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of Nations, last September, the thing began. That is the
division of the Assembly having to do with so-called "hu-



manitarian matters," such as welfare of women and chil
dren, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs

Italy, by the voice of Signor Cavazzoni, demanded i
place on the Opium Advisory Committee. He called at
tention to the fact that hitherto that committee had con
sisted exclusively of representatives of the countries engagei
in the production of narcotics. In all but so many word
he protested that a group intended to watch and curb thi
dangerous traffic ought to contain somebody beside thos>
who needed to be watched and curbed ! He didn't say so
but the implication was that an anti-burglary associatioi
should not consist entirely of burglars. The victims of thi
trade might well have a look-in. Italy was finding hersel
one of the victim-countries, and would like to take a ham
in the watching and the measures of restraint. She as
sumed that those high-minded gentlemen who were Strug
gling with this immensely difficult problem would welcom
some really disinterested assistance.

The demand was complied with there was no groum
upon which it could be refused. And now Signor Cavaz
zoni is a member of the Advisory Committee, and from th
day of his advent he has been a stormy petrel. Trouhl
is the best thing that he hasn't made anything but.

To make it worse, and destroy any hope that he wil
presently quiet down and be nice like the rest, it is an opei
secret that while the hand is the hand of Esau, the voio
is the voice of Jacob; that one Benito Mussolini is behim
him with a keen personal interest in this matter. Now
whatever one may think of Mussolini, his theory of gov
ernment, his fashion of bringing that theory to pass, and si
on, it is beyond dispute that he makes things happen. H>
has given Cavazzoni carte blanche, a free hand, in this par



June 15, 1927



hcular business, and is behind him with all the powers at
his command. He has taken notice of the fact that narcotic
drugs have invaded Italy. He realizes the consequences of
drug addiction in the army, the navy, the air-forces; nor
forgets what its ravages mean among the civilian population.
He has declared that he will treat as an enemy of Italy
anybody who introduces narcotics into the country for any
purposes not strictly medical or scientific; any Italian who
does so as a traitor. He was quoted to me as having said :
I will hear humane appeal for any kind of a political
enemy, almost any kind of a criminal; but, so help me
God, I will show, I have shown, no mercy whatever to the
dope-peddler !"

NOR will he tolerate the use of Italian territory as a
base or way-station for transit to other countries. This
is a practical consideration. Mussolini has a special personal
pride in the great fleet of passenger and merchant ships
which is being built up under the Italian flag. He does not
intend, if he can prevent it, to have those ships implicated
in and perhaps confiscated for, the smuggling of drugs, say
to the United States. He got a lively scare the other day
when the Italian authorities themselves uncovered at Genoa,
all ready to go out on one of the de luxe passenger steamers,
a whopping big shipment of narcotics, alleged to have come
from Switzerland, falsely labelled as something else.

So it was no idle gesture that Cavazzoni made upon his
first appearance as a member of the Opium Advisory Com-
mittee in January last, when he announced the policy of
Italy and declared that she was in the war to stay. The
others did not realize at that time how deadly in earnest
Cavazzoni was when he summarized the situation, declared
that the only possible remedy for it was limitation of pro-
duction, and demanded an extraordinary session of the com-
mittee to study the possibilities in that direction. He was
heard politely enough, but with evidence of a kind of amused
toleration; as if the Old Guard regarded him as a mildly
and temporarily deluded person, an outsider full of ill-
informed notions, one with whom they would be patient a
little while until he could find out that he didn't know
what he was talking about. Some were rather indignant
about it; what was the use of consuming precious time
threshing over all this old straw? Hadn't they made it
clear that limitation and rationing would not be considered
by the producing countries?

Cavazzoni refused to be squelched. He let it be known
that Italy would be no party to futilities; that if the com-
mittee would do nothing, then he would go to the Council
(of which Italy is a permanent member) ; if the Council
afforded no satisfaction, then the demand would be made in
the full Assembly in September.

