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loyalty to Jesus' way of life. It functions through personal
contact, correspondence, group meetings and periodic conferences.
A pamphlet service, a circulating library, and an information
service, covering especially international, industrial, economic,
racial and family problems, are maintained for its membership.

Address all communications to the Executive Secretary

SHERWOOD EDDY, Chairman, National Committee
KIRBY PAGE, Chairman, Executive Committee
AMY BLANCHE GREENE, Executive Secretary

347 Madison Avenue New York City



The Department of Christian Social
Service

of the

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE PROTESTANT
EPISCOPAL CHURCH

281 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

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complacently over the silvery spread of Salt Lake to til
purple hills beyond. Tony would watch wistfully and thtl
turn maliciously to me, "You try to do that ! Huh ?"

One finishes the book a little depressed but convince' i
We are taken quickly from a smug New England weddirj
to job-hunting in New York. The hero connects up will
a radical publication, the organ of a movement that
organized to lift the world out of economic bondage ;|
well as to dispel ignorance from the face of the eartll
The author for a while identifies himself with the "mow
ment," but finally drifts off to the copper mills where \
begins at the bottom of the ladder. Against the bacl
ground of industry with its gruelling reality he portraj
the "movement" and the naivete of its well meanin
sponsors. At the same time he is building up his own ii
dictment of that relentless and impersonal state of affaii
called the machine age.

His indictment relates to work and the hopelessness t
work as a source of joy once it has become a commodity o
the industrial market. He turns to work with the zest c
youth, vents his imagination on it. By work he will ris
through a series of promotions from the foundry to th
glass-top desk, or the laboratory. By night he pores ove
economics and chemistry, by day he takes mental notes ot
the practical side. Then the light breaks. The man at hi I
left, efficient as a machine itself, has worked eighteen year
without a promotion. The boss, a boozer with a burnt-ou
stomach, rules like a tyrant, but they keep him because h
"knows copper." There is no promotion. No place ti
promote to.

The tyranny of the boss, the deadening monotony, am
the blankness of the future are only exaggerated by thi
fear of unemployment that comes, .like elections, every fou
years. Yes, it's a good book. Sociologically, it is a document

NELS ANDERSON

BREAD AND FIRE, by Charles Kumford Walker. Houghlm Mifflin
302 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Sun-ey.

Books Go West in America

THIS book is a study of the influence of the frontiei
upon American letters and schools of thought. Th<
author traces the source and trend of the main currents o)
that pioneer spirit which flows through the scene and mood
of our literary epochs. In this work a new use is made of
geography in relation to literature, for it marks a first
attempt to record the result of territorial expansion upon
those artist pioneers who color our written map, from
Hawthorne to Sherwood Anderson.

The first chapters define the contrast in temperament
between North and South, with the subsequent effect of
each region upon our literature. The author tracks the
vital strain of the Puritan incompatible with the artist
save for Hawthorne from its genesis to the residue left
in Spoon River and Upstream. The South is studied in
terms of the origin and growth of romanticism, as found
in chronicles of cavalier, planter, in the Cult of the Colonel
and as it survives in Cabell.

After this double prelude the author divides all America,!
like ancient Gaul, into three parts: The Golden Age of
regional pioneering, followed by the Gilded Age of indus-
try, to lead into the Coming Age of spiritual advance. In
an analysis of conditions developing in these cycles the
author presents those literary frontiersmen who reflect with



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472



lelity hunter and trapper, the transcendental span, the
elod'rama of the Golden West and the era of capitalism.
ow out of the hinterland of materialism emerge new
oncers who blaze the trail of spiritual progress toward
e distant borders of idealism.

This book is packed with the meat of American literature.
et despite the rich store the flavor smacks flatly of the
xt and offers dry fare. However, it is high in calories

ir the student.

HALLE SCHAFFNER

HE FRONTIER IN AMERICAN LITERATURE, by Lucy Lockwood
Haiard. Crou-ell. 308 pp. Price $2.75 postpaid of The Survey.

