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procedures for application to individual problems. We are
faced with the problem of devising a more satisfactory and
effective method for the distribution of this knowledge and
for the bringing to bear upon individual health and disease
problems the best available technical knowledge and skill.
These are fundamental community necessities, and the evidence
seems to indicate that the problem on the whole is a local one.

A bureau for the dissemination of information and service
along these lines would meet an immediate and pressing need.
Certainly such a service is a legitimate obligation of the medi-
cal profession, whose members would be, after all, among the



chief practical beneficiaries. One of its primary objects would
be to educate people in sound medical methods, arrange for
them to go to competent physicians, and pay for service when
they can afford it, and to see that they do not fall into the
hands of quacks and frauds. Such a service, possibly in coop-
eration with the health department, should be administered
by a staff competent to evaluate medical questions. In order
that wise medical choice might be possible, the medical society
would have to authorize lists of physicians that could be used
with applicants on a functional and geographic basis. The
same would apply to lists of specialists. Such lists would
facilitate an answer to many inquiries, though of course, many
others need a more searching scrutiny and more personal, less
mechanical attention. Incidentally, if such a bureau were de-
veloped in association with a health examination service on a
pay basis, its opportunities for medical guidance and for treat-
ment reference would be materially enhanced. Finally, to
reiterate, such a service would undoubtedly have a very advan-
tageous educational effect upon the medical profession itself,
increasing the necessity for its participation in the private
practice of preventive medicine.

It is a community problem, to be met specifically through
the combined initiative and cooperative effort of health admin-
istrators and medical leaders, in local communities everywhere.



(/;/ answering atliettisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps its, it identifies you.)

397



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PERIODICALS



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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DIREC-
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EXECUTIVE SECRETARY in private
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perience with minimi and records. Vas-
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September. 5178 Sntvrr.

JEWISH WOMAN, experienced, head
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FOR INFORMATION REFER TO

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or to New York Office
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Directory
HARRY WEINBERGER HARRY KELLY.



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400



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by
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STREET ,

. NAME

CITY . ..STATE




Midmonthly Number



Vol. LVIII, No. 8



July 15, 1927



CONTENTS

HOPE ON THE JOB

- - Niles Carpenter and Matde E. Wagner 403
THE COMMON WELFARE - - - .406
INDUSTRY 411

The Cotton Mills Again, George S. Mitchell
Unionism Succeeds Among English Teachers,
Thomas L. DabneyWhat Do They Get Out
of It? Hannah Henge<veld

EDUCATION - -415

Opportunity Schools, Mabel ^Montgomery
Clothes, Money and the Working Girl,
Hattie E. Anderson

BOOKS IN OUR ALCOVE 419

THE SOCIAL WORK SHOP - - - - -422

A Money-raising Plan for Social Agencies,
Bernard C. Rolog

COMMUNICATIONS 426




The Gist of It

E5RARIANS and all subscribers take no-
tice. Beginning with the Graphic number
of September I, the publication date of
The Survey will be advanced in order to
deliver copies to subscribers in all parts of the
United States more nearly on the first and fif-
teenth of each month and to secure more favorable
position on newsstands. To avoid having suc-
cessive summer issues stumble over each other's
heels on subscribers' doorsteps at the time of
making the change, the Midmonthly of August 15
will be omitted ; there will be only 1 1 numbers in
the volume ending September, 1927, instead of
the usual 12 (23 instead of 24 for the two volumes
of the full year). But there will be no reduction
in the number of pages delivered to readers on the
year's subscription ; in fact, there will be a slight
increase as a result of the enlarged special numbers
of the winter and spring. The sequence of issues
following the present one (July 15) will be:
August i, September i, September 15. A new
volume, our fifty-ninth, will begin with the issue
of October i.

One glance at the chart on page 405 shows the
inevitable result of the northern migration of
southern Negroes. Whatever his training or
capacity, the newcomer in an industrial city must
stick at unskilled labor. NILES CARPENTER, who
had charge of the study on which this article is
based, is professor and head of the Department of
Sociology at the University of Buffalo. Among
his books are Immigrants and Their Children,
and Guild Socialism. MAZIE E. WAGNER, his



associate in the study and in writing the article, is
an instructor in sociology and psychology at the
University of Buffalo. Page 403.

JOHN PALMER GAVIT will join The Survey
staff in the fall. Page 406.

GEORGE S. MITCHELL, a Southerner by birth
and education, has spent much time in the textile
area of which he writes on page 411. For the last
year he has been studying at Balliol College,
Oxford.

THOMAS L. DABNEY, a graduate of Brook-
wood Labor College, spent some months in Eng-
land and in Russia last year, during which he
gathered the data for his article. Page 413.

HANNAH HENGEVELD, who attended the Sum-
mer School for Women Workers at the University
of Wisconsin last summer, sends us this account
of what her experience with workers' education
meant to her. Page 414.

MABEL MONTGOMERY of Marion, S. C., win-
ner of the third prize in the Harmon-Survey
award for an "account of some adventure, in-
vention or discovery in the field of public educa-
tion," was one of the two women members
appointed to the South Carolina Illiteracy Com-
mission in 1918. She has served as a steward of
the Methodist Church at a time when few
southern women held that dignity and as a director
of the local chamber of commerce. But her chief
public interest is in the founding and carrying
forward of the Opportunity Schools which she
vividly describes. Page 415.

HATTIE E. ANDERSON is on the staff of the
Milwaukee Vocational School, in the division of
vocational teacher training and research. She
was one of the faculty members in charge of the
study on which she bases her article. Page 417.



