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who has an opportunity to serve will burn just a 1

L 11 " A*- t-hf* rinse of the speech some ot tne

ut'ce n ha h d",-e,,st **
"id "We didn't have a large crowd, but we had the cream

nf Ouincv and it's quality that counts.

S^Lw^*rMiV:

nn CUlate of enthSm. That U contagious. And Marion

gins to read the symptoms of this
bTtter health for its growing



COMMUNITIES



Without Benefit of Controversy



By HOMER W. BORST



THE publicity department of our Community Fund,
which means our whole staff, discussed some time
ago the attractive idea of starting a crusade. We
realized that we were in the midst of a contest,
but it seemed a rather one-sided affair, with most
of the interest on our side, and considerable difference on
the other. As a change we suspected we might be willing
to put up with a little active opposition, if at the same time
we could consolidate a compensatory enthusiasm back of our-
selves. We might raise more money that way. At any rate
we might create a more lively interest, and if we found the
right issue, do some good.

We began to wonder whether we had not been playing
too cautious a game, from the standpoint of financial prog-
ress, self-expression, and deep-lying social issues. Given the
present state of the public mind, we concluded we had
realized about the full effectiveness of the Community
Fund method of raising money. Also we feared we were
not getting down to brass tacks in our social evangelism.
Perhaps our philosophy did not deserve any warmer public
interest. With a more comprehensive platform perhaps we
could change the state of the public mind, and in the main,
favorably. Does that sound like a generative idea? It
did to us.

We began by looking for social issues in our own program
and the programs of our member organizations which
might be sharpened to challenge public interest. We were
not looking for such familiar

issues as these: Why should IndlcUlcipOliS
the Young Men's Christian

Association be in the Community Fund when it
charges for service? Why does the Red Cross still
need money when the war has been over for eight
years? Why doesn't the Community Fund throw
out all of the "welfare" organizations like the Boy Scouts,
for example, and support only the genuine charities like the
Salvation Army? We had an appetite for something "more
fundamental."

The Young Women's Christian Association, we heard,
had ideas about an eight-hour day for women, and a better
understanding between employer and employed. That was
our first lead, but it didn't take us very far. No legislation
was proposed for the immediate future, but rather a patient,
opportunist program of education, calculated to inspire a
minimum of opposition for a long time to come, a program
of conference and mutual understanding. There was no
lack of courage, we were assured, only good judgment as
to what in the end was likely to prove effective.

When representatives of the Child Labor Committee ar-
rived in town we anticipated opposition until we were
assured that it would require a real investigation to show




anything very bad, since conditions apparently were satis-
factory. Beside the adoption of the state's rights basis oi
operation had disarmed most of the previous doctrinaire
criticism.

An issue loomed with respect to Negro segregation. Oui
colored citizens themselves raised a defense fund and de-
feated the segregation ordinance by due process of law
while the fact that the Council of Social Agencies accorded
moral support seemed to be considered quite natural. "Yoi
would; you're the type."

Municipal affairs gave evidence of needing attention, bul
the Chamber of Commerce succeeded in establishing civil
service for police and firemen, while an independent com-
mittee launched a campaign for the commission-manage]
form of government, and apparently needed no stimulation
from our direction.

Prohibition was conversationally provocative, of course
and the settlements were interested, but we found thai
Detroit has discussed that question, with the wise folk, ap-
parently, suspending judgment.

Unemployment? Low wages? Cooperative management
of industry? Now there were real issues, but no membei
organization had announced any program with respect te
such problems, nor had any organization been excluded be-
cause it did have a program.

As for formulating a program of our own, more ad-
vanced than our characteristic one for the social use ol
. money, we concluded that sucli

III Unity FUIia work must be done by en

lightened minorities, more en-
lightened, and more in the minority than ourselves;
and it was disappointing to observe that in all the
rest of the city only two groups stood out in rela-
tion to these problems, the unions, and the employes
of a cooperatively managed factory, who apparently needed
some convincing as to the worth-while nature of oui
endeavor.

