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n all the world no task is today more important than that.
'o attempt it is the work of any college. And just now we
re not doing it very well. At Wisconsin, as in many other
alleges throughout the country, we shall make a determined
nd patient, effort at the achieving of better results. Whether
r not we succeed, at least we begin with the assurance of a
ree and favorable opportunity of undertaking a great venture.



ANTIOCH AND THE GOING WORLD

(Continued from page 260)



esearch work for his doctor's degree in psychology and Ohio
tate has given him a part-time instructorship after only one
uarter at the university."

Of course, photography and landscape architecture are not
rpical of that large scale, mass-production industry, with its
egimentation of men and its endlessly monotonous repetitive
rocesses, with which we commonly associate the "labor prob-
:m." The impression I came away with, however, is that the
eaction of Norman, and Brewster and Jones to their practical
ontact with the going life of the community is typical of the
eactions of other Antioch students to their experiences in
klustries where creative initiative encounters more and greater
bstacles. Like most of my contemporaries in social and edu-
stional work, I belong to a reforming generation, to a gen-
ration of "causes" ; we wanted to "reconstruct the social order"
fter some dream design of our own. And to a certain extent
^e did in matters of health, individual and public; in accident
revention and compensation insurance ; in housing, municipal
udgeting, standards of living. But we did not prevent the
Var nor did we secure a peace in consonance with our messi-
nic ideals. And that has made all the difference with the

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295



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! younger generation. These students at Antioch were not o

tor reform, they were not taking up with creeds or sloga,

One member o the faculty, fearing that their analytical pi

cesses were being overstimulated, suggested that they ouj

be encouraged in habits of synthesis by induced emotion

commitment to some great idea, so,ne great inclusive pu rp

Big ideas are all right," said one of the students; "but v

don t want them handed to us by the faculty. We want rj

ideas we commit ourselves to to be our own, hammered out ,

our own experience." They were for understanding the fora

it are actually operative in the world of contemporary rea

ies, for adjusting themselves to them, and possibly if th<

could gam enough wisdom, controlling them.

1 here was the young man who had begun his career i
tioch by working in a crude specimen of mass-productio
industry. He worked thirteen hours a day, seven days a weel
His job was a common laborer's job of unloading steel roc
and sheets from cars on the siding and delivering them to til
shop. There was a rule that workers must not wash durin
work hours The dirt and rust inflamed his arms. He brok
the rule. He was fired. He brought no indictment againt
industry. He had no neat metaphysical formula to prove tha
such conditions were the inevitable results of the "system
He focussed his mind on the particular situation and consid
ered how in the light of his experience and his college trainin
he would run that job if he were in charge of the shop. Anothe
student had worked in a great automobile factory with
reputation for efficiency. Work was slack while he was then
Laborers soldiered on the job made work. When the forema
was not in sight, they would sit on their wheel barrows o
the unloading platform. Why should they hustle? Was nc
the big boss a millionaire? He did not 'bring an indictmen
against labor. He mulled over what there was in life in thi
particular situation that made men behave that way. Ther
was the young woman who had been assigned to a sales jo



