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chance to go fishing out

of business.

what's more,

Johnny

a brother,

he's got to

come out of business too!

Human welfare depends
' pretty directly on business, now,
"doesn't it?





Said the owl to the elephant:
I've thought for many >



_.. - - - - - ... a ny a year

That why we do the things we do
is not so very clear."

LESSON TWO: THE AIM OF BUSINESS IS
HUMAN WELFARE

Business is our way of "W. Jf) making a

living. But what do we / *bY\ make a living

for, anyway? Why, for L A / y kodaks. And

kids. And an apartment Li. ^ i n the Bronx.

And when we get 'em, still we're not satisfied.
We want GOOD shoes, with leather soles. And
food chuck full of vitamines (whatever they are).

And the kind of job that leaves
time to go fishing. And to

practice on the saxaphone.
That's what you want, isn't it?

yHB And why in thunder

shouldn't you have 'em?
And why shouldn't EVERYONE have 'em?
You can call it Cooperation.
Or you can call it
Common Sense.
But what other aim could
this business of making a living have than
HUMAN WELFARE?








LESSON THREE: BUSINESS; OF

COURSE, BUT NOT PRIVATE PROFIT

Our welfare depends on the way
we collectively make our livings
or as we say, on business.
The Aim of Business is
human welfare.

What other motive has Business?

Private Profit.

Does Private Profit exclude the

idea of human welfare?

It has sometimes appeared to.

Does human welfare exclude

the motive of private profit? Only when

private profit takes the place of
human welfare as the aim of industry.

Can we run business without private profit?
We can. Then what advantage has





private profit?
to most of us.
come to a
RADICAL
Radical Conclusion:
Human welfare
rather than
the Aim of




Not much
Have we not
RATHER
conclusion?



Private profit is
Business.



The Consumer, Cooperative Services of New York . run sever,, successful I rest-am, .

laundry, and plan a theatre for next year. Between times, ,ts h t-rted , ^ 9 i ra p|i cit y than by a bombard-

controversial economic issues can be more clearly stated and argued Jrea nization, we here reproduce the text and

ment of large words and passionate oratory. Through the courtesy of
illustrations of the first "volume" of the series.



213



EDUCATION



A Note on the New Puritanism

By GERTRUDE DIAMANT

Silhouette, draii-n by Kate Wolje, courtesy Hebreiv Sheltering Guardian Society, Ne<w York






A^NG its other discoveries in the field of intensive
chemistry, our twentieth century has discovered
the child. It is true that the earliest researches
concerning the child the layman's name for a
very intricate arrangement of protoplasm were
made as far back as the eighteenth century. But it is only
within recent years that this branch of science has developed
its elaborate paraphernalia of intelligence tests, experimental
schools, rural surveys, correlation charts, classification
clinics, and pithecanthropoid researches. With the result
that, as in all well-bred sciences, the chemical under ques-
tion has received due analysis into its component instincts,
repressions, inhibitions, and what-nots.

It matters little that investigators may quarrel over the
presence or absence of some of the elements instincts, by
way of example. Or that, according to the tradition in
adolescent sciences, there has been the customary cleavage
into schools. The important point is that we actually

have this new science in our midst, and that it
is something of a bastard in the staid, pure-
blooded company of the other sciences.
For, dealing with a human and therefore
slighty incalculable substance, it is try-
ing to hide the cloven hoof in the
most orthodox scientific buskins; and
strutting around before a back-
drop which is made by putting

graphs and charts and Binet tests

together in an impressive mosaic.
And the net result is that we realize

that the child is not merely a grotesque

and diminutive copy of its elders: it is

a child, sui generis. Granted! Yet where

in all the canons of logic does it follow that,

because the child is not in all ways exactly like

its elders, it is, therefore, something entirely different?
"But you misunderstand," comes by way of protest from
one of a group of charming mothers, who, thanks to the
"reasonableness" of their experimentally-schooled one-off-
spring-each, have never lost their schoolgirl complexions.
"While I realize that Bobby is a child, I do not say that
he cannot reason as a grown-up can. In that respect, we
have found that a child does resemble its elders. For in-
stance, if Bobby keeps opening and shutting the ice-box
door for no good reason whatsoever, every time we let him
come into the kitchen, I appeal to his reasoning ability.
I point out to him that ice melts, that. . . ."

