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SK YOUR DOCTOR




BASHING THE MISSISSIPPI



PREVENTION FIRST by Gifford Pinchot


Willlrjvin THE AFTERMATH : MUD and MONEY


UNDER
WATER

Ex-Go v.
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[PLAN OR
PERISH<

IL J Russell Smith


THE WHITE
? ELEPHANT
) WINS

Anne Roller


UP FROM THE BOTTOM LANDS Arthur Kellogg



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THE SURVEY, published semi-monthly and copyright 1927 by SURVEY ASSOCIATES. Inc., 112 East 19th Street. New York. Price, this copy (July 1. 1927; Vol. LTIII.
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Analytic Index to This Number

July 1, 1927

Family Welfare:

Four acts in the flood drama, p. 357
The Red Cross in the flood area, p. 358
Flood victims need federal aid, p. 359
Rehabilitation after the flood, p. 360 ff
Family relief in the flood area, p. 364
A wrecked family salvaged, p. 379

The Conquest of Disease :

Flood relief's permanent health work, p. 360

What the public asks of the U. S. Health Service, p. 386

Promotion of Health:

Educational effect of flood relief, p. 361
The value of doctors' care, p. 386

Immigration and Race Relations:

Negro aid in flood rehabilitation, p. 364

School and Community:

Lindbergh's education, p. 384 f

Education Outside the School :

Flood rehabilitation demands Negro education, p. 364
Negro demonstration agents educate the south, p. 365

Industrial Conditions:

Employment after the Mississippi flood, p. 363

Motives and Ideals :

Intelligence plans prevention of floods instead of cure,

p. 367 ff
How flood prevention can be achieved, p. 370



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353



HARMON* SURVEY AWARDS FOR 1926

MADE BY THE HARMON FOUNDATION THROUGH SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.



I. To ETHEL RICHARDSON, or Los Angeles, California, $1,000 and medal for
her work in adult education as assistant state superintendent of public
instruction.

To the individual who, in the opinion of the jury, has bzen responsible during
the calendar year 1926, for the creation, introduction, or development of a
distinctive contribu'ion to the social, civic or industrial welfare.



/"CALIFORNIA is carrying forward the largest scale proj-
^' ect in adult education on this side of the Atlantic, a
challenge and model for the other states in the Union. A
great number of men and women have collaborated in the
adventure of it, but there is general agreement that Ethel
Richardson, assistant state superintendent of public instruc-
tion, has been not only the executive in charge but the
animating genius of the whole undertaking.

California got its inspiration from the early work of the
social settlements in dealing with immigrants, but has been
the first commonwealth to apply their technique in a state-
wide program as part of the public school system. It has
turned "Americanization" from a word into a reality. As
sensitive to the heritage of the immigrant as to the contribu-
tion '>f America. The home teachers have reached the Spanish
speaking cotton growers of the Imperial Valley and orange
pickers in La Habra, Japanese on the Ventura ranches and
Portuguese dairymen up and down the San Joaquim. They
have dealt with German housewives in the Lodi; and
Italian sardine fishermen at Monterey, with men and women
of all races and vocations and localities.

1926 marked the definite expansion of the department of



immigrant education to cover the whole field of adult educa-
tion. This stage was entered upon at the conclusion of ten
years experience under the Home Teacher Act of 1915, and
succeeding statutes. 1925-26 was the first year in which every
city in California with a foreign born population, large
enough to operate under a city superintendent of schools,
undertook immigrant education. In 23 cities trained super-
visors were in charge. In addition 115 union high school
districts were carrying on education for foreign born adults,
a total of 1,148 classes. The official figures gave a total
enrolment of 44,000 people. The 1926-27 report will show
50,000 people enrolled, native and foreign-born, and an
expenditure of half a million dollars. The practical methods
employed and the colorful experience were described in a
special issue of Survey Graphic for June, 1926.

The Jury: JULIAN W. MACK, chairman, judge. U. S. Cir-
cuit Court, New York; Miss JANE ADDAMS, head worker of
Hull Hou>e, Chicago; WILL W. ALEXANDER, director cf the
Commission on Inter-Racial Cooperation, Atlanta; MRS.
MARY S. GIBSON, from 1913 to 1923 educational com-
missioner, California State Housing and Immigration
Commission, Los Angeles; REV. J. A. RYAN, director
of National Catholic Welfare Council, Washington, D. C.



II. To WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, $500 and medal for
his article, From Main Street to Wall Street, in the Atlantic Monthly of
January, 1926.

To C.-E. A. WINSLOW, of New Haven, Connecticut, honorable mention
and medal for his article, Public Health at the Crossroads, in the
American Journal of Public Health of November, 1926.

To the author of the article, appearing in 1926 in any American periodical
or newspaper which, in the opinion of the jury, makes the most distinctive con-
tribution of the year to social or industrial welfare in the United States.



