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but her roots strike deeper than that stubborn soil into the
crevices of the rocks that underly it. She is of the long American
tradition, and for her the gardens of Cambridge, the march
of the pioneers, the Kansas cornfields are as understandable

i and as interesting as the crowded immigrant life of the East

i River streets where she has her home.

Miss Sergeant, one feels, did not bring together her "group
of American portraits" with the showman's flourish "Ladies

: and gentlemen, these prize specimens of our native culture . . ."
One is sure that her own urgent quest for beauty led her to
make this book of beautiful human lives. She views these
distinguished fellow-Americans in relation to the American
scene because of her own intense faith in what is going forward
in America. The fourteen men and women she pictures, such

| diverse personalities as Willa Cather, Amy Lowell, Charles
Townsend Copeland, Robert Frost, H. L. Mencken, Eugene
O'Neill, become on her canvas more than individuals. Each
one, in his or her own terms, is at once an appealing human
being and a significant participant in a large, inclusive adventure.
Paul Robeson, for instance, when we look at the rich, clear
colors of Miss Sergeant's portrait, is more than a musician, an
actor, a figure beautiful as "a Roman bronze of a great period."
He is all that he is in himself, and he is also the laughing,
sorrowing, full-flavored heritage that has come to this country
through "memories of savage freedom," through the sublima-
tion of "the least acceptable of American destinies."

Miss Sergeant discovers for us the sound, fearless Elizabethan
facing of life that has survived through prairie pioneering to
become again articulate in William Allen White and his
Emporia Gazette. She shows us the peculiar American ad-
ministrative genius united to the long, undismayed patience of
a scientist which make possible the work of William Alanson
White at St. Elizabeth's. Her portrait of Alice Hamilton,
first woman member of the faculty of the Harvard Medical
School, international authority on industrial disease, conveys
the gentlewoman's gracious acceptance of responsibility toward
the less fortunate, the selfless missionary passion of another
generation blended and transmuted into a toiling, unwearied
crusade against unnecessary sickness, pain and death among
modern industrial workers. Perhaps most stirring of all to
those of us, at least, who have behind us the old New England
tradition, is Miss Sergeant's widely reproduced canvas of
Justice Holmes, who rides before her "in the field of ideas . . .
as a light horseman, a fabulous skirmisher, a cavalier for all
his 'cold Puritan passion,' who carries a pennon as well as a
lance, and with it 'that little flutter which means ideals'."

Miss Sergeant writes, in her introduction, that "they are
all fighters, Americans in conflict with something." But her
book is testimony to her belief that the conflict technique, the
"fighting spirit" are of no importance in themselves. She
finds the value of these rich lives to themselves and to that
larger common life of which they are a part, in an unusual
capacity for sustained creative work, and in the successful
adjustment to reality which makes such work possible.

BEULAH AMIDON



CONGAREE SKETCHES

By E. C. L. Adams

Stories of Negro life in Heaven, Hell, and the Con-
garee swamps. With an introductory study of The
Negro in Art and Literature by Paul Green. The
University Press takes the keenest pleasure in intro-
ducing these remarkable stories and sketches to the
reading public. They are full of an inimitable humor,
yet are not always so comic after all. They are
stories you will not easily forget. "I know of no more
faithful representation of actual Negro nature with
all its infinite variety of pathos, tragedy, and humor."
G. C. Taylor.

Published May 10. Order your copy now. Price $2.00.

The North Carolina Chain Gang

By Jesse F. Steiner and Roy M. Brown

A study of county convict road work, with case
histories of typical Negro convicts. A careful scientific
work, sane and unsentimental, yet of considerable
human interest.

HERE is a chronicle of travel told with humor and charm.
The adventures of this family of blithe crusaders in their
journey across the universe will interest readers for whom
books must hold the personal note. In the calendar of these
further years abroad are set passages that record not only
enthusiasm and appreciation but also discernment for values
found beneath the surface of continental life. Cornelia Parker
(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, it identifies you.)



FIRE UNDER THE ANDES, by Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant.
Knopf. 331 pp. Price $4.00 postpaid of The Survey.

Cornelia Parker, Pilgrim



Alfred A.



174



the double gift of presenting with a light touch the external
ide of people and places and at the same time revealing with
quick flash of insight those sudden intimate phases, often
ramatic and poignant, when felt by a temperament at once
[jensitive and sympathetic.