GRADUALLY the committee woke up to the fact that
they were confronted by something real ; serious busi-
ness, with teeth in it. It was bad enough to have all this
publicity in the committee, but to have the whole row
thrown open again in the Council and the Assembly would
be lamentable from every point of view. On top of that
came reverberations from "back home." Large parts of
Cavazzoni's speech had been telegraphed to the newspapers,
and there had been approving editorials, threats of embar-
rassing questions in parliaments.

Space is not available for details. Suffice it to say that
while Cavazzoni's resolution providing for a special session



THE SURREY



m > nd the whole * e

't traffic, was overwhelmingly defeated, it was done with

a vast amount of explanation and apology, alibis and ad-
mirable declarations of intention, and it took interminable
hours to do ,t. Repeatedly hints were made that if Signor
Cavazzon, would only modify his resolution so as to cover
only study of the illicit traffic it would be acceptable, but
the Italian gave little sign that he heard them.

It didn't stay done. Technically the Cavazzoni proposal
was rejected, but actually the subject stayed very much
alive, and the committee itself brought it up to the meet-
ing of the Council in March. Its report to the Council,
after elaborately (and with much "editorial color" clearly
exb.ib.tmg the views of its author, Sir John Campbell, rep-
resenting the India Government, who acted as President)
describing the debate, contains this paragraph :

In the course of the discussion, it became clear though
there was no formal proposition on the subject and no vote
was taken on it that a majority of the members were either
m favor of or would not oppose the calling of an extraordinary
meeting of the committee to discuss the question of the illicit
traffic generally, provided that the discussion at such a meeting
were limited to measures which fall within the scope of the
Hague Convention or of the Geneva Convention of 1925. The
committee prefers to leave this matter to the appreciation of
the Council.

The Council saw and raised; or, rather, to pursue the
inelegant figure, it called. In a word, it authorized the
President of the Opium Advisory Committee, "if the cir-
cumstances justify that measure" (I quote from the French
text of the resolution) to call an extraordinary session of the
committee, immediately after the next meeting of the As-
sembly. That is to say, it is now up to Sir John Campbell.

AT first glance, this would seem ominous of the pigeon-
holing of the whole business ; but that does not follow,
nor would such an assumption be just to Sir John himself.
The decision in the matter certainly will have to be made be-
fore the Assembly, and if it should be in the negative, Italy
certainly will bring up the question in the Assembly, which
has full authority over both the Council and the Advisory
Committee. Even the most reactionary of the "Opium
Bloc" has no desire to see the question thrown open in that
arena. There seems little reason to doubt that the extra-
ordinary session will be held. And when it is held, noth-
ing can prevent the exposure of the whole situation no
matter how carefully the agenda may be framed to circum-
scribe the discussion.

At this stage, that is all that is necessary. All that is
possible. It must be remembered always that no power
exists anywhere to compel a government to go any further
than it chooses to go. Anti-opium enthusiasts are forever
lambasting the Advisory Committee, or the League of Na-
tions, for not adopting more advanced legislation of some
sort in this matter; forgetting that the members of the
League are sovereign nations, and that no pious utterance
on paper can of itself produce an inch of progress. The
only enforcing power that is or can be, is enlightened and
aroused public opinion. The only way in which public
opinion can be enlightened and aroused is by open discus-
sion, dragging the facts out into the light. When the people
of the world understand the facts and what the facts mean,
they will act.

At one of the last meetings of the Advisory Committee,
Sir John Campbell, presiding, said it himself in substantially
these words:



320



THE SURREY



June 15, 1927



Every person in this room knows the reason for the illicit
traffic, and understands the nature of the only possible remedy.
It is unjust and an entire misconception to blame the League
of Nations or the Opium Advisory Committee. Neither has
any power to compel sovereign governments to keep the word
they already have solemnly given. There are at most fifty
perhaps not more than forty drug factories in the whole
world. By the Hague Convention the individual governments
assumed definite obligation to limit the manufacture, sale and
use of these narcotic drugs to legitimate purposes, and to co-
operate in the fulfilment of these obligations. The govern-
ments have not done this. The solemn international obligations
have not been fulfilled.

He declared that the amount of cocaine introduced into
India, for instance, was upward of forty times the legitimate
need of the country ; that it had spread all over India, from
China to Afghanistan.