"But suppose Bobby doesn't care if ice has that limita-
tion ? Why shouldn't he open the ice-box door for no good
reason whatsoever?"




I am treated to a long look of horror.
"Do you mean, then, that to assert his how shall I
say? his childhood, Bobby should make a point of ap-
proaching the ice-box every day at a given time, and de-
liberately open and shut the door?"

"No, I waive the ice-box door, since you reduce it to
absurdity. It is only a symbol, anyway. Yet isn't it the
symbol of all the joyously-unreasonable, wilfully-wicked
things that we forbid Bobby to indulge in, simply because
he is a child, whose lot is cast in this age of infant
philosophers? And isn't it necessary for the welfare of his
soul that he should, now and then, be permitted to be wil-
fully-wicked?"

By this time the clamor is too loud to hear any consecutive
statements.

"Pure rhetoric . . . nonsense ... if you had a child . . .
who has souls nowadays?"

From which one cold question emerges when the atmos-
phere is calm again:

"And do you recommend that we actually
cultivate this ... er ... wilful-wickedness
in our children? This unreasonableness,
in other words?"

"And why not? Think of all the
unreasonable things you do, for which
no one can criticize you, simply be-
cause you are a grown-up."
"Ha . . . unreasonable!"
"Precisely. Is it reasonable to
wear sheer stockings in mid-winter,
stay out until two at night, and lay
a film of powdered talc over a very
lovely cheek every few hours?"
"It's reasonable. . for me."
"And there's the rub ! How do you know
that opening the shiny ice-box door for no good reason
whatsoever, is not a highly reasonable procedure for Bobby?"
"Why . . . why . . ." It is too obviously ridiculous.
"But I thought," someone interpolates slyly, "that you
wanted Bobby to be unreasonable?"
There is a challenging pause.

"Oh well. ..." Then I have a bright idea. "It is
bewildering, I .admit. Now wouldn't it be better if we
called all our behavior unreasonable, and so avoided all
confusion?"

"How quaint!" with great irony.

"Now in applying this criterion of reasonableness to
your children, aren't you expecting a greater degree of
perfectibility in children than any other class of the human
race has ever attained, or ever will attain? The child, vou



214



THE SURVEY



ay, is not a grown-up. And with remarkable insight into
he one and only way to emphasize the difference, you
iroceed to insist on the child's perfectibility."

This impressive speech gives them pause. I take advan-
age of the silence with another flow of verbiage. I adopt
he historical method.

Haven't we with us again, I point out, the well-known
icrfectibility of the human race, making its usual "posi-
ively last appearance"? Only this time it has changed
ts tactics. This disease, which waited formerly to attack
he young idea until it was well into its twenties (when
mmunity could usually be developed), is now making its
nsidious advances into the very nurseries of our nation.
It is undermining the future manhood of both sexes. It
s preparing for us a generation of latter-day Puritans,
who, having been trained in their angel infancy never to
open an ice-box door with malice aforethought, never to
tear books, or touch matches with intent to be burned,
will grow up into a state of blessed and automatic saint-
hood, and give the globe-trotting millenium a permanent
home in these United States.

Lest this be taken for calamity howling, consider these
questions from the circular of a child study association,
submitted by the mothers themselves for the experts to
ruminate over, and chosen because they have been found
to be "most helpful."

1. What shall I do if both my children want the same toy

at once? , ,

2. How can I keep my boy from playing with matches.'

3. How can I prevent my child from tearing the wall-

4. My boy does not come the moment I call him. Ought I
to require him to come at once?

Would it be indecent to counter, for question I, that



215

one should take care nowadays not to have two children?
And for question 2, would it be too morbidly sensible to
advise that the matches be put out of reach? But the an-
swer to question 3 is instructive. Here is the plan of
attack :

What, precisely, are the sensations which your child derives
from tearing the wall-paper? Does he derive pleasure from
the tearing sensation which accompanies the act? Does he
take pleasure in the sound of the tearing paper? Would
tearing anything else furnish the same satisfaction? Or is
he especially interested in tearing the wall-paper? To remedy
this, why not give him a box filled with pebbles to play with,
or something else that he can tear freely?

