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able at the conference.

THE SURVEY'S telephone number will
be changed on or about June 25 from
Stuyvesant 7490 to Algonquin 7490.

DR. NEVA R. DEARDORFF, who prior
to the recent gubernatorial election of
Pennsylvania was executive secretary of
the Children's Commission of that state,
has been appointed director of the Research
Department, Welfare Council of New
York City.



ROBERT C. DEXTER, Ph.D., for the
(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. It helps

345



last four years professor of social and
political science at Skidmore College,
Saratoga, N. Y., and author of Social
Adjustment, has been appointed, effective
September i, secretary of the new depart-
ment of Social Relations of the American
Unitarian Association.

JANE M. HOEY, assistant director of
the Welfare Council of New York City
and a member of Governor Smith's Sub-
Commission on Causes, of the New York
State Crime Commission, has been awarded
the honorary degree of L.L.D. by Holy
Cross College, Worcester, Mass. This is the
first time in the history of Holy Cross that
it has conferred an honorary degree on a
woman.

WILBUR F. MAXWELL, formerly
executive secretary of the Harrisburg
Community Welfare Association, has been
called to Pittsburgh by the Committee of
Fifty to organize the Community Chest of
Pittsburgh.

PHILIP A. PARSONS, head of the
Department of Sociology, University of
Oregon, received the degree of L.L.D. at
Culver-Stockton College, Missouri, from
which he graduated in 1904. Dr. Parsons
delivered the baccalaureate address at
Culver-Stockton following the National
Conference of Social Work.

ELLEN C. POTTER, M.D., director of
the Department of Welfare of Pennsyl-
vania under Governor Pinchot, has been
elected to the staff of the Department of
Institutions and Agencies of New Jersey.
us, it identifitt you.)



346
Elections and Appointments

CAROL BEROLZHEIMER as finance secretary of
the Child Welfare League of America.

PAUL BLISS, formerly publicity director of the
Minneapolis Community Fund, as publicity
director, St. Louis Community Fund.

LILLIAN BURNS, as recreation director. Inter-
national Institute, San Francisco.

DOROTHEA CAMPBELL, formerly with the Y.W.
C.A., Hartford, as director, Bureau of Public
Health Education, W. Va. State Department
of Health.

PAUL FRANKLIN, recently with the Bowling
Green Neighborhood Association of New York,
to the staff of the John Price Jones Co.,
publicity, New York City.

RUTH LA GANKE, as executive secretary, Travel-
ers Aid Society, Akron.

MRS. IDA H. HALL, as county superintendent of
Public Welfare, Carteret Co., N. C.

JOHN F. HALL, formerly executive secretary of
the Norfolk Community Fund, as executive
secretary of the Omaha Welfare Federation
and Community Chest.

BERTHA HANSON, formerly with the Jersey City
Home and Hospital, to the staff of the Salva-
tion Army Women's Home, Cleveland.

ENSIGN K. HILLMAN, recently with the Salvation
Army Women's Home of Cleveland, to Brook-
lyn Children's Home and Hospital.



THE SU RT EY

R. H. HORAN, in charge of the newly established
publicity department, Dallas Community
Council.

REV. WILLIAM R. KING, D.D., recently one of
the secretaries of the Board of National Mis-
sions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.,
as executive secretary, effective Sept. 1, of the
Home Missions Council, succeeding C. E.
Vermilya, resigned.

FRANKLIN R. McKEEVER, recently assistant to
executive secretary, Cleveland Associated
Charities, as committee secretary, Cleveland
Welfare Foundation.

JOHN MELPOLDER, formerly executive secretary
of the Springfield (Mass.) Community Welfare
Association, as executive secretary, Norfolk
Community Fund, succeeding John F. Hall.

FLORENCE MILLER, recently on the staff of the
St. Louis Provident Association, as case work
supervisor. United Charities, Dallas.

PHILIP S. PLATT, for the last three years an
official of the American Child Health Asso-
ciation, as secretary of the Committee on Out-
Patient Clinics, the New York Tuberculosis
and Health Association.

RAYMOND T. RICH, recently field secretary of the
Foreign Policy Association, as general secretary
of the World Peace Foundation, Boston.

CLARA LOUISE ROWE. formerly with the Child
Welfare League of America, to the staff of
the Child Study Association.



June 75, 7027

HARRIET SEELEY, as executive secretary, Ameri-
can Red Cross, Aberdeen, Wash.