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a "one price" department store. She found that when a sale
ered because the prospect thought the price too high, she
s expected to push a button that brought the manager up
m his office below. He would explain that the price on
label was all a mistake, that in truth it should have been
and so and put it to suit the occasion. She resigned as she
s counselled to do by her college adviser. But she did not
ng an indictment against all business. Run-of-the-mine of
world as it is, which provoked neither cynicism nor passion-
revolt, but reasoned reflection! Of the one hundred and
en Antioch graduates during the years 1922-26, the largest
igle group chose education for their life's work.
pen-mindedness, experiment-mindedness, a surprising eager-
ss to face reality and reason from experience, these students
invariably revealed to me, that I came to feel them to be
aracteristic results of Antioch's discipline. They pervaded
e faculty and the executives. They were salient in the Per-
mel Department with its thoroughgoing methods for select-
; students for industrial positions, for searching out coop-
ating employers, for supervising students in the field.
Here at Antioch, I saw for the first time the possible effects
Dewey's contention that schools must supplement the dis-
pline which the reasoning powers get through lessons in
ience with that training of attention and judgment that is
quired only by doing things with a real motive behind and
real outcome ahead. The difference as I see it between
ntioch and most experimental schools, including Dewey's own
Fniversity Elementary School of the old days in Chicago, i:
is: It has not withdrawn from the world of contemporary
alities. It has not attempted to recreate old-time occupa-
onal disciplines within the walls of the school house or the
;nces of the playground. It has boldly drawn the industries
f our own day into its educational scheme.
Antioch is, of course, interested in giving its students a head-
art along the road of the vocations they are to follow after
ollege; its special object, however, in sending men and women
nto industry is not to make them technicians prematurely, but
o give them precisely those character-forming disciplines which
he domestic and village arts of an earlier generation supplied.
Antioch does not bemoan contemporary realities; it embraces
hem for educational purposes. Antioch is a challenge to indus-
rial leaders to place their industries on a professional basis
nd to make their educational values accessible. And the qua
ty of intelligence I found among the students at Antioch under-
cored mv belief that professional educators might do well
lC quaint themselves with the tools, the processes and life o
Contemporary industry which more than the schools themselves
ire shaping; the patterns of American culture.



MAKE THE METHOD FIT THE MIND

(Continued from page 267)



marriage and home life in order to extract from them what
he could of personal benefit. In fact he now comes to t
professor for advice from time to time. The other day t
picked up a book in the city library about sex and marriage.
He wanted to know the instructor's appraisal of the book,
land whether there were any others of similar nature that
I would recommend. Another time it was the question as to
(whether a certain book on vocational self-guidance which ti
had seen advertised would be worth sending for.

With the end of the school year just closed, he has c
l pleted the second division of the correlation course,
year he has been reading psychology chiefly; not as you and
! I studied it to master a system, but to learn about liie-h
own life and its conditioning factors In fact he has b
reading all he can find in psychology books about these
life situations, marriage, work, play, community assoc.atic
and about his relations to the big universe itself. As a
cise in correlation, suppose you take the psychology
book you once studied and read again the chapters on nstmct
and emotion, with this boy's question in m.nd-what knowle
and attitudes ought I to have in order to insure a happy
marriage and home life? Read them again to see what the
legitimate leisure-demands of a normal man are, and how t
can be met. Read every chapter of your Psychology ^ again
with these situation-problems in mmd and see whether psy

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chology does not mean more to you than when you took it
daily-dozen doses in college. If you will do this, you will see
what has been going on in J. W.'s mind this year.

The sequel to this is that J. W. has thoroughly reestablished
himself in college. He is getting both personalized and social-
ized. I now have no more anxiety for him. In fact I think
we can guarantee that when the time comes he will emigrate
into society not only well equipped but with a real flair for
his vocation, and with insight into the social function of his
job. On top of this I think he will have a working philosophy
of life that will give him poise and inward resource. Besides
he will be a good neighbor.

WE have just completed plans for E. H. to begin his
project next September as he enters his junior year.
He expects to be a dentist. Of course we cannot give him a
dental course; that he must get at dental college. But after
considerable thought we have arranged for him a background
study which will accomplish three things: (l) give him a rich
liberalizing experience, (2) orient dentistry for him in the
social process, and (3) give him increased motive in the balance
of his college course and hence send him into dental college
with better preparation.

The project is for superior students only. It is an inde-
pendent study-plan like the honors courses to which reference
has 'been made, but with two very important differences,
namely, (l) the apprenticeship and (2) the principle of selec-
tion of things to be studied. Moreover, eligibility for project
work is determined not simply by grades; for often the in-
dividuals who are most suggestible and docile "pull" the best
marks. Initiative, organizing ability and career-motive are
reckoned on a par with marks. In fact mediocre marks are
sometimes but the result of an intellectual revolt against the
spoon-feeding of secondary school carried over into college,
E. H. is a shining example of this.