The comments and details found in the chapters on schools
the result of her search for the liberal type of education
\\o meet the needs of her three children deserve attention. For
hose readers who have a like situation to face and are at a
to know how or where to begin with schools abroad this
experience should serve as a labor-saving device.
The Parker scenario gives us vivid pictures of the League
nbly and again there is Geneva as the background for
Fifth Labor Conference which the author wrote up for
Survey. The scene shifts to Vienna and we are told in
nple terms of visits to the various clinics and societies in
hat centre of psychology, with sketches of the leaders
psychiatry. Budapest and the social work carried on amid
nditions of post-war desolation reveals the misery left there
the inadequate relief. All this in contrast to the usual
raditions of colour and gypsy music! We look forward to
Parkers' next pilgrimage to other ports, to that same zest
for life.

HALLE SCHAFFNER

4ORE PORTS, MORE HAPPY PLACES, by Cornelia Siratton Parker.
Boni & Uveright. 288 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of The Survey.

The Generations in South Africa

OMETHING in the vibrant air of South Africa seems to
O make for simplicity, clarity and depth. A comparison of
Mrs. Millin with Olive Schreiner is inevitable. Both writers,
out of a warm interest in the contemporary life around them,
have come to lay bare to us eternal tragedies of human con-
flict. Both have given to the literature of our time something
of the majesty of contour that we associate with the classics.
And this is achieved not by a structure of academic grandeur
nor by paucity of detail but by sincerity of interest and under-
standing for the larger values.

There is no padding; rather, one gets the impression that
Mrs. Millin, in despair before the problem of a logical arrange-
ment, just threw together her notes and drafts of chapters and,
with transparent artistry, joined them together into something
resembling a pattern.

Her two novels, God's Stepchildren and Mary Glenn, have
paved the way for the author's recognition. They are realistic
poetry or poetic realism as you prefer. The South Africans
is historical, descriptive, argumentative and expository. But
it is not a history or a travel book or a political essay or a
monograph on race relations. Imagine a talented and charming
visitor from a far-off country sitting at your fireside trying
to tell you and your friends just what you want to know about
that country a vivacious medley of information if one were
to take stenographic notes (which would, of course, spoil the
speaker's spontaneity), that gradually builds up in the hearers'
minds a convincing, realistic and at the same time poetry-suf-
fused picture of that foreign land, a picture that stays and
colors all your thinking when more learned tomes have long
been forgotten. That visitor is Mrs. Millin.

In two or three paragraphs she conjures up a picture of
Pretoria, of Johannesburg, of a mining camp on the Witwaters-
rand sharp as an etching of Muirhead Bone and with the
same quality of persuasiveness. Each social group stands out
in a way that appeals to a fellow-feeling within you and makes
you hope it will eventually find justice, and perhaps a little
charity as well, in this jumble of human interests and aspira-
tions. You understand, as you did not understand before, how
each of these groups came into being and acquired its present
ways and attitudes, and you are driven relentlessly to recog-
nize a fate that entangles them all in a single, hopeless struggle
for self-preservation and self-enhancement.

There is madness in the bitterness with which one genera-
tion tries to undo what a previous generation wrought in the
matter of Asiatic immigration, for example. There is splendor
in the courage with which a small remnant of a people fights
on for its cultural heritage whether native or brought from
distant lands. There is humiliation for you in the conditions

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175



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under which wealth is produced today, not for South Africans
only, but also for you. (Blood seems to flow from the engage-
ment ring you so proudly bought; and the gold reserve in our ;
American banks seems made of the crushed bones of slaves.) \

You recognize the greatness of a Rhodes and his wicked-
ness ; the humanity of a Gandhi and his singleness of heart.
You watch the growth of yet another new nationalism and the
threatening rise of native race-consciousness. And everywhere
you see individuals like yourself with desires that transgress
the boundaries of race and nationality:

People speak of the Native problem as if it were one problem,
just as they speak of the Asiatic menace as if it were one menace.
Natives are not merely natives. They are peoples, nations,
groups, tribes, communities, kraals, locations, classes, sets, indi-
viduals. One might as well try to apply the formula to a Turk
and an Englishman, to a grandee and peasant, as to a naked
Swazi, whose queen is the hereditary rain-maker, and a Christian
Basuto living in his location at Bloemfontein, wearing European
clothing, holding a life-insurance policy, sending his children
to school, allowing them to learn the piano, playing tennis, sing-
ing hymns, and despising his neighbor whose house has a flat,
instead of a pitched, roof of corrugated iron.

