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sionaries, to pay, difficulties between servants and employers
are to be referred back to the union for settlement, and
three months' salary is to be paid to each servant on
dismissal.

Not unnaturally the unions, drunk with new power,
dazzled with the prospects of high wages and short hours,
became dictatorial. The result was that the Chinese clerks
in foreign firms in Wuchang, objecting to dictation by
"coolie unions," formed a union of their own in accord with
the purposes of the moderates.

The lefts also exploited the still more dangerous ignor-
ance of the students. Many of these, it should be said at
once, are sincerely anxious to devote their time, ability and
funds to unify China. But many others are just boys and
girls from native schools, delighted with the excitement of
the new freedom, who go in for everything from birth
control to psychoanalysis and include industrial matters on
the way. Others are students returned from American and
European colleges disgruntled because they are not appre-
ciated. These students have their own unions, distribute
handbills, address groups of workers, organize new unions,
and act as leaders and advisers in strikes.

Finally, as the present crisis loomed, the lefts armed their
unions and encouraged them to an aggressiveness that became
intolerable alike to foreigners and Chinese. As a result
came the split, the raiding of Red unions in Shanghai and
Canton by the moderates, roused at last to drive Com-
munism from the Nationalist movement. Lives were lost,
much bitterness engendered, and the danger of the Na-
tionalist aim through foreign aggression increased. For
such aggression coming at this time will reinforce the Com-
munists in their effort to establish the Third International.

A LTHOUGH the Russians brought the machinery
/~\_ which enabled the labor movement to arrive in five
years at the point where, as T. Z. Koo says, British labor
was twenty years ago, a number of other influences played
a part. Chief of these is industry itself. For with the
establishment of giant factories and filatures came the
separation of employer and employe who had worked to-
gether in small units under the old handicraft regime. At
the same time the workers were brought together in large
numbers through the necessity for mass production. They
became class-conscious, and aware too of the advantages
and disadvantages of their new condition.

Post-war restlessness brought the stirring of independence



among the women, questioning and revaluation of religion,
the wrecking of the government, always temperamental
among the national and international intrigues surrounding
it, and gave voice to the already simmering resentment of
the workers. All around them they saw motor cars, tele-
phones, bicycles, electric lights. Behind plate-glass windows
shimmered silks, watches, golden-oak furniture, porcelain
bathroom fixtures. Billboards pictured cigarettes and wines.
The working men in Europe and America had all these
things, they were told. Why should they not have them?
They worked from twelve to seventeen hours a day and
heard the manager's motor car arrive and depart between
nine and five. Why, they began to ask, should one man
work twice as long as another for less, why should one
walk and another ride ? True, according to ancient Chinese
literature and philosophy, it was the poor man's fate to
"eat bitterness." But the translation from European writers
told of a poor man, questioning, defiant, victorious.

At first these ideas came to their ears through the in-
tellectual philanthropists, the students, and street story-
tellers. Then came the pei-hwa, or plain language simple
enough for any man to learn, bringing newspapers, pamph-
lets, posters. To the factory worker they brought not only
information, but self-respect, assurance. The opportunity
for education opened in the new schools. To the workers
came the knowledge that they were doing the same thing,
living the same lives as workers all over China. Simul-
taneously, in the social and financial circles above them,
other national developments were taking place. The whole
idea of marriage was changing, foot-binding was giving
way, women were going into colleges and offices, the same
banking systems, law and court systems, and Chambers of
Commerce were being established everywhere. Directly and
indirectly labor was roused to a national consciousness.
This in one way was no new thing, for a Chinese is a
Chinese, first, last, and always, as witness the unified re-
action of North and South to the Twenty-one Demands of
Japan and the May 30 shooting. But now came the feeling
that the state was more important than the family.

HERE then is one of the most powerful organizations
in China, awakened to the national need, carrying
on its own industrial revolution side by side with the po-
litical, social, educational, and religious groups, yet torn by
dissension between moderates and Communists. During its
five years of life it has done much good and much harm to
its own cause and to China's. Will the Communist faction
be put down within it and throughout China for the very
simple reason that the milleniums-old social structure will
not accept it, and if it would, there is nothing, as Mr. Koo
points out, to "commune" with ? China's problem is lack
of wealth rather than unequal distribution.