The Negro Poet and His
Tradition

rHE subject matter of these poems, the bardic role of
the ante-bellum Negro preacher, clothed even in his
literacy with the inspiration of faith and swaying his
iudiences with epic power and conviction, conjures up a
jackground that would dwarf any but a major poet's voice
nd stature. In a flash of inspiration several years ago Mr.
fohnson gave us what still remains perhaps the best of these
oik-pictures in The Creation, which now in beautiful and
laborate format, is given to us with six companion poems
.nd an essay on the originating genius, the old-time Negro
xhorter. The essay has the advantage of the commentator,
and at this perspective Mr. Johnson offers us a vivid view
>f these "shepherds of the people." They and their flock
rill some day be the epic background and tradition of the
<egro poet if ever Negro poetry becomes what it can be-
me a spiritual world and sun instead of remaining just
i satellite of American verse in general.

What Mr. Johnson felt by instinct in The Creation, he
low puts explicitly before the reader, and his fellow artists,
he inspiring thought that there is an epic background here
n the humble past of the Negro which, if treated with dig-
lity and reverence, will be a rich and fair new province
if poetry. It is not too much to say, in spite of the actual
iccomplishment of one of the most distructive of the year's
volumes in verse, the real and final significance of Mr.
fohnson's work will be this prophetic vision and influence
x>inting to what is yet to come.

The problem of the actual writing of these folk sermons
s admittedly difficult: complete identification with the
:hemes and idioms of a by-gone generation, a thoroughly
ncandescent revitalizing of its mood and faith, are perhaps
mpossible. At this late distance rhetoric must come to the
rescue of a lapsing diction and poetic fictions re-kindle the
>rimitive imagination. It is a question of Ossian all over
igain. The comparison with genuine folk-poetry is con-
itantly in mind and the poet judged by the hard epic stand-
ird of objectivity, impersonality and the extent to which he
ipproximates the primitive originals or reproduces their
luthentic quality. That Mr. Johnson succeeds as often as
lie does in passages of really fervid and simple folk poetry
is great credit to his artistry. At least three of these poems
in my judgment have this quality and are really great, The
Creation, Judgment Day, and in the main Go, Down
Death. To proclaim too enthusiastically the perfection of
poems like the last-mentioned is to forget, in an age of per-
sonalism, the touch and tang of epic poetry. These are
folk-things, and the epic standard must apply.
But especially after one has heard these poems read aloud

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or almost chanted in keeping with the rhapsodic fervor o
the originals, one's ear does learn to discriminate and apprt
ciate the true epic quality of passages like:

And I hear a voice, saying

'Too late, sinner. Too late!

Good-bye, sinner. Good-bye !

In Hell, sinner. In Hell!

Beyond the reach of the love of God. . . .

And I hear a voice crying, crying:

Time shall be no more!

Time shall be no more !

And the sun will go out like a candle in the wind,

The moon will turn to dripping blood,

The stars will fall like cinders,

And the sea will burn like tar;

And the earth shall melt away and be dissolved

And the sky will roll up like a scroll,

With a wave of His hand, God will blot out Time,

And start the wheel of Eternity.

Sinner, oh sinner!
Where will you stand
In that great day when God's a-going to
rain down fire.

With a collaboration which is truly vital and a vision
which is truly spiritual, Aaron Douglas, the artist who con
ceived the eight symbolic drawings which do so much tc
enhance the book and vivify its message, gives us in an
entirely sublimated, abstract way a background of sense and
feeling in which there is this great, timeless, everlasting
primitive folk-quality. In setting this vision up before
America of today, and especially before the young Negro
poets of today, both the poet and the artist have made, a
significant contribution. Contemporary American poetry
and art are richer by it, but richer still the prospects of'
the Negro poet and his tradition.