Mrs. Millin's biology is not altogether up-to-date, her econ-
omics in a few places is shady, and her psychology here and
there assumes the existence of too many "instincts." But she
has the objectivity of the scientific observer and that emotional
quality which, never degenerating into sentimentality, ever and
again carries the reader's sympathy into the depth of a situa-
tion of conflict. She advocates no simple way out of the tangle
of South African race relations ; yet such books as this unwit-
tingly lead us to consider a solution that has been seen by the
wise teachers of many ages but has never yet been tried.

BRUNO LASKER

Tl:e Inquiry

THE SOUTH AFRICANS, by Sarah Gertrude Millin. Boni & Liveright.
287 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of The Survey.



MARRIAGE and CAREERS

A study of one hundred women who are wires, mothers,
home-makers and professional workers

by
VIRGINIA MacMAKIN COLLIER

Published by
THE BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL INFORMATION

Sold by

THE CHANNEL BOOKSHOP

279 Park Avenue Price $1.00



Italy Interpreted



THE greatest book of Fascism thus far is unmistakably
Don Sturzo's Italy and Fascismo. Its author, the former
head of the Partito Popolare and a priest, was forced to leave
his native country because his party furnished the only per-
sistent opposition to Mussolini and the dictatorship throughout
those fateful months following the March on Rome. It was
Christian in its ethics but not connected with the Catholic
Church. Its principles were pacific, liberal and mildly socialistic.
Sturzo, the Popular Party and the Aventine all failed in their
efforts to curb the power of the Fascists, but when the per-
spective history of this era is written all three will stand as
markers of liberty.

Sturzo's volume deals illuminatingly with the Risorgimento.
The Risorgimento was, indeed, a revolutionary movement and
made possible the unification of Italy, but there was, he be-
lieves, nothing sufficient in the Risorgimento itself to assure
such unity. There was no middle class and consequently the
governing class possessed no subsoil from which to renew its
fertility. The Risorgimento left Italy with a fundamental
dualism in its social and psychic life which was made manifest
in 1914. Italian leaders had not foreseen the war or their
choices. Italy was under obligations to both Entente and
Alliance. Should she answer to opportunism or to past sanc-
tions? The people of Italy, the workers and peasants, wanted
to avoid war at any cost; and the socialists and communists
of the left were equally determined to remain outside this
quarrel between groups of capitalists, as they saw it. Italy
entered the war and performed services of surprising quality.
Would the war and the ensuing peace bring a unifying principle
to Italy? Sadly this hope had to be abandoned, for the peace
was in some respects worse than the war. Sturzo says: "The
whole economic policy of the peace was based on a colossal
error." To Italians it came to assume the proportions, not
merely of error, but of disillusionment and in the end of
bitterness.

The Italian crisis followed close upon the so-called Peace.
Those who wish to find vindication for the Fascists interpret
this crisis in terms of an immanent bolshevization of Italy.
Sturxo does not believe that Fascism can honestly be supported
(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, it identifies you.)



176



To the Devil No Quarter!



their






curses.



Think of this stripling, fired with religious zeal and a consuming will to save souls
rrom perdition, follow him, of an evening, from campfire to campfire Hear him
threatening, exhorting, praying, pledging pledging these hard-boiled, soul-
blistered battlers to attend religious services on Sunday, to forswear the chewinc
or tobacco, to blaspheme no more.

Envision, if you can, a youth so possessed, so sure of his almighty Tightness, that he
could persist in such efforts in such a company and even, to some extent, succeed.

THUS was Anthony Comstock in his flaming youth, and thus he con-
tinued to his grave exorcising the devil with hard words and horny
fists, and receiving in return blasts that scarred him in heart and body.
Had he been a hypocrite, his story would not be worth the telling. But he
was genuine, honest, undeniably courageous. He thought of himself as
God's soldier in a vice-ridden world. And since soldiers are made to
fight, he fought, taking his orders straight from God, and praying each
night for more and bigger orders.



IN Anthony Comstock, by Heywood Broun and Margaret Leech,
the authors approach their subject in so thoroughly fair a spirit
of pure inquiry, and treat him with so much humor and under-
standing, as to make this book one of the most enjoyable biogra-
phies of recent years.



In our Special Edition this book is obtainable only in combination with The
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Third Annual

SUMMER CONFERENCE

(Formerly held at Olivet, Mich.)
Under the Auspices of

Fellowship for a Christian Social Order

On the Campus of Hillsdale College

HILLSDALE, MICHIGAN, AUGUST 1-27, 1927

Nature of the Conference

THE discusisoii method will be used throughout the conference. The
themes will be : International Relations, August 1 -6 ; Economic-
Industrial Relations, August 8-13; Family Relations, August 15-20;
Educational Method, August 22-27.