"PERHAPS no article written by a college professor of eco-
^ nomics and published in a literary journal has ever had
so quick and so profound a repercussion. Within a week
after publication, letters had poured into the Atlantic's
offices and the newspapers of the country had taken up the
argument. Within a month the Board of Governors of the
New York Stock Exchange had taken steps to remedy the
situation.

From his chair at Harvard, Professor Ripley had pointed
out the divorce of management from ownership in industrial
and public utility corporations, through holding companies
and the issuing to insiders of shares of common stock which
carried the entire control. He pointed out the results,



financial, social and in the lives of employes of such a break
with the traditional American practice of tying respon-
sibility to investment. "Veritably," he said, "the institution
of private property, underlying our whole civilization, is
threatened at the root unless we take heed."

The Jury: SAMUEL McCuNE LINDSAY, chairman, professor
social legislation, Columbia University; WILLIAM ALLEN
WHITE, editor, Emporia Gazette; JOHN A. FITCH, member
of faculty, New York School of Social Work; VERNON
KELLOGG, chairman, Division of Educational Relations,
National Research Council, Washington, D. C. ; CHES-
TER H. ROVVELL, former editor and publisher, Fresno Re-
publican.



354




Graphic Number



Vol. LVIII, No. 7



July 1, 1927



CONTENTS

COVER DESIGN: Drawing by Oscar Cesare .

FRONTISPIECE: Herbert Hoover ... 356

FOUR STAGES OF THE FLOOD ... 357
THE AFTERMATH MUD AND MONEY . . .

Will Irviln 358
LOUISIANA LOOKS TO WASHINGTON ...

John M. Parker 359

UP FROM THE BOTTOM LANDS

Arthur Kellogg 360

PREVENTION FIRST Gifford Pinckot 367

PLAN OR PERISH ]. Russell Smith 370

THE DELUGE, from an engraving by Gustav Dore 378

THE WHITE ELEPHANT WINS .' Anne Roller 379

SCISSORS PICTURE . . Martha Bensley Bniere 383

O PIONEER! j ose ph K . Hart 384

"SEE YOUR DOCTOR" . . Donald B. Armstrong 386

LETTERS & LIFE . . Edited by Leon Whipple 389



The Gist of It

HERBERT HOOVER'S outstanding services to
the world have been in the organizing and
administering of relief on an enormous scale.
Heretofore, in Belgium, Russia, Central and Eastern
Europe, he has done his work and quietly retired. The
crisis war, famine was over and there was nothing
more to be done. But in the Mississippi Delta he has
an unparalleled opportunity for preventive work. Flood
control must come by act of Congress, on recommenda-
tion of the administration. There is sharp division of
opinion as to how far to go. No other man's opinion
will count so much as Mr. Hoover's. The flood has
broken open the whole question of conservation of
natural resources and Herbert Hoover, who is an
engineer and a man of vision, may, if he will, be the
speaker for the affirmative in the debate as to whether
we shall patch the leak or build an enduring and
socially valuable roof.

WILL IRWIN was with Mr. Hoover in Belgium,
as a member of the executive committee of the
Commission for Relief. He has been a war corre-
spondent on every front, a writer of articles, fiction,
verse, plays and books. He saw the Sugar Bowl of
Louisiana under water and writes of the flood from
that first-hand experience. Page 358.

JOHN M. PARKER was chairman of the Louisiana
State Reconstruction Commission during the dark
days when one section of his state after another was
going under water. He has been, from a national
viewpoint, the best known citizen of Louisiana. He
has run for governor and for vice-president on the
Progressive ticket and was elected governor as a
Democrat. He was federal food administrator for
Louisiana during the war and has been president of
the Mississippi Vajley Association, the New Orleans
Board of Trade and the Cotton Exchange. After a
lifetime spent in cotton and public work he has retired
to his plantation near Baton Rouge. Page 359.



ARTHUR KELLOGG is the managing editor of
The Survey. Page 360.



PINCHOT began his study of f or -

estry in Europe, just after his graduation from
Yale. He is still at it. His most outstanding services have
been rendered as forester and chief of division of the
Forest Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
as president of the National Conservation Association
and as chairman of the National Conservation Com-
mission. He is one of the few men who have carried
over into these indifferent times the eager zest for
conservation which had its great flowering under Presi-
dent Roosevelt. Page 367.

RUSSELL SMITH is professor of economic
* geography at Columbia University and the author
of many volumes, of which North America is perhaps
the best known. Geography, as Professor Smith teaches
and practices it, is a very practical and human matter
of forests and soils and rainfall and the development
of new sources of food, such as nut-bearing trees; and
the substitution of their culture for the attempts at
general farming which have wasted the mountain and
hillsides of the Mississippi Basin. Page 370.

AMNE ROLLER draws from her long experience
in social work for the short story a prize-winner,
which is her first fiction to be published. Page 379.

