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of the king and the assassination of Matteoti. With regard
to the first, Salvemini asserts that the king capitulated to
the Fascists because he was informed that his armv would



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518



not remain loyal and because he was led to believe that the
Fascist Duke of Aosta would assume the throne if martial
law were declared and the government vanquished. Sub-
sequently the king insured the perpetuation of the dictator-
ship by signing away his constitutional right to direct the
military forces of the country. Matteoti's death is ascribed
indirectly to Mussolini himself. "Much of the success of
Mussolini is due to those qualities of leadership which he
possesses in a high degree. But his chief advantage over
his opponents, and one which always loads the dice in his
favor, is his unscrupulous use of violence. . . . An armed
party, which takes six years to dislodge its unarmed oppo-
nents, does not give the impression of possessing great intel-
lectual and moral superiority over these opponents," says
Salvemini, and the impartial observer must give assent.

Professor Salvemini's book is history but not pure and un-
prejudiced. He is himself a victim of Fascism, having lost
his post at the University of Florence, his property and his
citizenship. He now lives in exile. He speaks as a par-
tisan, not as a pedant. But no one who knows the man
can doubt the sincerity of his motives and the genuineness
of his affection for the liberty-loving portion of his Italy.
Nevertheless what he says and the mood with which he
says it presage dark days ahead for the Italian people; re-
action from dictatorship is as inevitable as the waning of
moon and sun. And when that reaction arrives bitterness
and recrimination will not constitute virtues.

Those of us in America who also possess a love for Italy
look forward with eagerness to Salvemini's second volume
which is to appear in the autumn, but we also look forward
imploringly to the birth of an anti-Fascist movement which
is motivated by creative ideals rather than hatred.

EDUARD C. LINDEMAN

THE FASCIST DICTATORSHIP IN ITALY. Volume I. By Gaetano
Salvtmini. Holt. 319 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of The Surrey.



Aye. Brothers All-

As T old man laden with wire wares stood on the step
of a house in South Africa. It was by lucky chance
the home of a novelist, Ethelreda Lewis. Busy with plans
for her next chapter she told him to go, then moved to
pity at his forlorn state she bade him stay. She let him
sell her a gridiron and it turned into a Horn of plenty!
Here were riches, fact and fiction.

Trader Horn tells her these tales of Africa and he
brings to light again the dark continent of fifty years ago.
It is an epic of the Ivory Coast; it is a saga of the days
of youth. For Alfred Aloysius Horn belongs to an age
of wanderlust so that now he seems himself a legend, an
ancient mariner, an old rover who has lasted beyond his
time. Out of his fast-closing memory then, tumble these
stories, written and told and made into this weird vivid book.

"In Africa the Past has hardly stopped breathing." It
was alive with danger and violence when he got there, a
lad fresh from an English college. It was wild Africa then.
His spirit rose to the call of her jungles; his blood leapt
to the sound of her rivers ; he dealt in her ivory for the
fun of taming her. And he helped to make history. He
charted his way up unknown channels to open new trad-
ing posts while he fought or made friends with tribes on
the side. They named him River Hawk.

And he learned the law of rivers. "Make friends on one
bank of the river and do it well. Neither in politics nor

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in life can a man make friends on both banks of the river."
He found out the secrets of those forests where he came
across elephant burial grounds. Aye. In that country with-
out maps, where herds still roam the Glades behind the
Cameroons. Aye. 'Twas a life. Blood brother to the
cannibals he became by the rites of Egbo and a hero to
Nina T white goddess in a Josh House. It is her story
the Old Visitor waves in and out of the book, the romance
of the priestess to Isorga. Aye. Those were the days
swapping rivers, swapping life.

The book gets most of its color and flavor from his own
words, set down at the close of each chapter. It is mellow
talk, it has lain long in the cask of time and it has the
ripe wisdom of age. He gives us simple truths out of his
real unity with Nature. "Leave it alone and it'll function
properly." We get a deeper sense of the essence and growth
of all life. . . . "Some get-away for the soul is necessary
and that can only be found in the open, whether air or
water." His own soul lost its identity in the larger life
of that vast continent, to find itself "blood brother" in the
black brotherhood of Man. . . . Blood brothers, all !

HALLE SCHAFFNER

TRADER HORN, by Ethelredo, Lewis. Literary Guild of America. 302 pp.
Price $4.00 postpaid of The Survey.

A Claneing Anvil

MR. STODDARD'S frantic forebodings as to the
future of America are giving way to a more opti-
mistic mood, induced in the main, it seems, by the immigra-



tion law of 1924. But the objects and methods of his
propaganda remain the same. His ideals, if honestly and
intelligently presented, would appeal to many Americans.
The method of discussion which he and others like him
have introduced into our public life already has done grave
harm in lowering its tone.