This stuff comes from somewhere; it does not arise
spontaneously or fall out of the sky. It is produced in
those forty or fifty factories; each of them is known, and
each is located, not in some No Man's Land above the
Arctic Circle or on the moon, but in a definite city in a
definite country, as easy of access and as amenable to reg-
ulation as those which make cigars, alcohol, sugar, matches,
or any of the other things which governments so meticulous-
ly and so effectively watch and tax. They have no difficulty
in controlling the output and guarding the transportation
of money!

Moreover, the very fewness of these enterprises makes it
only the more absurd that their influence should be so power-
ful as compared with that of the legitimate business interests,
to taint the reputation of government and make other coun-
tries suspicious of all imports. Switzerland, for example,
grows increasingly restive, as Germany will become pres-
ently, under the cloud which a very few drug-manufacturing
concerns have cast upon her reputation. Japan has grown
weary of it already, and at the meeting of the Advisory
Committee announced through its representative, Mr. Sato,
that hereafter its production of cocaine would be limited
to its own needs (reserving, however, the right to supply
a legitimate foreign demand).

Right here I may remark, by the way, that there lies
ready to the hand of the United States, and of any other
country, a deadly weapon in the possibility of fine-combing
every ship and every shipment, of whatever nature, from a
country suspected of laxity or deliberate encouragement of
smuggling, in search of these substances. How long would
the honest exporters of legitimate products endure the in-
definite holding up of their goods on American docks while
Uncle Sam took his time in pulling them apart on sus-
picion ?

IT will be quite impossible to discuss the illicit traffic,
smuggling, without reference to its sole cause ; that
is, the prodigiously excessive production. This is no matter
of a leak in the roof, to be stopped by tinkering with in-
dividual shingles; there is a deluge, undermining the foun-
dations, sweeping away structures.

This is the real reason for the resentment with which the
stand-patters received Cavazzoni's demand, for the attempt
to restrict the discussion to secondary matters to prevent,
if possible, any discussion at all. The governments and in-
terests involved in the narcotic business do not want any
disclosure of the fact that production is running wild. Even
the best of them still endeavors to conserve its share at
lenrt in the "legitimate trade," blindly or with stupid ob-



stinacy refusing to surrender it as long as the rest keep on.
Every ounce of morphine, heroin, cocaine, manufactured
beyond the legitimate medical needs (any "scientific" need
beside that is largely mythical and in any event infinitesimal)
must seek a customer somewhere, and the only conceivabl
customer is an addict, actual or potential. This stuff
not used for any other purpose. Nobody knows how muc
is produced, but the total certainly is staggering undoubt-
edly scores, probably hundreds, and possibly thousands of
times the medical requirements of the world. That is why
it is leaking in everywhere, throughout the great cities of the
West, and saturating India, China and the Far East, sup-
planting the use of prepared opium (the kind that is
smoked) and the raw opium that is eaten. Attempts to
stop smuggling, while this condition persists, are simply
child's play, stamping out individual sparks in a forest fire.

THIS is the resolution, presented by Signer Cavazzoni,
which the Advisory Committee defeated by a vote of 7
to 2, analyzed below:

The Advisory Committee,

Taking note of the fact that the manufacture of drugs is
unquestionably being carried on on a scale vastly in excess of
the world's medical and scientific requirements;
And that in consequence the contraband traffic continues to in-
crease, as is proved by the quantity of drugs seized;
Considers advisable:

(1) That full application should be given to the principles con-
tained in the Hague Convention (Article 9) and confirmed in
the Second Geneva Convention of 1925 (Article 5), by which
the contracting parties undertake to reduce the production of
manufactured drugs to the quantities necessary for medical
and scientific purposes. It is of opinion that it would be ad-
visable to make a study of the measures which should be
taken to make it possible to ration the manufacture of drugs.

(2) To undertake immediately an exhaustive study of the
problems of the contraband traffic in drugs, with special refer-
ence to the causes which produce it, including penal or other
measures which might be adopted to suppress it.

In order to attain these two objects, and with a view to
drawing up concrete proposals, the Advisory Committee pro-
poses to the Council that it should hold an extraordinary ses-
sion at a date to be fixed by the Council.