FRED STEPHENSON, recently superintendent,
Springfield (Mass.) Boys' Club, as executive
manager, Springfield Community Welfare
Association, succeeding John Melpolder.

R. D. STEVENSON, as publicity secretary, Minne-
apolis Council of Social Agencies and Com-
munity Fund, succeeding Paul S. Bliss.

JAMES G. STONE, recently with the National
Tuberculosis Association, as director of Health
Education, Onondaga Health Association,
Syracuse, N. Y.

ESTHER TAYLOR, formerly with Cleveland Asso-
ciated Charities, to the staff of Social Welfare
League of Seattle.

MARGARET WATT, recently on the staff of the St.
Louis Provident Association, as executive secre-
tary, Social Service League, Burlington, la.

GEORGE D. WHEELER, formerly associate boys'
work secretary, Tulsa, Okla., as boys' secre-
tary, Y.M.C.A., Erie.

Mxs. MARIE WHITE, formerly with the Wash-
ington Children's Home Society, as director
of the Northern District, California Children's
Aid Society.

J. KENNETH WINTERS, formerly member Tuber-
culosis Committee, Philadelphia Health Council,
as executive secretary, Erie Co. (Pa.^ Anti-
Tuberculosis Society.



SCHOOL CLEARING HOUSES
(Continued from page 333)



study of home conditions, and cooperation between home and
school. In San Francisco we have such a school, of fifty,
with a weekly clinic, served by a physician, a psychologist,
a specialist in the correction of postures, a cook, a nurse and
two teachers. The group is now being divided on the basis
of mental capacity into three ungraded classes for individual
instruction. Mentally subnormal children are not admitted,
but are transferred to special classes for such children. These
children are selected by mental and physical examination and
not by weight. The turnover is forty-seven a year.

At present there is no system for filling this school from
the regular schools, such as would be provided by the special
health classes suggested above. Undoubtedly the future must
see the inauguration of a new health program for children
permitting the selection and temporary segregation of the
children in every school who are below par physically. In
a rational program the placement of a child should be deter-
mined by both his mental and physical needs, after careful
study and examination.



A CASE-WORK APPROACH TO

UNEMPLOYMENT
(Continued from page 316)



he was sure that he could not use the men and women sent
because in the past such had caused trouble. He listened
courteously but without enthusiasm to the new plan and
consented to give it a trial. He placed the first applicant,
who fortunately proved to be a good worker. Other workers
were sent from time to time, at not too frequent intervals.
One Saturday morning about six months later he telephoned
that he had an emergency order to fill and asked for help.
He wanted six girls by Monday morning. On Monday
afternoon he telephoned to say the workers were satisfactory
and that much time had been saved by the quick response.
It was then that we realized that our talk of mutual benefit
was not just idle conversation. This personnel director is
now an enthusiastic member of one of our district committees
and chairman of the sub-committee on publicity.

Confidence on the part of the employers was not inspired
immediately, but was built up gradually. To guard against
annoyance, it was decided that one person on the staff, the
superintendent, should handle all contacts for jobs. As jobs



became more and more scarce during the months of No-
vember, December and January, the factories that were
running rush and regular seasons were listed. The superin-
tendent systematically phoned these factories to learn
whether or not they were in need of men. As many as six
jobs were obtained in one day.

Net gains, partly immediate but largely potential, may
perhaps be summarized in this fashion: The outstanding
result of the study is our ability to dovetail the industries
as a result of our knowledge of the busy and slack seasons
of factories in the district. One factory, for example, closes
regularly every year on December 15. A large group of
men employed here live on the margin. In the past many
of them found it necessary to come to the organization for
necessities until the factory re-opened in February. This
year, by means of an agreement between the Provident
Association and the superintendent of another factor.-, it
will be possible for the latter to place a large number of
these men in his factory, which has its busy season during
January. Although they will not make their usual wages,
they will earn enough to tide them over and will not be
dependent upon chanty.

We have learned where not to place workers and shall
never again use inadequately ventilated and lighted factories,
where adolescents stand most of the day over noisy ma-
chinery, when within "our borders" there is a factory which
has every advantage of cleanliness and protection.

The district committee is calling a meeting of the em-
ployers, because they have a right to the information secured
through their help, and also because they alone can bring
about needed changes, the continuation and the further
development of this project, which holds such tremendous
possibilities in the close alliance between case work and
industry.