For fact and reason, that method substitutes appeals to
fear, to selfishness and to snobbery all three most fre-
quently employed to undermine the cohesion of national
and racial groups ; perversion of history ; repetitive state-
ment of platitude into which, by gradual steps, a different
and false content is injected ; innuendo and downright
slander. It evades nearly all the real differences in prin-
ciple and group interest which a sound debate would bring
out and clarify, and nearly all the real practical difficul-
ties.

Mr. Stoddard does not seem to know what it is to state
a position contrary to his own with accuracy or moderate
fairness. He distorts his factual material ; he invents new
and meaningless classifications as he goes along if they help
to simplify his case. For example, Scots, Englishmen,
Scandinavians, Dutchmen, Germans and French Huguenots
are all thrown together to make up the famous "Nordic"
race, the backbone of America ; but French-Canadians be-
long to the unassimilable "new" immigration. He contra-
dicts himself flatly when it suits his argument. Thus:
"The native American was curtly given the choice of hold-
ing his job by degrading his living standards or of going
'down the road.'" (Page 150.) "The average American of



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520



:hose days had practically no idea of what was going on!"
(Page 153.) In a book replete with citations he quotes not
Hie authority occupying a reasonable middle position be-
:\veen his own extreme position and that of Horace Kallen.
He disregards all those expert studies of recent years that
lave corrected mistaken assumptions as regards racial char-
icteristics, racial instincts, racial classifications or the limits
)f biological inheritance, thus miseducating his readers on
natters of scientific knowledge.

Not once does he openly give a motive of national, racial
>r personal selfishness for the measures he advocates, for he
loes not trust his readers to recognize the values represented
>y interests other than their own. Not once does he admit
:hat the Nordic supremacy which he seeks involves the
>erpetual subjection of the American Negro to the. interests
>f white America, or that the world at large has a legit-
mate interest in American population policy and that this
nterest, if persistently thwarted, may eventually lead
:o war.

Fortunately, the Lothrop Stoddard process of creating
>ublic opinion, while it may produce temporary success, can-
lot stand up against any process of real education. The
>bjective of a Nordic white America is worth discussing ;
mt let not those who oppose it be tempted to adopt the
irmory of this advocate. We can afford to remain divided
md undecided as to ultimate national goals ; we cannot
ifford to make bigotry, intellectual dishonesty and pander-
ng to low motives the stepping stones of our national
idvance.

BRUNO LASKER



JE-FORGING AMERICA, by Lothrop Stoddard.
Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey.



Scribner's. 389 pp.



OPPORTUNITY NIGHT
(Continued from page 488)



>articularly objectionable contests. Since that case the
:hildren have been instructed never to give out their names
md addresses. If we cannot locate the children for wit-
lesses, we cannot bring cases into court.

Quite recently, however, a group of determined women
n a certain portion of the city by repeated protest forced
>ne of the largest theatre corporations in the city to dis-
:ontinue the contests. It became the fashion in that neigh-
)orhood to- stay away from the theatre and to keep the
:hildren away when a contest was advertised. But in the
: ace of repeated promises the children still performed. Then
in imposing delegation of men and women demanded an
nterview with the heads of the parent corporation and a
written statement was at last forthcoming that the con-
:ests would be discontinued. It was in this very theatre
i week later, with the Harold Lloyd picture described being
shown, that a thousand children were thrilled to the scream-
ing point.

The motion picture industry has the power of great
svealth to produce programs that would entertain and at
:he same time raise standards of living instead of debasing
them. They have actually brought to multitudes of people
the gorgeousness, the luxury, the sensuous appeal of beauty,
the pageantry, that used to be within the reach only of kings
and nobles. Yet what they are doing under the spur of
bigger profits is destructive of one of the few priceless
things in the world, the quickening spirit of childhood.



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THE SURVEY, July 15, 1927
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TRAINING FOR SOCIAL WORK

(Continued from page 511)



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schools have grown up as training departments of social
agencies, others as independent schools, but the general tendency
is toward affiliation with a university, as either an under-
graduate or a graduate department. When the association of
professional schools was formed, the members agreed that
there should be included in the course of study training in com-
munity organization, case-work, research and field-work, there-
by committing themselves definitely to a program of profes-
sional training.

Two professions law and business have struggled with
this problem. In both a solution of recognized value has been
attained. In 1871, the Harvard Law School was astounded by
the insistence of Dean Langdell that the case-system of legal
instruction be adopted. This was, in brief, a method of teach-
ing law by requiring students to analyze legal situations and
solutions, the aim being to develop a means of approach, a type I
of thought and a familiarity with applied principles, while
leaving the student free to criticise or even reject the theory
developed by counsel and courts in reaching verdict or a de-
cision. Langdell, of course, had a mine of recorded cases to
use as material, which schools of social work have not; but
the theory has been adopted by the latter, especially in study
of available case records.