There remain two other difficulties to overcome. Far-
seeing labor leaders experienced in industry must be de-
veloped, and the ignorance and illiteracy which now make
the workers so susceptible to propaganda and self-seeking
influences must be dispelled.

These leaders, and education and experience, will come
not in a year or a decade, but in time. The point is that
no matter what the status of the labor movement in the
past, in the present, or in the future, its influence for good
or ill has attained such importance that labor must be con-
sidered one of the determining factors in China's develop-
ment as a nation.



Well, Why Not?



By JEAN HARRIS ARNOLD




S I was modestly attempting to put together
the two and two of expert opinions recently
expressed in the pages of our magazines, the
resulting four brought me up Bang! against
this question.

It is a question for the stronger sex to
answer, and one which they should answer convincingly.

Of course man is the stronger sex ; he has proved that
by innumerable, unanswerable arguments from the time of
the Cro-Magnon family to the present day. Now he uses
the milder method of magazine articles on the action of
the pituitary glands, but it amounts to the same thing. The
male sex is the stronger.

Yet curiously enough Nature, who presumably knows all
about the pituitary glands and who is supposed to regard the
race as the most important of all considerations, entrusts
the first care of the young of the species to the female.
The psychologists have discovered that the crucial period
of human life, the time that fixes the
bent of the individual and predeter-
mines his after activities, comes in
early childhood. Say we take the first
three years as a fair average of the
varying estimates of the psychological
experts. Then Nature has inexorably
handed over the first third of this in-
valuable period to women. Every
mother is a woman. Mother's milk
is the best possible nourishment for a
child during his first year.

To be sure, this physical connection
itween children and their mothers is
broken off at the end of this first year,
iut that is a hint that man has never
:en. Since Nature has handed over
the first year, he has handed over the
other two. In fact, he has always
trusted baby-tending and the care of
children to his womenfolk. (The
Spartans furnish the partial and most
illuminating exception that proves this
rule.) He has reserved to himself, since the dawn of civili-
zation, the powers of government in church and state. He
has furnished all the inspiration of art, poetry, architecture
and music. He has done all the educating, down to the
last fifty years, and even since then he has gone on invent-
ing most of the new methods in education, as Froebel had
previously invented the kindergarten. Meanwhile he has
been discovering how to master and utilize the powers of
the physical universe till he has entirely revolutionized the
environment of the human race.

Yet, in spite of all the incentives to progress he has pro-
vided for these thousands of years, he is not satisfied with
the results. His science and his art develop, but the race



itself does not develop rapidly enough to keep up with them.
Everybody knows that the millenium would come tomorrow
if folks were ready for it, but they are not ready. And no
wonder! All this while man has neglected the material out
of which the human race is constructed. He has left his
own children in their formative years to the sex that never
invents and never discovers anything. He has been fum-
bling all around the wall and never pressed the button.

Imagine the results that would follow in a single gener-
ation if every father in the world should bend all his greater
energy, his superior mental ability, his creative genius, to
the care of his own children during their second and third
years. After that, according to the psychologists, they might
go to school or go back to their mothers, but they would
never go to the dogs. He would have set their little wheels
into the grooves in which they are to run smoothly all the
rest of their days.