Italy of course voted "Yes." So did Siam, Prince Charoon
remarking that he was in favor of "anything intended to
go to the roots of the subject."

The "Noes" were Great Britain, France, Japan, Yugo-
slavia, Netherlands, Switzerland, India.

Germany, present, abstained from voting. Portugal, Bo-
livia and China were recorded as absent.

Signer Cavazzoni refused to modify his resolution. He
was quite willing, he said, that anybody else should intro-
duce a less far-reaching proposal, but Italy knew what she
wanted, her feet were on the ground and they would stay
there.

Now the Council has authorized the extraordinary session.
There is scarcely any doubt that it will be held, probably
next October. It makes relatively little difference what
affirmative or for that matter what negative action the
Committee takes. Every effort on the part of the reaction-
aries to circumscribe or suppress will afford just that much
more opportunity for publicity. And publicity is the great
need now. Italy has torn off the lid, and a new stage has
begun.

Meanwhile, Signer Cavazzoni, with the full support of
Mussolini whom he directly represents, is saying nothing
but cooking war-medicine.




The Common Welfare




o



N the day that Lindbergh landed in London,
an airplane in the service of the Mississippi
Flood Commission jammed its controls, came
to earth a seaplane having to alight on land
and snuffed out the life of one of the
I ablest and most experienced of the Red Cross relief workers,
[Earl Kilpatrick. Both the pilot and Mr. Kilpatrick were
thrown out, the^ former landing almost harmlessly on his
shoulders, Mr. Kilpatrick in such a way as to bring instant
1 death from a broken neck. Mr. Kilpatrick had been in
charge of the earliest rehabilitation work of the flood, op-
erating in the upper reaches of the district. He was sum-
moned from Memphis to the new relief headquarters at New
Orleans to share his experience with other Red Cross men
whose work had not yet reached the point of sending families
back to their homes. The accident occurred on the way down
river. Mr. Kilpatrick joined the Red Cross during the war
and had been in its disaster relief work most of the time
since 1921. He was formerly dean of the Extension Depart-
ment of the University of Oregon and had only recently been
offered the post of vice-president of the University.

This tragic loss of one of the most efficient members of
the permanent staff of the Red Cross points the valor of a
service into which unheralded courage and devotion go in
peace time as well as war. In a sense it underscores on
the other hand the comparatively small loss of life in the
flood due to the service rendered the flood victims. This
was the usth death charged to the flood. The Red Cross
has taken particular pains to get reports of all deaths and this
is the total number of which it can find any record. Such a
trifling mortality is perhaps the most astonishing feature of
this flood which has covered a territory more than six hun-
dred miles long, from five to forty miles wide. Secretary
Hoover has pointed out that only six deaths have occurred
since the Red Cross and the cooperating government agencies
have been on the ground.

As the flood moved down stream at an average rate of
thirty miles a day, new groups of people were driven almost
daily from their homes into camps newly prepared for them,
while upstream the earlier refugees were beginning to re-
turn to their farms. Thus on May 28 the total number of
refugees in charge of the Red Cross was 382,605, while the
grand total of persons cared for from the first breaks early
in April was 569,000. On May 28 these were not only in
camps but at other concentration points and the upper stories
of flooded houses where power boats took food and medicine
daily.

As the waters slowly receded the major problem changed
from rescue and relief to a campaign against disease. In
the camps, uo,OOO people have been vaccinated against
smallpox; 285,500 have been completely inoculated against
typhoid, while 62,000 more have had their first and second
of the three necessary inoculations. On May 28 the health
forces included 46 health officers, 36 sanitary investigators
and engineers, 13 physicians and 154 nurses. These came
from the Red Cross, the U. S. Public Health Service and
other government services, the state health departments, and



22 of the sanitary investigators and engineers were loaned
by other states. Supplies have included 596,000 pounds of
hydrated lime, 28,250 pounds of chloride of lime for cisterns
and wells, 100,420 gallons of crude oil for use in burning
dead animals; 51,450 gallons of spraying oil and 53,000
yards of mosquito netting. The need for the netting will
grow rapidly as people move back into their homes in a
malarial region. A characteristic telegram to relief head-
quarters in New Orleans now reads: "Rush 7,500 bolts
mosquito netting. Urgent." Of quinine sulphate 3,119,878
grains have already been supplied.