ALAIN LOCKE
GOD'S TROMBONES: SEVEN NEGRO SERMONS IN VERSE, by

James Weldon Johnson. The fitting Press. Price $2.50 postpaid of
The Surrey.

America as Thought

SOME of the reviewers of these two volumes of this'
great work have referred to it as a "fine supplement to
Beards' Rise of American Civilization." But this work is,
in no sense, a supplement to any book. It is an independent
work and it will stand upon its own integrity. Professor
Parrington deals with the thinking that has gone on in
America; the Beards deal with the social and material objec-
tifications of that thinking. But since no one can yet tell
us which comes first, the hen or the egg, it were well to
lay aside all invidious comparisons between these two great
books, in order that the values of both may be realized. And
all who have read Beard with pleasure and profit should
now read Parrington for corrective of judgments; and all
who have read, or shall read, Parrington with profit and
pleasure, should read Beard for corrective of perspectives.

Volume i may be summarized as follows : Book I deals
with Liberalism and Puritanism, especially in New England.
Here we find the English backgrounds; the coming of Euro-
pean ideas to the 'free wilderness ; the development of the-
ocracy and its consequences ; the beginnings of independence ;
the breakdown of the religious oligarchies; the stirrings of
liberal opinion ; the inescapable chasm between the old Eng-
land and the New.

Book II deals with the making of the colonial mind, espe-
cially with the influence of certain great personalities, like



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474



Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin; and with the

wakening of the American mind, especially during the

revolutionary period: the conflict of Whig and Tory; the

.oming to self-consciousness of the Whig, in men like John

Dickinson, and of the democrat, in men like Samuel Adams.

lOut of this awakening came one of the literary movements

[of our history, the "satirists" of the revolutionary period,

iwith men like John Trumbull and Francis Hopkinson

speaking for the "American" spirit.

Book III brings us to the time of constitution building
land the forces that wrought our preliminary institutions.
\Ve live through again the battle between the agrarians and
Ithe rising cities ; the great debate about democracy and firm
[government, and the battle royal between Hamilton and
'Jefferson, out of all of which came the materials and prob-
llems of the early intellectual life of the new country, ex-
ipressed in poetry, essays and political debates.

VOLUME 2 brings us to the igth Century. Book I of
this analyses the Mind of the South, including the influ-
ence of libertarian Virginia, with Jefferson, John Marshall,
William Wirt, and the like; the renaissance of slavery, with
John C. Calhoun, Alexander H. Stephens, and the South's
idream of a Greek democracy built on the foundations of
slavery ; and the romance of the West, which was to become
the "frontier," with its Andrew Jackson, its Abraham Lin-
coln, and its endless myths of "freedom" and "the great
open spaces."

Book II shows us the mind of the Middle East, graphically
represented in Philadelphia, once the cultural capital of
America, and in New York, the rising economic capital of
the states. Here we come, for almost the first time, upon
something that is to be called "literary" in the permanent
tradition the works of Irving, Paulding, and Fenimore
Cooper.

Book III brings us back to New England, and that golden
day of American literature of which so much has long been
made. On the socio-political side, we view the rising tide
of Federalism, which expressed itself in Fisher Ames's doc-
trine that the end of government is the protection of prop-
erty, therefore it must be strong and coercive; and with
Daniel Webster's doctrine that the union must be preserved,
no matter what happens to individuals. It deals with cur-
rents of liberalism in New England, as expressed in individu-
als like William Lloyd Garrison, John Greenleaf Whittier,
and Harriet Beecher Stowe; with its escape into transcend-
entalism, in the imaginations of Emerson, Thoreau, Theo-
dore Parker, Margaret Fuller; with its retreat into "the
genteel" with Longfellow; with its excursus into skepticism
with Hawthorne; and with its subsidence into "authentic
brahminism" with Oliver Wendell Holmes and James Rus-
sell Lowell.