The crime problem did finally yield something. We are
launching a survey of probation performance and probation
needs. At first glance probation might seem to be a subject
highly charged with controversy considering the general
movement toward drastic sentences, but after talking with
the courts we are not so sure. Our judges say they will
welcome advice, and as for the public, do not the newspapers
reflect the confused state of public opinion when they call for
the death penalty today, and then betray a sporting interest
in a fight for commutation of sentence six months later?

No, after all, we are going ahead for another year on our
old plan modified only slightly. We shall still be accused
by some of exhibiting an elephantine timidity when con-
fronted with the mice of social controversy, and in our



222



'ay 15, 1927



THE SURREY



223



:arts we shall nurse a discomfort, but not a very defi-
le one.

What we shall feel much more guilty about is quite an-
:her matter. Given the age-old and universal tendency
iward mutual aid, the foundation upon which social work

built, given the wonderful money-raising machine which
ie modern campaign represents, given the abysmal ignorance
: most people concerning the services modern social work



has to offer in place of the old charity, given the challenge
to intelligence and faith that resides in those processes that
constitute the heart of our service, processes of education
and personality development that we believe will remain
valid long after the time when the average of social welfare
is much higher than it is now, how is it that we have not
used our talents to better advantage? Not tired redicals,
but worse slumbering disciples.



Could Community Trusts Work?



By PIERCE WILLIAMS



THE new driving force in American social work
is the conviction that poverty and disease can be
abolished if wealth and science will join hands,
setting modern social work apart from old-world
charity, with its pessimistic assumption that
<overty and disease are inescapable. One of the new social
evices through which we are trying to do this is the
ommunity trust. This, as its name implies, is a permanent
endowment, distinguished from the private philanthropic
oundation by the participation of a large number of in-
ividuals in creating the endowment. Through a community
rust, any public-spirited citizen can give a sum of money
n trust for the future welfare of his community. It is, in
: act, an application to the field of philanthropy of the
rinciple of the joint-stock business corporation. What
udge Goff, the originator of the community trust idea, had
n mind was the permanent investment of private wealth in
community-welfare enterprise.

The essence of the community trust idea is that the dis-
position of income yielded by the endowment shall be left
iindesignated by the donor. This involves the selection from
time to time, by a representative committee of distribution,
f those charitable objects to which available income shall
>e applied. In this manner, the community trust aims an
ffectual blow at the "dead hand in charity," endowments
vhich become inoperative because of the disappearance of
he charitable object originally named by the donor.

Notwithstanding the high hopes entertained for the com-
munity trust idea, it has, during the thirteen years which
lave elapsed since it was launched in Cleveland, yielded only
meagre results. A recent compilation shows that of fifty
existing community trusts, thirty have received no gifts or
egacies whatever. The combined endowment of the other
wenty amounts to less than $10,000,000, and the income
expended during 1925 did not exceed $600,000. Much of
his income, moreover, appears to have been specifically
lesignated by the donors.

Why have the community trusts failed to yield greater
ocial welfare dividends?

The necessity for keeping social welfare projects "sold"
to the public has often been stressed. No matter how
vorthy the object, money does not come unsolicited. Not
only must the money-raising effort be efficiently organized,
Hit givers must be kept informed as to the merits of that
particular piece of work. The community trust is no ex-
ception to this rule. If it is to bring wealth together in a
pool for community welfare projects, it must be so organized
as to be able to continuously solicit gifts of capital for its
uses. This, in turn, implies a purpose, somewhere in the



organization of making a program of welfare undertakings
convincing enough to attract such capital gifts.