Twenty-nine and one-tenth per cent of employable men
placed is not a large figure, but a real accomplishment con-
sidering that the time was one of unemployment, formerly
accepted as unremediable. There is the promise of much
better things in the future since the machinery used during
this experiment was in the process of construction and there-
fore clumsy and inadequate. It may not be an idle dream
to hope that as our machinery is perfected and the partner-
ship with the employer and employee further developed, an
opportunity to work' can be given to practically every em-
ployable man who comes to us without a job.



COM M UNICATIONS



Which Way Utopia?

'o THE EDITOR: Arthur W. Calhoun either fails to compre-
lend the purpose of my book, Family Disorganization, or
refuses to recognize it, judging from the review published in
The Survey of March 15, 1927. Nevertheless, I was very
nuch interested in Mr. Calhoun's comments. It is fascinat-
ng to think what social work might become if analyzed from
the point of view of an Utopian statesman. Such an analysis
would, of course, transcend the facts, but it would be none
the less interesting. But such was not my purpose. Instead
attempted to make an objective study of the problem of fam-
ily disorganization such as would be useful to social workers.
Mr. Calhoun, I suspect, knows what ought to be done or
las faith that a final crisis will solve all our perplexing social
iroblems. I, along with many others including the majority
of social workers, am more concerned necessarily in the present

han in the future. And until Mr. Calhoun, or someone else,
gives us a date for the final crisis it will be necessary for social
workers to go about treating cases of domestic discord. My
look was written in the hope that it would be of service to

ocial workers between now and the revolution.

Furthermore, I am inclined to believe that present conditions
were brought about by natural forces and so far as that is

rue such an analysis as I have attempted to make may be

aluable even in the new world on which Mr. Calhoun appar-

ntly pins his faith. Nevertheless, perhaps a leader will arise
who can tell us how to reverse the "process of urbanization"
and restore us to the state of nature where, I take it from

AT. Calhoun's review, the social order will no longer be

'pointless."

The point is that Mr. Calhoun has written from an esoteric
>oint of view about which most of us are not enlightened.

hould have liked, therefore, to have seen my book reviewed
a social worker who shares with me the same universe of
discourse. For after all, Mr. Calhoun's review implies cer-

ain presumptions which the rest of us do not share and
cannot understand.

Yet when Mr. Calhoun places me in the category of a soci-
ologist lacking "statesmanly attitude" he pays me, unwittingly,

he highest of compliments. A "statesmanly attitude" is about
as useful to a sociologist or to a social worker, it seems to me,
as it is to a physicist or a chemist. It may serve either very
well in the drawing-room but in the laboratory it is likely
to be an impediment to objective analysis. What is needed

n the field of social relations is a multitude of studies con-

ined to what appear to a social revolutionist as the "odds and
ends" of social problems. In this way only can sociology expect
to become a science rather than a philosophy and social work a
technology rather than a creed of reform.

ERNEST R. MOWRER

Chicago, Illinois

Coco-Chewing

To THE EDITOR: If I had had any doubts as to the evil of
coco-chewing among the Indians of the Peruvian plateau, the
doubts would have been dispelled by what I was recently told
during my visit to Peru by an American engineer who has been
ive years in that country. He said that the habit was almost
universal among the Indians employed in the mines. Boys
begin to chew the leaf when they are twelve or fourteen years
of age, and the only Indians who escape the habit are those



who come under the influence of the American missions. The
latter are invariably the best workers; they are alert and "on
the job"; they have the intelligence to get ahead, and it is
they who obtain positions of responsibility.

My friend tells me that he made a point of personally in-
vestigating the accidents in the mines of the company for
which he was working, and that he invariably found in the
mouth of the unfortunate victim a wad of coco leaves and
vegetable ash the wad or bolus that the man was sucking
when the accident happened. The ash is mixed by the Indian
with the coco leaves in order as they tell you "to make the
juice flow." Accidents here are much more frequent than
in the United States, and they are often the result of a dull-
ness of perception on the part of the workman that with us
would seem incredible. The dullness is undoubtedly to be
attributed to the demoralization wrought by continued coco
chewing. The non-chewers don't get hurt.

Conditions of life are deplorable enough in the uplands of
Peru and Bolivia. Many an Indian goes to his work in these
high altitudes in the early morning, or it may be in the evening
for his night shift, with only a roll of bread to sustain him.
He could not do his work without his coco leaves. Without
the stimulant they give him, he could not stand the strain, and
yet employers will tell you that the amount of cocaine which
the Indian miner gets out of the leaves is altogether negli-
gible it cannot have a deleterious effect upon his system'
One remembers that this is exactly the same argument which
is made in India, when it is gravely stated that the coolie
could not do his work without his opium and then in the same
breath the statement is made that the amount taken of the
stimulant is so small that it can do no harm.