It is heartening to discover how ready the man of affairs
is for this sort of educational approach. Not only are they in-
terested in it from a theoretical point of view, but they show
a stimulating willingness to cooperate in the matter of appren-
ticeship. And so E. H. is to be apprenticed to a dentist. Othei
projects that can be arranged with equal ease and profit an
accounting, home-making, journalism, law, library work
medicine, ministry, nursing, social service, and teaching.

Originally no doubt, apprenticeship meant habit formation
rather than thought. For this reason "apprenticeship" doe!
not accurately name the thing we are really seeking for
but until a better term suggests itself we designate the
initial stage of the project as the apprenticeship. E. H
will spend half-time in an office for the first semestei
of his junior year, answering the telephone, keeping th<
calendar, sterilizing instruments, polishing plates, putting awaj
instruments, observing, asking questions, and looking througl
dental literature. We want him to gain such a concept ol
what the meaning of "dentistry" is as is possible upon th<
basis of this experience. Not that this meager experience wil
count for much in the technical training which must follow
later, but that the balance of college will itself have a richei
meaning. Some appreciation of the significance and problem?
involved in this career situation will certainly be deposited anc
serve as a focus for all the coordinated reading which accom
panics and follows the apprenticeship.

But the project is primarily an intellectual enterpris<
functioning around a nucleus of personal experience anc
the coordinated reading constitutes the bulk of this. Tht
procedure is very similar to that in the honors courses anc
the independent study plan, but the principle of selection ir
working out the bibliography is totally different from thai
operating in the selection of "fields of concentration" in th<
typical honors course. In honors courses the fields are alreadj
surveyed and fenced in, and the surveying and fencing hav<
been done quite without reference to anybody's life-plan. In-
deed that was all attended to before the student arrived upor
the scene. For example, in one institution there are foui
fields of concentration any one of which you might select as ar
arena in which to try for honors: mathematics, physics, and
astronomy; philosophy, history, and social science; Englisl



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298



language and literature; and French language and literature.

But in the case of E. H. the surveying and fencing was done
snly after his needs had been analyzed. These needs were
determined by the nature of the vocation-situation in E. H.'s
own life, and such subjects or parts of subjects as have value
as means in the adjustment process got included within the
fence. Professor Kilpatrick has made a useful distinction
between three concentric circles of learning. First, there is
primary learning. In E. H.'s case all those principles and
,aws, which, taken with the technique of dentistry, make up
the science of dental surgery, constitute primary learning,
course by far the major portion of this must be got at the
dental college; but the basic principles, laws and facts of
chemistry, physics, biology, physiology, and the like are cer-
tainly available in the corresponding departments of college.
The apprenticeship experience makes vivid the need of this
information. The second kind of learning is accessory. Here
is included an acquaintance with the source and natural history
af dental materials, the nature of processes employed, the
locatioi and policy of business and manufacturing concerns
who deal in this line of goods, who the authorities are in
iifferent phases of the science, and something about i
methods. Finally, there is concomitant learning, including more
'emote principles of economic organization and the relation
of dentistry to the specialized work of the world; the pnn-
nles of professional ethics and their relation to the larger
Problems of personal morality and social welfare ; the rela
of dentistry to medicine and all problems of physical and menta
health or disease; the relation of dentistry to education and
vocational aptitudes; to family welfare and leisure PJ\ rsults
in fact all that goes to make a constructive working philosophy
of life. "Reading with a purpose" is a perfectly good slogan;
but perhaps "educating for a purpose" may not be so
This is precisely the objective of the project.

SO planning for the coordinated reading in E. H.'s project
required a careful survey of the literature within or
on the borders of their departments by the professors of
biology, chemistry, physics, psychology, sociology, economics,
and ethics. These professors are his "committee, and they
have drawn up with him a bibliography for a comprehensive
reading course, including an imposing list of books ;
periodicals covering a wide range of titles. These he will read
under his own steam according to his own schedule, coming t



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