A community trust is not, as one might suppose, an in-
corporated body, like a private foundation. It is nothing
but an offer on the part of a particular trust company of
its willingness, under certain conditions, to accept money
or property in trust for the welfare of the community. In
view of the vague wording, "community welfare," the
declaration of trust formally adopted by the trust company
makes provision for a public committee to distribute the
income yielded by capital given to the trust company. The
committee of distribution is composed of five or seven mem-
bers, appointed by such public officials as the mayor, the
judge of the United States court, and so on. Usually, the
trust company names a member. But until some giver
accepts this offer of the trust company, the community trust
is nothing but a splendid gesture. And to date relatively
few givers have taken advantage of these community trusts,
though the offers have been open for several years in many
of the largest and wealthiest cities of the country.

This reluctance of people of wealth to utilize the com-
munity trust is, in my opinion, evidence of a serious defect
in the present plan. The fact is that the community trust
lacks means for the active solicitation of endowment funds.
It is not surprising, therefore, that so few gifts have come.
For all practical purposes, the committee of distribution is
the only body through which effective contact can be estab-
lished with the giving public. If the committee of distribu-
tion fails to function actively, then the community trust is
dormant. And in the great majority of cities, the committee
has taken the position that until a trust company notified it
that income was available for distribution, there was nothing
for it to do. It is this waiting-for-something-to-happen
attitude that has made the existing community trusts of
such minor value.

T 7 NQUESTIONABLY, the idea inherent in the com-
J munity trust, namely that in each large community
thTmeans should exist through which public-spirited in-
dividuals might pool their capital for community welfare, is
capable of filling a real need in American social
eanization. It is essential, however, that we recognize the
community trust for exactly what it is, viz., a w.sely drawn
legal instrument, but not a social welfare mstrument.
community trust bears the same relationship to the creanc
of permanent endowments as a deed does to real
transactiens. If you intend to buy a piece of prope,
would do well to have the right form of deed executed 1
the seller. The deed, in itself, is incapabl.



224



THE SURVEY



May 15, 192



either the buying or the selling of real estate. The
community trust is a legal instrument through which a
charitably-inclined person can create an endowment in favor
of his community. In itself, it is impotent to get givers to
give money for charitable purposes.

If the present community trusts are to become dynamic,
they must be supplemented by an organization capable of
making a program of welfare projects in harmony with the
needs of the community and actively soliciting gifts of
capital to finance those projects. This body should, I be-
lieve, be separately incorporated. And, to differentiate it
from the legal instrument, the name community foundation
might be used. It should have a board of directors, chosen
by reason of their interest in social conditions. Eventually,
it should have a technical staff.

It is not the function of the community foundation to
receive and hold endowments. This is a purely legal and
business function, which should be left to trust companies
and banks. By leaving this function to them, the community
foundation would have the banks and trust companies as its
allies, for it is to them the individual of wealth is likely to
go in order to get a proper trustee for this prospective gift.
The function of the trust companies would be to provide
a large number of separate reservoirs into which streams of
capital might continuously flow for accumulation. The
function of the community foundation would be to de-
termine the lines of community welfare along which the
power generated by these accumulated gifts should flow.

In order to make a convincing program of projects worth
endowing, the community foundation would have to be in
close and sympathetic contact with the day-by-day social
work of its community. In cities where a community chest
exists, the chest should be represented on the board of the
foundation. I do not believe the chest should itself take
on the task of raising and distributing community endow-
ment funds.

As the community foundation gained experience and as
income became available in the hands of local trust com-
panies for its purpose, it would probably arrive at a policy
similar to that of the successful private foundations. These
give nothing to individuals in the form of direct charity.
While a considerable portion of their income is appropriated
every year for current maintenance of going charitable
organizations, an increasing proportion of it is going into
channels of social research and experimental social work.
These two fields offer unlimited opportunities to community
foundations.

Once we visualize the community foundation as a dynamic
social device aiming at the pooling of capital for the pro-
motion of the community welfare, we see that it is another
instrument for accomplishing what the great private founda-
tions have as their object. When the Rockefeller Foundation
states that its purpose is to "promote the well-being of man-
kind throughout the world," it is employing the word
community in its widest possible significance. The only
important respect in which the private foundations and the
community foundations would differ is in the manner in
which their respective capital endowments are obtained.
Whereas the capital of the private foundation is generally
the result of a gift made by one person, that of the com-
munity foundation would have to be assembled from many
separate persons over an indefinite period.

