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Such happenings are particularly aggravating to your givers.
If this should happen, be sure to write promptly apologizing
and giving the exact reason why it happened.

DIMINISHING RETURNS: I said send eight ap-
peals. That is, send eight if they seem to be paying. It is
well to follow what a Chicago advertising man calls the
law of diminishing returns. Continue to send letters until
the results have diminished to where the letters cost more
to send than they bring. When that point is reached, stop.
But bear in mind your letters must be good or your returns
will diminish to the disappearing point after the third.

HOW MANY? Over many years experience I have
found that even the eighth letter has paid out well not in
every month, but in most of them. Even a ninth or tenth
letter is justifiable in such a case. In my own work I
actually send more than eight but after the eighth I in-
crease the time between letters. I have sent as many as
twenty.

SCHEDULING: Now let's see if you understand the
plan. You'll need to. It will work to perfection if you
do and I'll guarantee results up to 95 per cent of all money
due in a single month, if the letters are good. Let's say
you are aiming to collect the February contributions.

Reminder No. i goes out Feb. i (or as close to it as possible

to get your letter to the con-
tributors desk on a Tuesday)

Reminder No. 2 goes out Feb. 15



Letter



No. i

2

3
4
5

6



Mar. i
Mar. 15
Apr. i
Apr. 15
May i
May 15



Up to this point eight appeals have gone out. Notice
that your letters to February givers are still going out on
May 15.

Of course, your letters to various monthly lists are going



out to different lists on the same days; so you must make
up a mailing schedule.

For example :

On March 1st, you have already scheduled Letter No. i
(which is your third appeal) in the February series, while
it is also the day for mailing Reminder No. i of the
March series. Toward the middle of the year your mail-
ing schedule will show a number of different batches going
out to different monthly lists on the same mailing date.
Once established, however, it is absurdly simple.

CREDITING RESULTS: All of the money that
comes in on Reminder No. i up to the day that Reminder
No. 2 goes out is to be credited to Reminder No. i. All
the money that comes in on Reminder No. 2 until the day
Letter No. i goes out is credited to Reminder No. 2. Like-
wise all cash received on Letter No. i is credited to it
until Letter No. 2 goes out; and so on. Do this even
though you find that the previous letter or reminder actuated
the gift. This is an arbitrary method but it appears to be
the only fair one.

As each contribution comes in as a result of an appeal
to former givers it is entered on our work-sheets as shown
below. Each contributor has an arbitrary number assigned
to him and each new one gets a new number as shown in
the extreme left hand column. As these records deal only
with renewals, new givers are not entered here but are
kept track of separately. There is a page like the following
in a loose-leaf book. One page for each month.

WORK SHEET
FROM WHICH PERCENTAGE CHARTS ARE MADE



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR JANUARY 1926
First Reminder Second Reminder



First Letter



IN- IN-

GIVERS AMOUNT CREASE I GIVERS CREASE GIVERS AMOUNT Iuc. I
NUMBER DE- NUM- DE- NUMBER DECK. D

CREASED BER AM'T CREASE

609 10.00 Not 17 500.00 5.00 I.

1482 25.00 Sent 1495 lo.oo

1507 10.00 250 5.00
1527 i.oo

1387 60.00 10.00 1. Second Letter

550 10.00

1488 5.00

410 10.00

Of course much more space is allowed than is here shown
and there is space for the fourth, fifth and sixth letters.
This merely shows the arrangement for the original entry.
When complete the figures are totaled and carried over to
the proper percentage chart.

MECHANICS: There isn't space here to tell you
how to write a good letter, but let me explain that your
series of six or eight letters should not only all be prepared
in advance but actually all multigraphed in advance or
Hoovenized in advance if you use the Hooven electric type-
writer. Notice that I insist upon multigraph or electric
typewriters. That means you must not mimeograph the
letters. You can type them individually if you can afford
it, which may be the case if you have only a few to do.
The best plan is on January first to count the number of
givers in each month and estimate the number of letters
you'll need. Have them multigraphed and lay them out
in batches so that when they are wanted it is only necessary
to take them off the stock pile as needed, fill them in care-
fully on the typewriter with giver's name and address,
and mail.



THE ADMINISTRATOR'S GUIDE



Direct-by-Mail

HOOVEN LETTERS, INC., 387 Fourth

Ave., N. Y. C. Individually typewritten let-
ters. Enormous capacity. Low prices. Com-
plete service. Accounts anywhere handled.
Completed letters returned by express for local
mailing.



Engraving



GILL ENGRAVING CO., Photo Engravers.
140 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C Careful, expert,
artistic work. Twenty-four hour service. Ask
The Survey about us. We do all the engrav-
ing for Survey Midmonthly and Survey
Graphic.



