, yet never once uses the
word 'Bolshevik. She does not spare those heroes to the
western idealist, Tagore, the dreamer, and Gandhi, incon-
sistent doctrinaire of the simple life. She challenges the
educated Indian to give up his self-gratulation over
cultural attainments and his search for a government job,
and go back to his village to work for the good of his people
in the homely and urgent needs of life.

FINALLY she finds hope in sanitary and health measures,
for these strike at biological roots. I gathered from the
book that the prime need of India is teaching on health,
sex-hygiene, maternity and infant welfare, sanitation and
plague prevention. After that, farm demonstration, and
finally common schools. Until these come there will be no
human basis for stcdraj. She omits the rebuttal of the
Indian nationalist and western radical that if you remove
imperialism and give the common folk of India a better
life, a stake in the land, and a voice in his own govern-
ment, he will gain self-respect, generate energy, and go
ahead under his own steam. His fatalism may not all be
due to climate or religion, but partly to English domination
that, as he complains, has weakened him even when it has
helped. Give the Indian a chance to conquer his fate and
he will take more interest in himself and in the present.

The next question one asks is, Why not let India alone?
She may preserve for us, even with a high death-rate, the
concept that life is not a mere snippet of time to be misered



532



jHabe Vte JJetgpor*; Het fugttce Jfflafee 18& Jf nenbs;'

Worldwide Reduction of Armaments by International Agreement
Progressive World Organization Worldwide Education for Peace



National Council for Prevention of War



WASHINGTON,
D. C.



ver, but a majestic progress through eternity. If you make
er occidental, you may kill her true mysticism. Let the
ndian live as he wants, dirty, miserable, and sick, and die
5 he finds appropriate. That is his way and his choice.
waraj at bottom means the right to do as you like with
our country and your life, however distressing the outcome
-> a paternal bystander who wants to intervene and help
ecause, he thinks, so he can win Paradise. India may j
refer the evils she knows and has grown indifferent to
ather than a visitation of evils from the West to which
/e have grown indifferent. In a choice of evils, she prefers
er own to which, so to speak, she has established a spiritual
nmunity. Her slogan may be, "No sanitation without
epresentation !"

Here Miss Mayo rather has the last word. The evils of
india are more communicable than ours. You catch cholera
asier than you do skyscrapers. Indeed you may reject
kyscrapers altogether, but cholera does not ask either re-
ection or consent. India incubates today more plagues than
>rophets and germs are international. She is a "carrier"
tation, a sort of international Typhoid Mary, and so a
^orld-wide menace to health. That is our true stake in
! ndia, says the author. Her ports are disease traps for the
kilors of the world ; and health experts wonder whether
hey can always quarantine their frontiers against epidemics
orn out of India. Bubonic plague has cost her 11,000,000
ives since 1896. Hook-worm and malaria sap the strength
if her people. The common village water-tank is a breeder
if malaria and cholera yet the villagers leave the sanitary
veils provided by British engineers to sit and gossip around
he deadly tank as Americans once did at the crossroads
tore. Religious festivals and rituals are notorious spreaders
if disease. It all comes back to the folkways.

India is plague-ridden, morally and physically, yet has
lot the will to rid herself of the plagues. She needs outside
iclp to be safe for outsiders. Whence is that help to come?
iow is it to be administered ? These are the final challenges
if this challenging book. They are directed at the Indian,
irthodox or agitator, to British imperialism, and to the
vorld at large.

LEON WHIPPLE

What Mills Do to Men

THIS is an autobiographical novel written by a man
who has worked in the mills with his eyes open. Two
'ears ago he wrote a short narrative called Steel. Now he
vrites about a radical movement and copper cements the
wo together with a love story which is both gripping and
ragic, though not material to the central theme. That
heme is work, entertainingly but profoundly related to
nodern industry.

I was taken back to my teens in an iron furnace, to
eighteen cents an hour and twelve hours a day, to Fuller
vho twenty years earlier came there to get a stake to go to
allege to be a doctor but he married instead. Then there
vas Big Ole who used to say that it didn't hurt any more
ifter ten years, when the harness would fit. I was carried
igain to the Utah Copper Company in my twenties, to the
:restles where I worked, to the smell of sulphur, to the
jreasy boarding house, and to Tony the Wop who ate
unch with me on the slag pile. The seagulls, white and
:rim and red-legged, would fly down for the scraps and
vhen we closed our pails to go to work they would sail

(In answering advertisements please mention

471



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in the spirit and structure of the present social order through



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 105 of 130)