Of course, questions of detail intrude at this point. Would
a father, while devoting himself to the
development of his offspring, keep his
business or profession going with one
hand ? Would he have his inner sanc-
tum fitted up as a nursery? Would
each office building and factory have
a creche presided over by an expert
psychologist? Or would the father
resort to housekeeping as a side issue,
leaving the breadwinning to the woman
of the family? Would the summer
vacation and the sabbatical year be en-
larged and extended to cover this con-
tingency? Would the government, as
well as pensioning men who have served
the state as soldiers, grant temporary
pensions to men who were serving it by
these exacting paternal duties? Or
would these two years take the place
of military service, perhaps, leaving the
present form of military service to be
rendered by men and women over
thirty years of age and unmarried ?
All these details and many other problems, such as the
effect upon the growth of population, for instance, deserve
careful consideration. Might it even be that woman, who
has so meekly given up in succession her hoe, her spinning
wheel, her bread oven, her kerosene lamp, who has turned
over her darlings to the kindergarten and the Montesori
experiment without a murmur, would take her last stand
at the edge of the cradle and require another proof that
she is the weaker sex? There seems no way of arranging
the matter without turning our world as at present organ-
ized quite upside down. But if the perfection of the human
race is at stake
Well, why not?



MEN

/ like men.

They stride about,
They reach in their pockets

And pull things out;

They look important,
They rock on their toes,

They lose all the buttons
Off of their clothes;

They throw away pipes,
They find them again.

Men are queer creatures;
I like men.

Dorothy E. Reid, in Poetry



147



The Golden Rule through Union Eyes



By ROBERT W. BRUERE




HEN, in December, 1925, Arthur Nash
Golden Rule Nash appealed to his em-
ployes to join the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers' Union, he placated the opposition
by promising that, if at the end of a year
the workers were dissatisfied with the
union, they should have an opportunity to vote it out. Be-
fore the end of the year the opposition had publicly recanted.
The union was firmly established. What had happened ?
In March, 1927, I went to Cincinnati to see.

In appealing to his employes to join the union, Mr. Nash
had said that neither he nor they might hope to gain "in a
selfish way."* They had solved their problems so far as
their relations with each other were concerned but they
were in danger of falling into a "holier-than thou" attitude.
The question he wanted them to face squarely was whether
they were to be held up as "an example of an open shop and
as an argument why avaricious organizations of capital should
be allowed to exploit their laborers and grind their dollars
out of the very sweat and blood of our brothers and sisters
in their factories," or whether they were to join "whole-
heartedly and unreservedly with this great group of fearless
organized workers who are laboring to loose the bonds of
wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, to let the oppressed
go free and to break their heavy yoke."

As a matter of fact, both he and they had had much to
gain. Before turning to the Amalgamated, he had laid his
problems before a group of local ministers. That statement
was the climax of a well-matured program. It was wisely
calculated to meet a delicate diplomatic situation. He had
explained to them that when there were twenty-nine workers
in his factory, one hundred workers, even three hundred, it
had been possible for him to be a good shepherd to all ;
but when his payroll numbered thousands, that had be-
come impossible. He has given me a report of that con-
ference.

" 'I called you brethren together'," he said, " 'to ask you
to take the organization which the church has for establish-
ing the Kingdom of God in industry and come into my
plant, go through it and find out everything that is not in
harmony with the principles and teaching of Jesus. I want
you to do that job for me.'



"ATOU can imagine how they looked at each other and

\ then at me. Finally some one spoke up and said, 'No
one knows better than you do that the church has no organ-
ization to do a job of that kind.'

"I said, 'Do you mean to tell me that in this industrial
age the church has no organization with which we can estab-
lish the Kingdom of God in industry? What is the job
of the church?"

"It became a pathetic meeting when I put it that way.
Most of them were pastors here in the city.

"I said, 'Well, brethren, I must have somebody to do this

See the Survey for January 1, 1926.



job; I cannot do it personally. I fear there are things thai
are wrong in my factory. I am not a practical head of an
industry. When it comes to making a suit of clothes, 1
don't know anything about it. I must have somebody whc
knows this job and who will look after the interests and
welfare of the workers. You men are telling me that the
church can't do it.' "

So he turned to the union.

In his book, The Golden Rule in Business, Arthur Xash
has told how back in 1919 he had bought "a bankrupt cloth-
ing factory, a sweatshop in fact, in which twenty-nine under-
fed and under-paid slaves were at work;" how, beginning
on the first day, he raised wages from 50 per cent to 300
per cent and reduced hours from sixty to forty-five, finally
to forty a week. About the technique of clothes manufac-
ture he knew nothing. In this sweatshop he found one old
woman, for example, sewing on buttons at $4 a week,
six days, sixty hours.