Envelopes



WOODLAND MILLS, 103 Fifth Avenue.
N. Y. C. Envelopes for magazines, cata-
logues and booklets, printed or plain.

Office Equipment

ART METAL CONSTRUCTION CO.,

Jamestown, N. Y. Makers of the most com-
plete line of steel office equipment for the
modern office. Filing cabinets, desks, safes,
shelving, wardrobes, cupboards and filing sup-
plies. Write for catalogue on the equipment
in which you are interested. Prompt service.
Branches and dealers in all principal cities.

FILTERED WATER SERVICE, INC.,

70 Bedford St., N. Y. C. Provides pure cold
drinking water at a nominal monthly charge.
Our apparatus is rented only, never sold.
Inspected, cleaned, maintained by us without
additional expense. Send for booklet.



THIS PAGE each month
will be listed the services
and literature of leading man-
ufacturers of office equipment,
printing and paper, mailing
systems, publicity and other
helps for the busy social work
executive.

Any publications listed here
may be had at prices stated
(or free if no price is given)
by writing direct to the adver-
tiser or by applying to

The Administrator's Guide,

The Survey, 112 E. 19 St.,

New York, N. Y.



READEASY IMPROVED TYPEWRIT-

ER COPYHOLDER has no equal for busy
offices. Over a million sold. Readeasy, 223
Grand Ave., W., Detroit, Mich.

R. ORTHWINE, 344 W. 34th St., N. Y. C.
Invincible steel files, letter and cap sizes, with
all standard combinations Office furniture, ex-
clusive commercial grades and up. Attractive
prices, write.



PURO FILTER SERVICE (formerly Centa-
drink), with "the Coil that Cools" ^a health
necessity. A wonderful Filter-Purifier, in-
stalled and maintained by experts. Send for
booklet or representative. Puro Filter Corp.,
440 Lafayette St., N. Y. C.



Printing



THE WILLIAM FEATHER CO., Cleve-

land, Ohio. Experienced printers of posters*
booklets, etc., for social agencies. Write for
our house organ.

MOAK PRINTING COMPANY, INC.,

100 West 21st St.. N. Y. C. Appeals, Leaflets,
Annual Reports, Letterheads, Office Forms for
Leading social agencies have come from our
prompt presses in steadily growing volume for
five years. A printer is known by the customers
he keeps we have kept our social agency
customers. "Type Talks," a style book with
specimens of type including Goudy, Kennerly,
Garamond and other attractive faces, will help
you in planning your printing. Free on request.

Telephone Devices

HUSH-A-PHONE For Phone Privacy. Snaps
instantly on the mouthpiece of any phone.
70,000 in use. Booklet free. Hush-A-Phone
Corp., 19 Madison Ave., N. Y. C.

Typewritten Letters

HOOVEN LETTERS, INC., 387 Fourth

Ave., N. Y. C. Individually typewritten let-
ters. Enormous capacity. Low prices. Com-
plete service. We prepare copy and campaigns.



KEEP UP INTEREST: Each year a new "thank-you"
letter is written which goes promptly to every contributor
together with a duplicate of our receipt, each one serially
numbered. This thank-you letter is important. At inter-
vals during the year it is important to mail each giver an
interesting folder or report. Sometimes this can be en-
closed with some of the appeal letters. Each year the giver
should have a financial report interesting and graphic
which shows what happened to his money.

THE CHARTS: The accompanying charts will show
the results I secured in my own organization by means of
this plan, which makes it apparent that this method exceeds
the campaign method in results and in low cost. Our cost
has been less than i per cent for a number of years, count-
ing everything from stock, printing and postage to sealing
and mailing.

ILLINOIS HYGIENE SOCIAL LEAGUE

RESULTS OF APPEALS FOR RENEWALS OF CONTRIBUTORS

PERCENTAGES BASED ON ORIGINAL NUMBER APPEALED TO

1926

Oriff. ist.
No. Rem.

Jan. 163 75.4

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.



4' 43-9
45 53-3

51 33-3

48 43-7
72 54-J
*4 45-3

49 28.5

52 32.6

50 46.
42 5.

Dec. 147 38-7
Total:

824 48.6



2nd.
Rem

None


ist. 2nd.
. Let. Let.


3rd. \th. $th. 6th.
Let. Let. Let. Let.


Total


1925


1924


sent


5-5


1.8


1.8


.61




61


.61


86.3


94-9


84-7


17.0


9-7


9-7


7-3


4-8


0.




2-4


95.0


101.9


88.


3


17.7


6.6


2.2


0.