And so the planters of the Montana of Peru the district
with a lower altitude on the Eastern slopes of the Andes,
draining into the Amazon continue to plant coco and sell it
to traders, who in turn take it to the plateau and sell it to the
Indians. Many of the mining companies even sell it at their
stores, as they sell provisions and clothing, it being treated
as a necessity of Indian life. Only a small tax is placed upon
its sale, and vast quantities of it are produced. Few persons
seem to be aware of its evil aspect. Alcohol the almost raw
alcohol that is drunk by the Indians is, they say. a greater
curse. Perhaps it is, but coco-chewing is a terrible evil none
the less. Sooner or later the government must interfere and
in some practical way curtail the production of the leaf.

FRANCIS FISHER KANE
Antofogasta, Chile
April ii, 1927



Food for Thought



To THE EDITOR: This afternoon, I read several of Miriam
Van Waters' articles in The Survey. As usual, they provided
me with food for thought and inspiration. When I get im-
patient with my youngsters, I bring myself up with a round
turn _b y thinking of Dr. Van Waters' work. I have on my
desk now Dr. Wembridge's Other People's Daughters.

Someday I am going into parent education as well as the
solving of adolescent problems. Meanwhile, my boys at school
keep me busy studying the best methods of teaching them, of
getting the most out of life and then giving in return.

A SEOAL

California Military Academy
Palo Alto, California



347




DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF HOS-
PITAL SOCIAL WORKERS - 20 E.

Division St., Chicago, 111. To serve as an
organ of inter-communication among hospital
social workers, to maintain and improve
standards of social work in hospitals, dis-
pensaries, special clinics or other distinctly
medical or psychiatric institutions and to
stimulate its intensive and extensive develop-
ment. Mrs. Charles W. Webb, President,
Miss Helen Beckley, Executive Secretary,
Miss Kate McMahon, Educational Secretary.

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR OLD

AGE SECURITY Mm: To promote

through legislation adequate provisions for
the dependent aged in the United States.
Bishop Ethelbert Talbot, president. A. Ep-
stein, executive secretary. Box 1001, Harris-
burgh, Pennsylvania.

AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE,

INC. Margaret Sanger. President, 104

Fifth Avenue, New York City. Purpose:
To teach the need for birth control to pre-
vent destitution, disease and social deteri-
oration; to amend laws adverse to birth
control; to render safe, reliable contracep-
tive information accessible to all married
persons.

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSO-
CIATION Alice L. Edwards, executive
secretary, 617 Mills Bldg., Washington,
P, C. Organized for betterment of condi-
tions in home, school, institution and com-
munity. Publishes monthly Journal of Home
Economics: office of editor, 617 Mills lildg.,
Washington, D. C. ; of business manager,
101 East 20th St., Baltimore. Md.

AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO-
CIATION 370 Seventh Ave., New York.
To provide a better understanding of the
social hygiene movement; to advance sound
sex education, to combat prostitution and sex
delinquency; to aid public authorities in the
campaign against the venereal diseases; to
advise in organization o-f state and local
ocial-hygiene programs. Annual membership
dues $2.00 including monthly journal.

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CON-
TROL OF CANCER-Dr. George A.
Soper, managing director, 25 West 43rd
Street, New York. To collect, collate and
disseminate information concerning the symp-
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Publications free on request. Annual mem-
bership dues, $5.00.

AMERICAN WOMEN'S HOSPITALS

(O.S.) (Organized, 1917) 637 Madison

Avenue, New York Chairman; Esther Love-
joy, M. D., Treasurer; Mathilda K. Wallin,
M. D. Conducts hospitals and food stations
for refugees in Greece, and medical centers
in Macedonia and Western Thrace. Contin-
uing assistance to medical work in France,
Serbia, Russia and Japan.

ASSOCIATED GUIDANCE BUREAU,

INC. 16 East 53rd Street, New York,
Telephone: Plaza 9512. A non-sectarian,
non-philanthropic child guidance bureau, em-
ploying highest social work standards. Sup-
plies, trains, and supervises carefully selected
governesses, tutors, companions, and play
leaders. Conducts psychiatric nurses regis-
try. For information address Jess Perlman,
Director.