T first, I couldn't speak because almost instantly the
face of my own mother came between that old lady
and myself. . . . As I looked at her and saw only my
mother, I finally blurted out: 'I don't know what it's worth
to sew on buttons ; I never sewed a button on ; but your
wages to begin with will be $12 per week'."

For him that was not sentimentality ; it was of the essence
of his naive over-simplification of the Golden Rule. H
had never sewed on a button or done the work of a designer,
cutter, presser, machine operator, or bushelman. He knew
nothing about the lay-out of a factory, or how to route
cloth through a tailoring shop. He had gone into the cloth-
ing business with a capital of $60,000. During 1918, con-
tracting his orders out to the owner of the sweatshop, he
had lost $4,000. [ He debated with his family the wisdom
of taking his loss and retreating to a farm.

Then, the war ended, the sweatshop owner wanted to
return to Europe and Arthur Nash bought his factory.
Without technical knowledge, he decided to put his faith
in the Golden Rule. With the adoption of the forty-five-
hour week and the raising of wages, production went up
30 per cent. Many of his employes were women. That
they might have their Saturdays for housework and Sundays
for decent leisure, he went to the five-day week. With the
adoption of the forty-hour schedule, production held firm.
In 1919, he did a business of $525,678; in 1920, of $1,580,-
700; in 1925, more than a million dollars a month.

Here was the "industrial miracle." Knowing nothing
of tailoring, having relied exclusively on the Golden Rule
and his skill as a salesman, he had created the most conspicu-
ously successful business of its kind in the world. This
happened in the days of reaction following the war. Invi-
tations came to him from all parts of the country ; from
churchmen who wanted reassurance of the practical efficacy
of their faith ; from businessmen who hailed his demonstra-
tion of the superlative success of a non-union shop.



148



THE GOLDEN RULE THROUGH UNION EYES



From the beginning, he refused to align himself with the
nti-union movement. As early as 1921, he put himself on
;cord : "I am opposed to the open-shop movement, although
ic A. Nash Company is not unionized. So long as the
resent avaricious organizations of capital continue, I can
snceive of no worse condition of abject servitude than for
ibor to be unorganized." Indeed, as early as 1919 he had
isited Sidney Hillman, national president of the Amalga-
lated in New York.

Why, then, did he not at the outset do what he did in
925? It is probable that even he could not analyze all
is motives. But in his book and in his informal discussions
e has made two things clear. First, in 1919, Cincinnati
/as the scene of a bitter labor war. It was about that
ime that the machinists, for example, attempted to organize
le market and were defeated by the local employers backed
y American Plan employers throughout the country. In
!iat same year the Amalgamated made its drive to organize
ie men's clothing industry. Arthur Nash had just bought
iis shop ; he needed credit with banks and woolen manufac-
urers. He felt unprepared to stand out against the solid
nti-union sentiment of the business community into which
was just entering.

Second, the magic initial success of his Golden Rule policy
nade him skeptical of all mechanisms. During the dis-
ussion following his address at a ministers' conference, some
me asked him why he did not outline his system in a book
o that others might copy it.

"My brother," he said, "did I say anything about a sys-
em? I want to make a fundamental statement here: it
not possible to make a mechanism of love, brotherhood,
ir that something that bloweth where it listeth and we
:annot tell whence it cometh' or whither it goeth. You
:annot make those things into a mechanism."

had not then discovered that any general policy,
though expressed in bib-

Unto Others



149

grew he found it necessary to spend more time in the field.
As the number of employes grew, he found it increasingly
difficult to keep in personal touch with them. Subordinate
executives lacked his ability to maintain morale and his
vivid sense of the Golden Rule. What has happened in
many frontier democracies began to happen here favoritism,
slipshod workmanship, a drift toward slack morale. He
began to feel the need for more systematic organization, for
the help of technical experts.