2.2


2.


2


2.2


86.6


80.2


7'


,6


19.6


15.6


7-8


5-8


3-9


3-


9


0.


90.1


92.3


81




27.0


6.2


6.2


4-1


o.


6.


3


2.08


95-7


86.0


72




8.5


2-7


8.3


4-1


0.


'4


0.


79.6


83.1


78


4


15.6


9-3


o.


1.5


2.04


3-


i


0.


77.01


88.7


73


5


22.4


o.


14.4


8.1


20.4


0.




2.0


77-7


81.6


65


.6


15-3


7.6


'9


'9


0.


5.8


3-8


69.2


88.7


68


3


14-


2.


8.


2.


6.


0.




0.


78.0


70.5


72


3


16.6


7-'


o.


4-8


o.


o.




o.


78.55


67.4


67


.1


15.6


4.8


2-7


2.


1.4


3-


4


o.


68.69


79.2


69


9



13.3 6.1 4.5



RESULTS OF APPEALS FOR RENEWALS

PERCENTAGE OF FAVORABLE REPLIES BASED ON ACTUAL NUMBER
APPEALED TO EACH TIME A LETTER WENT OUT



1926 Oriff. lit.
Number Rem.


2nd.
Rem.

None


ist.
Let.


2nd.
Let.


3 rd.
Let.


4/A.
Let.


5 M.
Let.


6th.
Let.


Jan.


163


75-4


sent


23.6


10.07


12.


4-7


5-0


5-2


Feb.


4'


43-9


30.4


25-


33-33


37-5


40.


0.


33-33


Mar.


45


53^


3


40.


25-


11. ii


0.


12.5


14.2


1 6.66


Apr.


5'


33>


3


26.4


33-33


25-


25-


22.2


28.5


o.


May


48


43


7


48.1


23.07


30.


33-33


0.


75-


100.


June


72


54-'


18.7


8.0


26.08


18.75


0.


7-6


o.


July


64


45.


3


28.5


24.0


0.


5.26


5-5


11.7


o.


Aug.


49


28.


5


3'-4


0.


29.5


23-43


8.3


0.


9.09


Sept.


52


32.


6


22.8


14.81


4-3


4.60


0.


15-8


'3-33


Oct.


SO


46.




25-9


5.0


21.05


7-'4


23.07


0.


0.


Nov.


42


50.




33-3


23.07


o.


20.


0.


0.


o.


Dec.


'47


38.


7


25-5


10.44


6.66


5-35


4.00


10.41


o.


Average






















or Total


824


48.


6


29.02


16.44


14.62


12. 2O


7-14


10.77


4-7<



1.6 2.2 .8 80.29 85.66 71.71



Average total cumulative percentages 80. 85.6 71.71

This means total number of favorable responses enclosing checks.



Try This on Yourself

' I 'HERE comes a time in the experience of many social
JL workers when everything seems to go wrong, when a rising
tide of discouragements is about to flood your resolution. Pause
then and review these facts in the life of a great American as
recited by the Little Schoolmaster in Printer's Ink:

When Abraham Lincoln was a young man he ran for the legis-
lature of Illinois and was badly beaten. He then entered business,
failed, and spent seventeen years of his life paying up the debts
of a worthless partner. He fell in love with a beautiful girl to
whom he became engaged. She died. Later, he married a woman
who was a constant burden to him. Again entering politics, he ran
for Congress and was badly beaten. He then tried to get an
appointment to the United States Land Office but failed in that.
He became a candidate for the United States Senate and was
badly defeated. In 1856, he became a candidate for the vice-
presidency and was again defeated. In 1858, he was beaten by
Douglas. His life up to the time he became President was one
failure after another; a series of great setbacks.



424



July 15, 1927



THE SURFEY



of People



Q Q P * ot

O O 1 1 * and Things



A. A. S.W. Changes

PHILIP KLEIN, executive secretary of
the American Association of Social
Workers, has resigned to become director
of research, New York School of Social
Work, effective September i. His suc-
cessor has not been appointed. Dorothea
deSchweinitz has brought to a close her
work with the A.A.S.W. and is spending
the summer at the University of Wisconsin.
Henrietta Lund, formerly director of the
State Children's Bureau, North Dakota,
and prior to that on the staff of the Ameri-
can Red Cross in the Central West and
Northwest, joins the staff on August I as
assistant executive secretary. Louise Oden-
crantz, who has blazed the trail for the
Association in job analyses in family,
medical, and psychiatric social work, has
resigned to take charge of the newly organ-
ized Joint Bureau for the Handicapped in
New York City. Job analysis will be car-
ried on under the direction of Margaretta
Williamson, who has done a number of
investigations for the United States Chil-
dren's Bureau.