It will be seen that the solution lies in the well-known
principle of substitution. It is really amazingly simple:
The child is to receive all the sensations of tearing the
wall-paper through a very simple mechanical toy. The
auditory, visual and tactile effects will be the same, but
ah! how innocuous! Yet here an awful doubt arises:
What is to be done if, after every solution has been tried,
the child still insists on tearing the wall-paper, and noth-
ing else? What if there is a dark, ineradicable, hitherto-
unsuspected strain of paranoicism in this particular child?
What if and here one contemplates the awful abysses of
human behavior the pleasure of tearing the wall-paper
is the pleasure of tearing the wall-paper?

From the brink of the precipice we reel back onto the
firm, grateful ground of optimism. How much sweeter
to contemplate that world we will live in, when the per-
fected generation grows up: when all shall prefer choco-
late sundaes to cocktails; when little stuffed birds will
occupy the trees to be shot at; when there will be lay
figures for the urgent sex relations, and pipes for smoking
soap bubbles instead of the filthy weed!



The Freedom of the Campus: An Undergraduate View



By DOUGLASS ORR



THE issues of free speech and the right of assem-
bly have recently put the small, undergraduate
Liberal Club of an obscure normal school at
West Chester, Pennsylvania, on the front page
of the press of the country. The thirty members
of the club believe that the dismissal of two popular faculty
members was due to their independence of thought and
their support of the Liberal Club which accidentally came
to the unfavorable notice of the local post of the American
Legion, rather than to the stated reason, "faculty reorgar
ization." Following its vigorous protest against the dis
missal of Professor Kerlin and Professor Kinneman, the
principal, Dr. Andrew Thomas Smith, forbade the Lib
eral Club to meet. The club refused to accept this ruling,
held its usual meeting and made plans for further prote
against the ousting of the two teachers. Dr. Sm.th nex
tried to censor the campus newspaper, but the student editor
ran her own editorial, charging attempted suppression
opinion and tyrannical faculty control. Both the president
of the Liberal Club and the editor of the paper expect
to be "dismissed" before the close of the school year f

At Denver University the vice-president of the Thmke
Club organized a debate between a clergyman and Judge
Ben B. Lindsey on some phases of modern marriage. Five



masked men kidnapped and flogged this student, and the
next day kidnapped him again from the hospita

Some weeks ago the student editor of a Kama
Missouri, Junior College paper was expelled for pub
ing a letter criticising the school authorities and for pru
previously forbidden reviews of The Professor s House
Willa Gather, Ansky's Dybbuk and The Silver Stallion by
Cabell. Even the school alumni joined in the
test against this action. .

At the University of Nebraska the administration
vised" against a debate between army officers and civ
on compulsory training and, on another occasion inform
the University Y.M.C.A. that speakers known to have ant
R OTC records or to be otherwise opposed to adm.ms-
tration 'olic would not be welcome on the campus



sels ou, ol ,hU crci



2l6



THE S U R FEY



May 15, 1927



not represent protest movements. The assumption on which
they \vere started was the right of undergraduates to discuss
all phases of life, especially education, and their aim has
always been to create and sustain interest in ideas and in
student affairs, local, national and international. Similarly
reports and critiques of campus activities and college curri-
cula by student organizations and committees reveal an
interest in educational processes and imply a right of stu-
dents to review such matters [see The Survey, March 15,
page 806]. On the other hand, magazines such as the
Indiana Vagabond, and sheets like the Kansas Dove and
the Nebraska Campus Review are protests against faculty
censorship of "official" student newspapers, against the
smothering of self-expression or merely against the standard-
ization and intellectual vacuity of campus life.

Tacit or explicit in all of these is the assertion that stu-
dents should be free to discuss controversial issues from
their own point of view, to stimulate discussion of chal-
lenging problems, and, as one "independent journalist of
campus opinion" puts it, to right "the idea that students
should not discuss their university and that all unpleasant
controversies should be hushed up so that 'the people out
in the state' will not know what is going on." In short,
students wish to write and speak about what is in their
minds, and to do so unrestricted by college authorities,
patriotic societies or ultra-conventional fellow students.