The responsibility for vitalizing the community trust
idea by the organization of community foundations seems



to me to rest squarely on the shoulders of our social worker!
We have no right to expect the trust companies to correc
the shortcomings of the present plan. They are business
not social welfare institutions. They already have made
real contribution by calling attention publicly to a legs
instrument whereby endowments can be made to work fo
the community welfare. When social workers participat
in a community chest or council of social agencies, th
initiative in focussing local thought on the problem o
endowments should be taken by one or the other of thos
bodies. The chest and council have tacitly assumed r<
sponsibility for gradually developing a community plan o
social work. That plan must necessarily envisage project
that could more satisfactorily be financed through endow
ments than through current contributions.

Through wisely administered community foundations, th
partnership between wealth and social work can be stil
further strengthened, and our mounting surplus of privatel
amassed riches put to work for the common good.

Streets That Go to College

THE land-grant college and the university town are n
novelty in American experience. But the Universit
of British Columbia, not quite twenty years old, has le
the way, in Canada at least, by combining land exploitatio:
with sound principles of town-planning in the creation o
a new city which promises to be a good place to live in.

When the University was created by the provincial gov
eminent in 1908 it was recognized that special sources o




ShovAng British Columbia University Endowment Lands

revenue must be provided to run it. Accordingly 750,00
acres of agricultural land scattered over the province wer
set aside for this purpose. But British Columbia is still ii
an early stage of agricultural development, and it soon be
came clear that for many years this raw land could not b
made to yield sufficient income to run the rapidly growinj
school. A provincial commission had located the univer
sity both for the sake of accessibility and to take advantag
of an unusually beautiful situation on a rolling head-lam
at the tip of Point Grey, some six miles west of the city o
Vancouver, with delightful views across the straits ti
Vancouver Island. It was decided to allot a large trac
of land owned by the province and adjoining the universit;
grounds to be developed as a planned residence community
A total of 2,700 acres was thus devoted to income-producin(
uses for the benefit of the university. Competent engineer



'ay 15, 1927



THE SURVEY



225



planners were ^ given the task of plotting the whole AS A FOOTNOTE to underscore some of the 'points made

by Homer Borst and Pierce Williams in the articles in the
preceding pages comes a recent report of the American As-
sociation for Community Organization on the trend of gifts to
community chests. There are 68 chests which have been in
operation for five years, and during that period the total of
their contributions has increased nearly 20 per cent; but in
1927 there was an increase of only 1.3 per cent over the 1926
mark for these 68, and an increase of only .7 per cent in the
records of the whole group of 146 chests which held campaigns
between September 15, 1926 and February 28, 1927. In other
words, the rate of increase is falling sharply, even in the group
of cities with populations of more than 50,000; while in the
smaller cities there has been so far an actual decline in the
amount of money raised by chests in 1927 as compared with
1926. "Does this indicate a general trend" the Association
asks, "which is likely to produce a stationary condition in the
giving to community chests during the next few years?" The
Association suggests that the chest cities analyze their local
situations well in advance of the 1928 campaigns, points out
that there are two chief factors in raising money successfully
year after year: an idea, and enough givers with sufficient
confidence in the idea to give the amount asked for, and details
the points of which may be expected to influence these factors.



ea, and a tract of 100 acres, adjoining the campus, was
lected in 1925 for the first unit of development.