THE BOY CONSERVATION BUREAU

90 West Broadway. Suggest! all-the-year-
round Home Schools for needy boys. Tel.
Walker OJ13. E. W. Watkins, Exec. Sec'y.

CHILD WELFARE COMMITTEE OF
AMERICA, Inc 730 Fifth Avenue, New
York. To secure home life for normal
dependent children in preference to insti-
tutions; to secure Mothers Allowance laws
in states having none; to urge adequate ap-
propriations for home aid; to promote proper
laws affecting adoption, boarding out and
placing out of dependent children: to aid
in the enforcement of these laws. States
Council of Committee comprises volunteer
representatives in practically every state.
Sophie Irene Loeb, President; Governor
Alfred E. Smith. Honorary President;
Margaret Woodrow Wilson, First Vice-



CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF
AMERICA C. C. Carstens, director. 130
E. 22nd Street, New York City. A league
of children's agencies and institutions to se-
cure improved standards and methods in
their various fields of work. It also cooper-
ates with other children's agencies, cities,
states, churches, fraternal orders and other
civic groups to work out worth-while results
in phases of child welfare in which they arc
interested.

THE CHILDREN'S VILLAGE, INCOR-
PORATED Dobbs-Ferryon-Hudson, New
York. A national, non-sectarian training
school scientifically equipped for the study,
education and development of problem boys
and girls, on commitment and by private
arrangement ages 7 to 16. Supported large-
ly by voluntary contributions. For further
information address Leon C Faulkner, Man-
asmg Director.

COUNCIL OF WOMEN FOR HOME

MISSIONS 105 East 22d St., New York.

Florence E. Quinlan, Executive Secretary.
Composed of 23 Protestant national women's
mission boards of the United States and
Canada. Purpose: To unify effort by consul-
tation and cooperaton in action.

Work among Farm and Cannery Migrants,

Summer service for college students,

Laura H. Parker, Executive Supervisor.

Religious Work Directors in Government

Indian Schools.

Bureau of Reference for Migrating People,
follow-up of New Americans.

EYE SIGHT CONSERVATION COUN-
CIL OF AMERICA L. W. Wallace.

President; Guy A. Henry, General-Director.
Times Bldg., New York. Conducts a na-
tional educational campaign to promote eye
hygiene. Urges correction of eye defects,
protection against hazards, proper lighting.
Comprehensive publications lantern slides
lecture material. Cooperation of social
agencies invited.

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE
CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN

AMERICA Constituted by 28 Protestant
communions. Rev. C. S. Macfarland and
Rev. S. M. Cavert. Gen. See's: 105 E. 22nd
St., N. Y. C



Atmosphere

EDWARD T. DEVINE was told
once by a Community Chest exec-
utive that local financial support had
about reached the saturation point.

"But," replied Mr. Devine, "a satu-
ration point depends on the density of
the atmosphere. If you improve the
atmosphere of social understanding
you have postponed the saturation
point."

The purpose of the organizations
listed here is to increase the density
of the atmosphere in which social
work exists.

You who read this can help.

Will you, before September first
at home, on vacation, wherever you
are improve the social atmosphere by
getting one layman interested in social
work? Or two? Or three?

These organizations offer a wide
variety of subjects with which to catch
a layman's interest. Study the list
with the laymen in mind whom you
consider good prospects. The Survey,
too, stands ready to back you up with
sample copies and a special subscrip-
tion rate.



President; Edward Fisher Brown. Executive
Secretary.

(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. It helps

348



Dept. of Research and Education, Rev. F
E. Johnson, Sec'y.

Commissions: Church and Social Service
Rev. W. M. Tippy. Sec'y; Internationa
Justice and Goodwill; R c v. S. L. Gulick
Sec'y; Church and Race Relations: Dr
G. E. Haynes, Sec'y.

GIRLS FRIENDLY SOCIETY Ifi
AMERICA 15 East 40th Street, New York,
Girls and women working together to uphok
Christian standards of daily living in ttw
home, in the business world, and in tin
community. Numbers nearly 60,000, witt
branches in 44 states.

HAMPTON INSTITUTE-Train, Negro a.
Indian youth for community service. Ad
vanced courses: agriculture, builders, bus!
ness, home-economics, normal. Publishes
"Southern Workman" and free material on
Negro problems. J. E. Gregg, principal.

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF
PREVENTING DELINQUENCY

Graham Romeyn Taylor, executive director
50 East 42nd Street, New York. To pro-
mote the adoption of sound methods in thit



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