In spite of some glaring exceptions, students do not want
undisciplined license. Their plea is for self-imposed re-
straint. "The only requirements are that articles shall be as
short as possible, written in acceptable English, and not in
violation of the canons of good taste." These are the rules,
with one requiring articles to be signed, of the Campus
Review at Nebraska. This standard of good taste is im-
portant. Its violation invariably loses the offenders their
following, but the discipline must be self-imposed.

A democratic society demands men and women with clear,



active, trained minds. This implies a degree of freedom
that will be attained only when the facts and theories of
our social heritage and of contemporary institutions are
accessible to students and when students are encouraged to
think and to express themselves with fearless independence.
This is fundamental for citizenship in a democracy.

Under such a scheme, a university would be not merely
a fact-giving institution, but a place where ideas are exposed
and rubbed down and polished off by coming in contact
with other ideas and opinions. Viewpoints, theories, notions,
no matter how tentative or "half-cracked" should be given
a hearing. University atmosphere ought to be charged with
ideas in conflict, faculty and students attacking, modifying,
examining, defending ideas, as well as digging for facts.

Talk about "ideas in conflict" would probably seem an
alien dialect on nine-tenths of our university and college
campuses at present. A new idea is so rare in some institu-
tions that it is little wonder that administrators view with
alarm any evidence of independent thought.

The University of Georgia student body recently uncov-
ered an attempt to get rid of the assistant secretary of the
Y.M.C.A. because of his connection with the inter-racial
commission and his supposed opposition to militarism. The
campus paper in its comment fairly summed up American
undergraduate opinion on academic freedom for students:

The question at stake is: Will freedom of thought and ex-
pression be squelched right here in the university where thought
is supposed to be fosteied, where thinkers are welcome, where
opinions are to be threshed out instead of suppressed sup-
posedly the center of progressive, new thought in the state? If
it is, then we shall join Tennessee as the laughing stock of the
world.

These recent incidents at state universities, colleges and
the West Chester Normal School are the fundamental out-
come of attempts to keep the administrative waters too well
covered with oil. Their importance, however, is in showing
that thinking students will fight for freedom of speech.



First Aid for Group Leaders



By GRACE COYLE



DURING the spring semester there was held at
Columbia University under the joint auspices
of the Inquiry and the Extension Department,
a course in discussion leadership in which sixty-
eight students, drawn largely from the social
and religious agencies of New York, have been studying
the process by which groups make
up their minds.

Committees and conventions
have come to be the great deter-
miners of social effort and the in-
dividual opinions of many of us
arise out of the interplay of ex-
perience in adult classes, forums
and club meetings. In addition,
the increasing size and extent of
organizations have given their
policies in many cases the imper-
sonality of public questions as re-
mote from the local member as the
doings of the State Department.
The demand for the course arose




Consumers Cooperative Services, Inc.

"The meeting is open for discussion"



from the development among certain leaders and organiza-
tion memberships of a realization of these facts and a criti-
cal interest in the "workings" of their groups.

Among the sixty-eight students were representatives of
such agencies as the Girl Scouts, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.
C.A., the Newman Club of Columbia, the Girls' Friendly
Society, of seven institutional
churches, four national church
boards, the Child Study Associa-
tion, the Heckscher Foundation,
the League of Women Voters, the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers
and several others.

Course materials were necessar-
ily drawn from educational theory
and social psychology. The situa-
tion that arises when an organiza-
tion must take action in a tense
racial controversy or adopt a policy
on an international question or
work out a budget involving rela-
tions to other groups calls for the



'ay 15, 1927



THE SURVEY



ychological approach. Emotional reactions, stereotyped
titudes, feuds and factions confront any leader, teacher or
residing officer who attempts to secure unbiased group con-
deration of all sides of any vital question. The chief con-
:rn of the two-hour class periods was with methods of meet-
g these and similar problems involved in group deliberation.
The class was divided into smaller sub-groups, led by
icmbers of the Inquiry staff, to consider such questions in
;rms of the individual responsibilities of the students. Thus
xecutives and committees charged with engineering con-
:rences talked over the use of experts, the purpose of steer-
ig committees and how to get at the actual interests of the
onstituency. A group of executives burdened with boards
nd committees threshed out the recurrent problems of com-
nittee functions and methods of presenting and transacting
usiness. Several club leaders worked over the building of
club program, its bearing on overhead policies, the pro-
ect method in such organizations and its relation to the
ims of club and leader. There were four sub-groups of
eachers and heads of clubs interested in international, fam-
y and religious questions and of several academic courses
t Teachers' College in which students act as discussion
eaders. These groups had a chance to deal concretely with
roblems of teaching informal, voluntary adult classes.