This volume ends with some modulating suggestions as
to the transition to the next stage, including brief discussions
as to the effects of the Civil War, the overthrow of the
slave economy, the precipitation of the agrarian-capitalist
controversy, the survival of certain antique liberalisms, the
movement toward complete centralization of government,
economy and social control, the emergence of the "middle
class," and the preliminary hints of that inevitable "realistic
criticism," which is to be the theme of the author's third
volume.

Here is history; here is social interpretation of history;
((Continued on page 480)

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THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF
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18-20 E. Division St., Chicago, 111.
Helen Beckley, Executive Secretary.



Miss



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR OLD
AGE SECURITY \im: To promote
through legislation adequate provisions for
the dependent aged in the United States.
Bishop Ethelbert Talbot, president. A. Ep-
stein, executive secretary. Box 1001, Harris-
burgh. Pennsylvania.

AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE,

INC. Margaret Sanger, President, 104
Fifth Avenue, New York City. Purpose:
To teach the need for birth control to pre-
vent destitution, disease and social deteri-
oration ; to amend laws adverse to birth
control; to render safe, reliable contracep-
tive information accessible to all married
persons. Annual membership, $2.00 to
$500.00. Birth Control Review (monthly)
$2.00 per year.

AMERICAN CHILD HEALTH ASSO-
CIATION 370 Seventh Ave., New York.
Herbert Hoover, President; Philip Van
Ingen, M.D., Secretary, S. J. Crumbine,
M.D., General Executive. Objects: Sound
promotion of child health, especially in co-
operation with t!-.e official health and edu-
cation agencies.

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ORGAN-
IZATIONS FOR THE HARD OF

HEARING, INC Promotes the cause
of the hard of hearing; assists in forming
organizations. Pres., Dr. Horace Newhart;
Secretary, Betty C. Wright, 1601 35th
Street, N.W., Washington, D. C.

AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE

BLIND, INC President, M. C. Migel
125 East 46th St., New York. Studies ways
of improving the condition of the blind;
promotes the establishment of necessary
public and private agencies; works for the
enactment of Federal and State Legislation
designed to promote the best interests of
the blind. Supported by voluntary contri-
bution.



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSO-
CIATION Alice L. Edwards, executive
secretary, 617 Mills Bldg., Washington,
D. C. Organized for betterment of condi-
tions in home, school, institution and com-
munity. Publishes monthly Journal of Home
Economics: office of editor, 617 Mills Bldg.,
Washington. D. C. : of business manager,
101 East 20th St., Baltimore. Md.



AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CON-
TROL OF CANCER -Dr. George A.
Soper, managing director, 25 West 43rd
Street. New York. To collect, collate and
disseminate information concerning the symp-
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Publications free on request Annual mem-
bership dues, $5.00.



AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO-
CIATION 370 Seventh Ave., New York.
To provide a better understanding of the
social hygiene movement; to advance sound
sex education, to combat prostitution and sex
delinquency; to aid public authorities in the
campaign against the venereal diseases; to
advise in organization of state and local
ocial-hygiene programs. Annual membership
dues $2.00 including monthly journal.



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THE BOY CONSERVATION BUREAU

90 West Broadway. Suggests all-the-year-
round Home Schools for needy boys. Tel.
Walker 0313. E. W. Watkins, Exec. Sec'y.

CHILD HEALTH DEMONSTRATION

COMMITTEE Courtenay Dinwiddle. di-
rector, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York.
Administers the Commonwealth Fund Child
Health Program demonstrating integrated
child health services in small communities:
Fargo, N. D., Athens, Ga., Rutherford
County, Tenn., Marion County, Ore. Bul-
letins free on request.

CHILD WELFARE COMMITTEE OF
AMERICA, Inc. 730 Fifth Avenue, New
York. To secure home life for normal
dependent children in preference to insti-
tutions; to secure Mothers' Allowance laws
in states having none; to urge adequate ap-
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Sophie Irene Loeb, President ; Governor
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