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC,

112 East 19 Street, New York

ROBERT W. DEFOREST, President
JULIAN W. MACK, V. EVERIT MACT, ROBERT HALLOWELL

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ANNE RYLANCE SMITH, Field Secretary

ARTHUR KELLOGG, Treasurer

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THE SURVEY Twice-a-month $5.00 a year
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ARTHUR KELLOGG, Managing Editor

Associate Editors

JOSEPH K. HART HAVEN EMERSON, M.D.

GEDDES SMITH ROBERT W. BRUERE

MART Ross BEULAH AMIDON

LEON WHIPPLE GRACE HATHEWAY

Contributing Editon

EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR

JANE AODAMS FLORENCE KELLEY



JOHN D. KENDERDINE, Business Manager

MARY R. ANDERSON, Advertising Manager

MOLLIE CONDON, Extension Manager




THE SURVEY, published semi monthly and copyright 1927 by SUBTEY ASSOCIATES. Inc.. 112 East 19th Street. New York. Price: (his issue (July 15 1007. i
Mill No. 8) 25 ctt. ; $5 a year: foreign postage. $1 eiU-a: Canadian 60 cits. Changes of address should be mailed to us two weeks in adrance. When Daraent'ln
cl.eck a receipt will be sent only upon request. Entered as second-class matter. March 25, 1909. at the po office. New York. N. Y.. under the Act of March 3 IS



MIDMONTHLY



July 15
1927




Volume LVII1

No. 8



Hope on the Job

By NILES CARPENTER and MAZIE E. WAGNER



This article presents the high lights of a monograph entitled Nationality, Color and
Economic Opportunity in Buffalo which has just been published jointly by the University
of Buffalo and The Inquiry. The monograph is one of the fruits of the series of studies
of race relations in industry, undertaken at the instance of The Inquiry about two years
ago. (See The Survey of Oct. 15, 1925.) The Buffalo study was undertaken by the De-
partment of Sociology in the University of Buffalo, the work being divided into a number
of separate investigations that were carried on by Professor Carpenter and a group of ad-
vanced students and social workers, working, for the most part, without compensation in
their spare time. It is worthy of note that the whole enterprise was conducted at an
expense of a few cents over $335. Another article by Professor Carpenter dealing with
this study was published in The Survey of July 15, 1926.



JOHN ANDERSON'S wife was discouraged. Her
man had been laid off, and work for unskilled, middle-
aged, colored men was not plentiful. Besides, the
employment agencies had a way of passing by men of
John's race, and there were only a limited number of
factories where a black man was wanted. Mrs. Anderson
was more than discouraged. She had a sense of grievance.
There was no reason why her man should have been laid
off at all. He had worked steadily at his job for several
months and had never given any trouble. To be sure he
had taken a half-day lay-off some weeks ago, but that had
been to attend his small daughter's funeral and she didn't
think this had been unreasonable. However, the foreman
had apparently felt differently, and the next time a cut in
the labor force was called for, he had let John out.

Still and all,' things had not always gone so badly in the
Anderson family. There was a time when John had come
up through the ranks on a railroad section gang to the job
of inspector. His pride in his promotion had, however,
quickly changed to mortified chagrin, when the Italian
laborers on the section refused to have their work inspected



by a "nigger". There had followed a trip into the "head
office" at Buffalo where he had been assured that the job
belonged to him, and that he should have it, in spite of the
opposition of the other men, but this assurance had been
of no avail. The section gang had continued defiant and
the Irish foreman had made common cause with them. It
is true he had lost his job (to be reinstated later), but that
had not helped John. Wounded pride had prevented him
from going back to work at his old rating, and he had
moved his family into Buffalo, where the "head office" of
the railroad company had found him a place on the
dining cars.

But why hadn't John stayed on the dining cars? Mrs.
Anderson was asked. She hesitated over her answer, and
then averred that there had been some "trouble". With
many of his fellows, John had grown accustomed to working
on the lake boats during the navigation season, going back
to the dining cars during the rest of the year ; and also like
many of his fellows he had fallen into the habit of making
a few extra dollars by tucking into his locker a bottle or
two of contraband liquor obtained in a Canadian port, and



403



404



THE S U RV EY



July 15, 1927



THE UNIVERSITY OF BUFFALO BUREAU
OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL RESEARCH



Per-

cent-
age



Negro

Plants

"A" to "L"



80



40




Occupational Distribution
White and Negro Men
High grade office and profes-
sional

Ordinary office
- Foremen

Highly skilled



* Skilled



*- Semi-skilled



Unskilled



- General labor



THE NEGRO STAYS "IN His PLACE"

The occupational status in Buffalo industries of 1,600 Negro men compared
with 11,000 white men

disposing of them on the American side. But John had been
caught; hence the "trouble". And when, the following
winter, John had tried to get back on the dining cars, he
was refused re-employment as having a "record". So he
had perforce turned to the limited opportunities of mill
and factory work.

Meanwhile Fannie, Mrs. Anderson's oldest daughter, had
dropped in. Hopefully the interviewer turned to her. It
might be that this representative of the younger generation
was looking forward to a future at least a little less fraught
with uncertainty than was her parents'. It appeared that
Fannie was ready to enter high school. Did she intend,
perhaps, to take a commercial course? the interviewer asked
hopefully. Glumly, emphatically, and a shade defiantly,
Fannie replied that she didn't. Why should she? Fannie
could count twenty girls of her race who had gone into
the high school commercial course and had done well.
What were they doing now? Making beds and sweeping
floors in a down town hotel. There just hadn't been any
office jobs for them despite the efforts of the school author-
ities to place them. And Fannie wasn't going to go to a
lot of trouble just to give someone a chance to turn her
down! She lapsed into a brooding silence. Her mother
was silent too, but there was a pensively resigned quality
in the older woman's attitude, which was totally absent
from Fannie's. She showed a fiery, almost reckless bitter-



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