JOSEPH K. HART is an associate editor of The
J Survey. His most recent book, just from the press
of Harold Vinal, is Prophet of a Nameless God.
Page 384-

DONALD B. ARMSTRONG is assistant secretary
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, in
charge of the health service of the Welfare Division,
whence he chiefly draws the material for his article on
page 386. He was executive officer of the widely known
Framingham, Massachusetts, Community Health and
Tuberculosis Demonstration.



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC,

112 East 19 Street, New York

ROBERT W. DEFOREST, President

JULIAN W. MACK, V. EVERIT MACT, ROBERT HALLOWELL

Vice-Presidents

RITA WALLACH MORCENTHAU, Secretary

ANNE RYLANCE SMITH, Field Secretary

ARTHUR KELLOGG, Treasurer

PUBLISHERS

THE SURVEY Twice-a-month $5.00 a year
SURVEY GRAPHIC Monthly $3.00 a year

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor
ARTHUR KELLOGG, Managing Editor

Associate Editors

JOSEPH K. HART HAVEN EMERSON, M.D.

GEDDES SMITH ROBERT W. BRUERE

MART Ross BEULAH AMIDON

LEON WHIPPLE GRACE HATHEWAT

Contributing Editors

EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR

JANE ADDAMS



FLORENCE KELLEY



JOHN D. KENDERDINE, Business Manager

MARY R. ANDERSON, Advertising Manager

MOLLIE CONDON, Extension Manager






Copyright Underwood and Underwood, N. V.



HERBERT HOOVER

Belgium, Qermany, Russia, the Near Easr, the Bottom Lands





GRAPHIC NUMBER



JULY 1,
1927




Volume LVIII

No. 7



Four Stages of the Flood




'ECRETARY HOOVER has divided
the Mississippi flood into four stages:
rescue from flooded homes, exile in
refugee camps, reconstruction, flood
prevention. The rescue work has been
done. The exile is over for most of the refugees.
The story of these first stages was told by Arthur
Kellogg in his first-hand article, Behind the Levees,
in the June issue of Survey Graphic. It is epitomized
on the page following by Will Irwin who, as a war
correspondent, had in the background of his mind
the memories of devastated France.

IN rescue and in exile, the work has been done by
the Mississippi Flood Committee, appointed by
President Coolidge with Mr. Hoover as chairman,
which has proved to be a Red Cross operation on
an unprecedented scale, reenforced by the active
work and the continued presence in the flooded
district of Mr. Hoover, and valuable help from
five federal departments.

This has been the greatest piece of mass-relief
ever undertaken in this country. One hundred and
thirty camps together cared for as many people as
live in San Francisco or Pittsburgh, with very little
sickness and with only one epidemic smallpox
found on a rescue boat on its way to camp and held
down to the original twenty cases.

REHABILITATION - - or reconstruction, as
Mr. Hoover calls it, to give a new and
friendly content to a word which has had no friends
in the South is actively under way. The program
is to put people back as nearly as possible where
they were when the flood came. It calls into action
some newly created agencies, state commissions
and county committees, and it distinguishes sharply



among those who are in need of relief, those who
are in need of employment, and those who are in
need of credit. The program stops at the point
where people can make shift for themselves. Is that
enough? Should it not be broadened in the direction
of insurance, or indemnity, through which not only
the pressing needs but also the losses of the victims
of the flood will be made good in a calamity for
which we all share responsibility? Should we be con-
tent even with putting things back where they were?
Or should the flood and the great popular interest in
it be employed as a lever by which the social life of
this backward district might be given a lift; the flood
turned into an asset, a better life built on the
silt it has left over the bottom lands? These
aspects of reconstruction in the Delta are dis-
cussed in a second article by Arthur Kellogg in
this issue.

THE final stage, flood prevention, must await
the meeting of Congress, reports of engineers,
public hearings and the adoption of either a nar-
row and risky program of levee-building, at-
tempting to make a safe canal of the waters of a
continent near their outlet, or a more statesman-
like study and program for the whole situation
such as Governor Pinchot and Professor Smith
outline on other pages. This is undoubtedly a na-
tional problem. It can be turned to national ac-
count by a plan which would not only prevent
floods but would tend to conserve the two remain-
ing unspent natural resources of the nation soil
and water-power. As it is, we not only pour out
into the Gulf our unused waters but we let them
carry off the good topsoil of the Middle West.
Surely, soil and water can be used for something
better than making mud.



357



The Aftermath Mud and Money



By WILL IRWIN




Mississippi Plood of 1927 is over. As I
write, the diminished crest is draining into
the Gulf. From Cairo to Atchafalaya Bay,
the refugees are crawling back to their stink-
ing, soggy homesteads, are trying to salvage
what they can from the oozy muck. The
first stage of public concern in this matter rescue of human
and animal life is finished. The magnificently elastic
organization built up by Secretary Hoover has wrought its



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