He turned to the Amalgamated, not only because it is
one of the few unions that has kept possession of the skill
of its trade, but also because in conformity with his Golden
Rule ethics he believed that the experts he needed must be
men who, in approaching shop problems, would recognize
their responsibility to the workers as primary. Holding
this belief, it was inevitable that in turning to the union
he should arouse the opposition of his minor executives
whose authority was threatened and of those group- <>t
workers who had profited by the loose laisser faire factory
organization.

There were for example, the cutters, men who earned the
highest wages, who, in other markets, have generally been
the spearhead of the union movement. In the Nash plant,
these cutters are piece-workers. When orders came piling
in, foremen tended to allow them to fix their own working
time. They developed what was known as the "coal-chute
gang." Cutters who wanted to make big money would
turn up at the factory as early as five in the morning, slip
down through the coal-chute, go to their tables, turn on the
light and pile in at top speed. Some of them, it is said,
worked as many as sixteen hours a day and in good years
earned as high as $5,000.

This gold-rush spirit led to a primitive kind of competi-
When the union entered the plant, cloth was not



tion.



ical language, must op-
:rate through techniques,
through mechanisms. His
too naive disregard of
technical mechanisms
was largely responsible
for the situation which



systematically distributed to the cutters. They themselves

carried the great bales
to their marking tables.
Men would line up in
Why, at the peak of his success, did Arthur JSash front of the stac k e d

. . i ji f . i fi l , I . 777 .../.. ' ft ***.** , /-i

woolens and right tor
first pick. This is per-
haps an extreme illus-



invite the Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Union
into his factory? What has come out of their 'work
together the past fifteen months? The Editor of The



Survey's Industry Department took these questions



tration but it indicates



led him finally to turn with him to the Nash 'factory in Cincinnati and gives what tended to happen

/ _j; r< -; J !?.,/"



vivid
doing



answer in terms
unto others and



for help to Sidney Hill- here a
man and his technical Nash's
associates in the organ-
ization of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Union.
Having decided in 1919 not to antagonize his business
:ommunity, he also decided not to employ any of the jour-
neymen tailors whom the Amalgamated was attempting to
organize. His factory was small. He associated with him-
self a few men of energy but of limited manufacturing ex-
perience, who trained key operatives and used these in turn
to train others. Foremen tended to give work to friends,
and friends to their friends' friends. The resulting organ-
ization closely resembled the machine organization of mush-
room American municipalities. Nash clothes are manufac-



as a result of too na'ive
dependence on the spirit
of the wind that bloweth



of "Golden Rule
being done unto.

where it listeth and too great disregard of the technique of
managerial control.

It is now generally agreed that it was principally the
power of Arthur Nash's own personality and the regard in
which the workers held him that saved the factory from
degenerating to the level of the unhappier phase of American
municipal politics.

Sidney Hillman and his associates in the Amal
were quick to recognize the value of Arthur Nash's ability

lead the majority of his workers to an emotional commit



ItttU. LIIV "V.J . - _,

room American mumcipalities. :Nasn ciotne. are manure- ment to his own big idea When they
tured to individual order after measurements taken by some instead of merging the Nash workers e g encnJ o

thousand salesmen-small-town clergymen, school of men's clothing workers in Cmcmnat,



two



teachers, barbers, pool-room operators, men whose principal
asset is their list of personal acquaintances. Arthur Nash
has never gone in for advertising; he has been his own adver-
tiser and the mainspring of his sales force. As the business



separate locals ,n the Nash plant. The
their power to conserve Ajrf
went about their wo
obligations as techi



imgm
They



150



THE GOLDEN RULE THROUGH UNION EYES



A Nash subsidiary had been losing money. One of the
first steps taken by the union was to call in its ablest techni-
cians from Chicago and New York to cooperate with the
management in the reorganization of the lay-out and the
manufacturing procedure. They gave the shop executives
their first systematic contact with science in management.
Within a year that subsidiary had got out of the red.

It was particularly interesting to follow the flow of com-
plaints from the Nash shops through the office of the union
manager. During the week of my visit, I never once heard



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