There will be two sessions each morning and one each evening.
The conference leaders, together with members of the conference who
wish to share in building the program will, at the close of each
session, plan for the next in the light of the preceding discussions.
From six to ten persons with special knowledge or experience relat-
ing to the theme of each week will be present to contribute
democratically, as called upon, to the discussion.

Rest and Recreation

Hillsdale College, with its beautiful sixty -acre campus and
attractive residence halls, offers a delightful setting for the confer-
ence. Afternoons will be free for relaxation and recreation. Tnmis
courts, an athletic field and a new gymnasium are available. Regis-
trants will be privileged to use nearby golf links at a small cost. A
group of lakes, easily accessible by auto, offers excellent facilities
for bathing, boating, rowing and canoeing.

Rates and Registration

Hillsdale College will operate its dormitories and dining room on
a cost basis for the conference. Adults (two in a room), including
conference fee of $1.00 per day, $19.50 per week; transients (less
than six days), $3.50 per day; single rooms, $2.00 per week extra.
Children, ages 6-12, $8.50 per week; ages 3-6, $5.50 per week; under
three, special rates. Good dining room service is assured.

The conference is open to all who care to come. Registrants are
strongly urged to remain throughout the month as the program is
cumulative. Discussion of a new theme begins on Monday. Regis-
trations should be in by July 15th, if possible.

The conference seeks to combine physical recreation, whole-
some social contacts, mental stimulus and spiritual regarding.



347 Madison Avenue



All inquiries should be addressed to

AMY BLANCHE GREENE



New York City



on the ground that it saved Italy from Communism. Indeed
the presumed communist crisis was over before the march on
Rom . The political crisis, as Sturzo now interprets it, was
precipitated by the decay of the ruling class, the "bankruptcy
of socialist ideology," economic depression induced by the
fallacious peace, by the discontent of the ex-soldiers, and by
the cumulative oligarchic tendencies within the governmental
scheme. When the old structure fell of its own weakness
Fascists proclaimed that Liberalism was dead. "In truth,"
says Sturzo, "it was the old oligarchy that was passing, not
Liberalism."

Mussolini has acted as if the march on Rome constituted
a revolution. But there was no revolution; Mussolini was
appointed premier by law. He created the revolution by
gradually delimiting the powers of parliament, by increasing
his government by decrees, and by arming a political party
which henceforth made itself supreme by force. In Russia a
real revolution occurred, but not in Italy, and Mussolini's
interpretation of his march on Rome and the castor oil tech-
nique as a revolution is mere rationalization after the fact.

The second part begins with the March on Rome and carries
through to the elections of 1924 and the Aventine reaction.
The comparison of Russia with Italy is brilliant interpretation.
The third part aims to portray modern Italy in the light oi
contemporary European trends and the status of Anglo-Saxon
peoples; and the final section is a measured but inspiring promise
for Italy's future as a pacific, cultured, industrious, and re-
ligious nation. Those who intend to be informed about theii
world should read this book ; and even those not primarily pre-
occupied with Italy and Fascism will find a profitable amount
of general European interpretation. Don Sturzo is not merely
a priest and the deposed leader of a moribund political party;
he is philosopher, historian, politician and above all a warm,
human personality who is vividly courageous and uncommonly
fair-minded.

E. C. LINDEMAV

ITALY AND FASCISMO. by Luifi Stur:o. Translated by Barbarc
Barclay Carter, with a preface bv Gilbert Murray. Harcourt, Brace and
Company. 305 pp. Price $.1.75 postfaid of The Survey.



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About Books



SPEAKERS:



Whites Can Lay Down a Burden

FOR some time it has been evident that the "manifest
destiny" of the white race has been losing its manifestness,
and all of Asia is the protagonist of the denial. It is customary
to blame Soviet Russia for most of the revolution in the world,
and in this book Russia is shown as playing some part in in-
spiring the confidence and technic of the colored races, but to
credit Russia with the cause is to deny that political, economic,
and cultural forces have their own consequences. The revolt
would have occurred just the same without Russia, but it
then could have been formulated as definitely anti-white.
Now, with Russia in sympathetic cooperation, it can only bt
logically anti-imperialistic, albeit the white race will have to
pay the fiddler for its disdain of color.

The data of the book covers the area from Tokyo to Cairo
and Siam to Turkey. It tells us just what needs to be known
at the present moment about human attitudes, organizations,
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Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 40 of 130)