This division of the class into sub-groups involving a
variety of situations, made evident the need for considering
discussion as a part of continuing group life. Pauses for
deliberation, either for individuals or for groups, occur only
it junction points where a choice of routes must be made.
Such points are integral parts of the group life where tradi-
ion, community conflict, organization politics and many
other factors exert constant and active influence. They cannot
be torn out of their setting and treated as isolated details.

Its sponsors hope that this course will stimulate similar
experiments in other quarters. Techniques for analysing
and guiding the group process are only beginning to emerge.
Already, however, there is available data on how to increase
participation in joint deliberation, on making discussion
more discriminating and common decision sounder.
value of a course in group leadership is in distributing exist-
ing data and in stimulating further study of the group pro-
cesses in which our highly organized modern life so con-
stantly involves us.

Cooperative Reading

By EDNA PHILLIPS

BOTH librarians and teachers who specialize in adult
education for the foreign-born recognize the breadth
of outlook gained by wide professional reading and tl
resulting benefit to their work. Both groups suffer from
lack of time for such reading. They find that published
book reviews help, but oral reviews by specialists on books
dealin^ with the subjects of their specialty are peculiarly
helpful in supplementing the exploring an individual can do

Two groups in my state have concerned themselves \vi
this problem. The Massachusetts Library Club appointed
a Committee on Work with New Americans three years
ago to promote the use of public libraries by the foreig
born and to improve the service for them,
chusetts Association of Americanization Teachers, forn
seven years ago, aims to broaden the professional outlook
of its members and to encourage the human side of their



217

work by furthering social contacts. These two groups ar-
ranged at a recent joint meeting in the State House to have
brief reviews by their members of ten books of the year on
immigration and race problems, easy English for adult
beginners and racial backgrounds. The plan was to have
a fact-finding discussion: the reviews were to be favorable
or the reverse as each reviewer thought best, and there was
a chance for question and comment from the floor. We
wanted to give a hospitable hearing to a diversity of view-
points, leaving it to each one in the audience to decide which
of the books were adapted to his own use.

The books thus orally reviewed and discussed were:

Determinism in Education, by W. C. Bagley. Warwick and
York.

The Conquest of New England by the Immigrant, by D. C.
Brewer. Putnam.

Help Yourself Lessons, by Winthrop Talbot. American Lan-
guage Press.

Pulse of Progress, by Ellsworth Huntington. Scribner.

Historical Aspects of the Immigration Problem, by Edith Ab-
bott. University of Chicago Press.

In Quest of the Soul of Civilization, by Hagop Bogigian. Pub-
lished by the author.

I Am a Woman and a Jew, by Leah Morton. J. H. Sears Co.

A Federal Textbook on Citizenship Training. Part III, Our
Nation. U. S. Bureau of Naturalization.

Modern Aladdins and Their Magic, by C. E. Rush and Amy
Winslow. Little.

Italy Under Mussolini, by William Bolitho. Macmillan.

Italy, the Central Problems of the Mediterranean, by Antonio
Cippico. Yale University.

The New Balkans, by H. F. Armstrong. Harper.

Facts and opinions on current books by those com-
petent to judge were not at all the only objectives
this discussion group. Charles Herlihy, supervise
adult alien education in Massachusetts, expres
the belief that such re- . sumes of the season's
would whet the appe-
the same kind, and
stimulant to further
but would




the for more books of
would not only be a
independent read-
mean closer local
between libra-
supervisors



ing

coo peration

rians and

of Amer- Courtesy New School of Social Research

THE National Farm School has awarded scholarships to eighty
needy city boys who on March l began a three-years course
the school farms, a tract of 1,200 acres, near Doylestown, P



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