The late breaks in the southern part of Louisiana, which
flooded the famous Sugar Bowl or Evangeline country, added
60,000 refugees to the total supported from the Red Cross
funds. These breaks made a total of 18,000 square miles
under water 10,000 in Louisiana, 4,000 in Arkansas. 3,000
in Mississippi and 1,000 in Missouri.

As this issue of The Survey goes to press the water is
receding throughout almost the entire length of the flooded
district, farms and village homes are being reoccupied, health
work is the major occupation of all the relief forces and it is
certain that a crop can be gotten in in time for this year's
harvest at least to the upper parts of Louisiana and perhaps
even further south than that. The change is reflected in
the relative amounts for health supplies as they appear in the
Red Cross accounts and the fact that cotton and vegetable
seeds are increasing items on the expenditure sheets. Each
returning farmer is given not only enough cotton seed to
plant his fields but packets of quick-growing vegetables for
his table during the summer. There is a suspicion in some
quarters that the good and varied food in the refugee camps
plus the advice as to the planting of fresh vegetables as
against the usual sweet potatoes, corn meal, and dubious con-
tents of tin cans, may to at least a small degree offset the
losses of the flood.




/"GREETED by such divergent journals as the New York
\^_J Times and the Advance, organ of the Amalgamated
Garment Workers, as "a triumph for peaceful picketing,"
the decision of the New York Court of Appeals in the
Exchange Bakery case has given union labor a new weapon
for defense in industrial conflict.

In 1925 trade unionists were attempting to organize the
Exchange Bakery and Restaurant, Inc., on Manhattan's
lower West Side. The proprietor and his wife refused to
unionize their establishment. Three officers of the union,
when the parley broke down, blew a whistle as a signal to
the employes to go on strike. Four days later, the union
leaders were enjoined from "patrolling the sidewalks and
street in front of the restaurant and from approaching, ac-
costing, threatening, assaulting or intimidating other persons
desiring to enter the premises." The court ruled that the
proprietor was not entitled to this indiscriminate relief. The



321



322



THE SURVEY



June 15, 7927



Appellate Division reversed this ruling. Now the highest
state court, in its recent opinion, holds that "it is lawful for
a union to initiate strikes and to picket shops where other
workers not their members work." Judge William S. An-
drews, who wrote the opinion, continues:

The purpose of a labor union to improve the conditions under
which its members do their work, to increase their wages, to
assist them in other ways, may justify what would otherwise
be a wrong. So would an effort to increase its numbers and to
unionize an entire trade or business. It may be as interested
in the wages of those not members or in the conditions under
which they work as in its own members, because of the influence
of the one upon the other. . . . Economic organization today is
not based on the single shop.




A GENTLEMAN from Oxford was visiting Athens,
Georgia, a few weeks ago. In one public school room
he casually asked, "Who can tell me what the city of
Athens is famous for?" Two youngsters burst out on the
instant with the same answer: "One hundred per cent
dental corrections."

Not entirely a classic answer, that, but it may become so.
For early in May the five white elementary schools of
Athens, with a total enrollment of 1,500, were able to
boast truthfully that every pupil who needed a tooth filled,
a tooth pulled, or a mouth cleansed had been to the dentist
and had the work done. So far as the health authorities
of Athens know, this achievement is unique in a city of less
than 20,000 people.

While Athens is a university town, there are plenty
of simpler 'folk whose children were reached in this cam-
paign for better teeth. One little girl who trembled visibly
as she was taken up in the elevator to the dentist's office sat
through nine fillings without a grunt. When it was all
over she explained her calm: "Huh, that warn't noth-
ing! I thought when they filled your teeth they took 'em
all out and filled 'em and then put 'em back again."

The heroism of the small Athenians in facing the perils,
known and unknown, of the dentists' chairs did not grow
by accident. Nor did the nicely articulated efforts of den-
tists, teachers, parents, and nurses to help them. Clarke
County, of which Athens is the county-seat, has had pro-



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