In 1918, again at Harvard, the Graduate School of Business
Administration faced a similar question. But, unlike the law,
there were no available cases. Past experience was not re-
corded. Accordingly a plan to combine technique with study
of principles was worked out, and students were sent out on
jobs, to record problems, and to bring back the record. They
were to work, to analyze and to write. After nearly a decade,
this program has produced the beginning of a collected library
of experience, outlines of broad principles are beginning dimly
to appear, and in time business will become a science capable
of professional application. Meanwhile every student is and
knows he is a pioneer. He learns his world and at the same
time assists in discovering forces in it never before understood.

While the schools, especially those of the graduate group,
maintain that social work will eventually be recognized as
law and medicine are today, all the social agencies do not agree. ;
One director of a national organization suggests that each ;
branch of social work should develop as a separate professional
group, that is, that there should be professional recreation
workers, professional case-workers, but that there should not
be a generalized profession. To add to the general confusion,
many of the agencies conduct their own training courses.

We have suggested that the present day college student is
appealed to more effectually through reason than through emo-
tion. The logical people to do this are members of the college
faculty. But they cannot function in a field of which they are
ignorant. Further, the student is all at sea unless there be'
intelligent guidance from the personnel and placement directors.
They, like the professors of sociology, cannot give advice about
a field of which they know nothing.

To someone belongs the task of collecting accurate statistics
about conditions and opportunities in the field. A representative
of a chain of department stores was able a few months ago to
make the definite statement that of one hundred college men
who had been with his organization for ten years the average
salary is $4,000. Has social work such exact data? There is
no available information as to how many men the profession
can assimilate. The experience of one national agency is that
there are more men than jobs, of another that there is great
need of more men.

It seems to me that we can safely conclude:

That college instructors in the social sciences should be
brought into closer touch with the practical field; that person-
nel and placement bureaus should be furnished with accurate
and detailed information; that the agencies and the professional
schools should be brought into closer agreement as to recruiting
and training if the undergraduate of 1927 is to be persuaded
to take the road to social work.



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FORTY YEARS IN KINDERGARTEN

(Continued from page 509)



dramatizing all adult activities store-keeping, house-keeping
transportation, and so on. Here we have a chance to
relate school experience to home and community life. Those
teachers who had 'been trained to teach the Froebelian games
opposed the development of creative play with children.

"When I entered kindergarten work forty years ago, drawing
was a dreary affair. Johnny began with horizontal lines one
inch, then two inches, three inches, four inches, five inches
long. These same lines were repeated vertically. These were
followed by a group of five lines drawn diagonally. We sub-
stituted the so-called free drawing for this formal procedure.
Psychologists from all over the country wrote to Louisville
for the children's pictures, astonished by the observation, im-
agination, and technique developed through this freer expres-
sion. Today in almost any modern school youngsters revel in
creating their own designs. In 1915 we began to study char-
acter development. The children's progress in group work,
in independence, and so on was carefully reported to the parents.

"A hard fight for every inoh gained? Yes, indeed. There
has been opposition, at every turn." But Miss Hill's eyes,
turned from the university campus beneath her windows to
reply to me, were clear and untroubled. "When I first wanted
to experiment in New York with giving children freedom in
the choice and use of materials we dared not call the experi-
ment a kindergarten or school! To avoid controversy we
called it a play room. No, we could not begin such a radical
experiment even in Horace Mann [the demonstration school of
Teachers College]. After the play room experiment we got
permission to use the courtyard and to gather together some
children from two to ten years of age. We kept records of
every child in the group, and we proved gradually that freedom
does not mean disorder. In fact, after four years of experi-
ment with the playground, we were invited to try the same
plan of work for the kindergarten and first grade of the
Horace Mann School. By that time we had the encourage-
ment of such men as John Dewey and William Kilpatrick.
They sent visitors to our playground and gave illustrations
from our experiments. Our worst battles were over. Since
then we have had far more help than antagonism.

"The latest development in the field has been what we call
the 'measurement movement.' I believe heartily that exact
scientific techniques in education will help us to a better
understanding of children and their needs. I have only one
reservation there. I often say to our students, 'Measure
everything you can. But don't give up a thing simply because
you can't measure it.' We are only fumbling with these new
tools. There are values that still escape our formulas.

"There are two great divisions of teachers, you know; cook-
book teachers and checkerboard teachers. A cookbook teacher
sits down in the evening, measures out so much arithmetic, so
much spelling, so much music, according to a pedagogical
recipe and next day spoon-feeds it into his pupils. He calls
the process education. But suppose he were getting ready for
a game of chess or checkers. Would it do any good to take
the board the evening before and figure out the campaign
first this move, then that move? When he sat down with his
opponents he would find that the vital factor had been entirely
emitted from his calculations: the reaction of the other mind.

"I tell my students that that is our main concern as teachers
the reaction of the other mind. Of course cookbook teaching
is easier. But the other kind well, from the child's point of
view the other kind offers possibilities of real adventure. And



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