The first step was to reconsider the existing subdivision
ans and to relocate old roads and plan new ones with
e topography in view and in such a way that the approaches
> the university should be efficient and suitable. Grades
t 10 per cent and over were thus reduced to four per cent,
nd a scheme of major roads, 80 to 100 feet wide, was
lid out, connecting the campus with the chief highways to
r ancouver and providing adequate circulation through the
ew town. Minor streets for residence use were held to
Drty- or sixty-foot widths, and were laid out in pleasing
ariety with an eye to the contours of the land. Practically
le whole shore-front of the peninsula known as Point Grey
as been reserved for parks and other recreation use; and
ilayground space, together with locations for public build-
ngs, churches, stores and apartment houses, have been dis-
ributed judiciously over the entire tract.

The cost of development is not low, for the land has
ieen roughly cut over and clearing the ground alone has
cost $700 an acre. But the authorities have proceeded on
he theory that utilities should be fully provided before the
and is built upon, and sewer and water connections are

rried to every lot-line before any further development is

:gun. The cost of improvements is pro-rated and added
to the lease or purchase price of the individual lot in the
form of annual payments running to 1945.

The project differs in important particulars both from
the English garden-cities and from pre-planned American
surburbs like Palos Verdes or Mariemont. It is not de-
signed as a place where wage-workers can be housed, and
houses are restricted to a minimum cost of $6,OOO. It will
be a residence community, and not a self-contained indus-
trial unit. Ninety-nine year leases of land are offered, but
there is no attempt to stand firmly as in Letchworth and
Welwyn, on permanent land control, and house-sites may be
bought outright if the purchaser prefers. Zoning for per-
manent use has, however, been carefully applied, with bind-
ing restrictions written into the agreements for sale, and
the administration to be succeeded in time, presumably,
by a separate municipal government, reserves the right of
approving all building plans. In harmony with the public



11 '9 1,931.




1920 1921 1922 1913 KM 1925 mt> mi



And, independently, in the annual report of the Welfare
purpose of the development however radical Federation of the Oranges, New Jersey, comes a chart showing

to the Yankee the provincial government is encouragm ^ ^ ; ncreasing Federation expenditures have been met
construction by offering its own credit: the owner can se- largely bjr earnings and other income, and not by a rise in publi
cure a government loan up to 60 per cent of the building
cost (with a maximum of $7,OOO) at 6 per cent interest.
The annual lease of a home-site, taxes, and interest on this

t o as b* *7O a



earnngs a ,

support . Whereas in 1920 in the Oranges the public met nea
^ per cent O f the budgets of the member agencies, wh
ings an d endowments took care of 41 per cer



month.

There has been little enough of foresight and planning
even on the campus itself in the case of most American state
universities. In this effort to pay part of its bills by a



the other sources of income accounted for nearly t

of the agencies' budgets.

u ,. . - - - "HAWAII is one of the two absolutely outstanding places in

pjac.ica^biect.lesso,, in t^^^S?*^ *< ^^"^'^ < ?jC, < fi**d

& r-Tte *. - - p = ~r firtyt



British Columbia ought to make a name for itself. The
Journal of the Town-Planning Institute of Canada, from
which these facts are drawn, rightly characterizes the enter-
"a real estate scheme charged with scientific hu-

G. S.



prise as
manism.






of



to create a sense ot common
young as it is, shows much v.gor



interest in



region,



Books in Our Alcove



D



The Abundant Life



THE GOAL OF SOCIAL WORK, by Members of the Massachusetts
Conference of Social Work, Swampscott, 1925, edited by Richard C. Cabot.
234 pp. Houghton Mifflin Company. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey.



OCTORS seek health, policemen seek order,
manufacturers aim to supply the world's
material needs. But what do social workers
aim at?" This was the challenge with which
Dr. Cabot, as president, opened the meeting
of the Massachusetts Conference of Social Work at
Swampscott in November, 1925.

The challenge was accepted and answered answered
magnificently. In a series of papers, remarkable for their
spiritual insight and for the depth of their religious feeling,
thirteen men and women there set forth the faith by which
they work. These papers have now been published under
the title, The Goal of Social Work. Dr. Cabot as editor



Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 51 of 130)