Maxwell in Pittsburgh

REFERRING to the item published in
The Survey for June 15 to the effect
that Wilbur F. Maxwell, of Harrisburg,
has gone to Pittsburgh for work in con-
nection with a proposed community chest,
William S. Moorhead, of the Pittsburgh
Committee of Fifty writes: "The Commit-
tee of Fifty of Pittsburgh has arranged to
make a study of the situation here with a
view to recommending the form of organ-
ization best adapted to meet local condi-
tions and has engaged Mr. Maxwell to
conduct this study. Whether or not any
plan for the joint financing of social
agencies here will be approved and an
organization effected will depend upon the
outcome of this study and upon the action
taken with regard to it upon the expiration
of the time required to make the study."

Junior Month at the C.O.S.

FACTS first; then theory!" is the
watchword of twelve college juniors
representing the leading eastern colleges
who are studying social conditions under
the auspices of the New York Charity
Organization Society. Courts, hospitals,
and prisons are their textbooks and
the city's tenement neighborhoods their
"campus" for four weeks. Clare M.
Tousley, assistant director of the C.O.S.,
has charge of the Junior Month group.
The students are expected to take back to
the colleges they represent a picture of
actual social conditions, so that facts and
theories may jibe. One junior comes from
each of the following colleges: Barnard,
Bryn Mawr, Connecticut, Elmira, Goucher,
Mt. Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Swarthmore.
Vassar, Wellesley, Wells.



Home Economists Meet

OVER 1,000 home economists attended
the annual conference of the Ameri-
can Home Economics Association, in Ashe-
ville, N. C., June 21-24. The program
indicated an increasing shift away from
the technical aspects of sewing and cook-
ing toward a broader teaching, covering
more truly the profession of "homemak-
ing." Child care, health, social service,
the use of services rendered by commercial
institutions, budgeting on the basis of
actual conditions all were discussed as
part of a recognized program of work.
The aims of the Department of Education
to "train the potential homemakers to care
for the thirteen million pre-school children
in the country" alone represents a service
which will call for the best thought and
effort from this field.

Jewish Center Secretaries Meet

THAT the Jewish community center
must serve all age groups, both sexes,
and the various elements of the community,
was the consensus of opinion of the Jewish
Community Center Secretaries at their an-
nual meeting in Atlantic City, May 31 to
June 4. The secretaries expressed a
cordial desire to cooperate with the Na-
tional Conference of Jewish Social Service,
but recognized that there were distinctive
problems to be worked out by the centers
for themselves. It was agreed by the secre-
taries that they continue to meet in
separate conferences for the analysis of
these problems but that their time and
place of meeting might well be arranged
so that they would coordinate with the
National Conference of Jewish Social
Service.

Prizes Offered Public Health

Nurses

T~HE Public Health Nurse offers three
1 prizes of $50, $30, and $20 for the
three best stories submitted by September
15, 1927, about public health nursing.
Stories are wanted which will portray
public health nursing not in terms of defi-
nitions or mechanics, but which "will show
the warmth of service which enkindles
the nurse but which she keeps altogether
too much to herself." Any individual con-
cerned with public health nursing is
eligible. The judges are Haven Emerson,
M.D., Edna Foley, Julia C. Lathrop,
Florence Patterson, James Rorty, Elizabeth
Fox. Details may be had from The Public
Health Nurse, 370 Seventh Ave., New
York.

Nutrition Prizes Awarded

NUTRITION CLINICS, INC., of which
Dr. W. R. P. Emerson is chairman,
and Mabel Skilton secretary, announces the
awarding of its prizes for this year for
especially satisfactory demonstrations of
what can be accomplished by the use of



425

its nutrition programs: First prize ($5) :
Frances Lawrence and Nellie Russell of
Honolulu (jointly), for a demonstration of
work with pre-school children in the Free
Kindergartens of Hawaii.

Second prize ($30) : Joan I. MacMullen,
for her work at Dartmouth College.

Third prize ($20) : Helen M. Sanderson,
for results secured at Camp McWain,
summer camp for girls at East Waterford,
Me., and at Birch Rock Camp for boys.

Negro Social Workers Named

T-HE Division of Negro Work, North
1 Carolina State Board of Charities, has
started a new and more extensive state-
wide social welfare program. Announce-
ment is made by Lieut. Lawrence A. Oxley,
director, of the appointment of C. Clenn
Carrington and A. Marie Crawford as
members of the staff of the Division of
Negro Work. Mr. Carrington, a graduate
of Howard University and the New York
School of Social Work, will give special
study to Negro crime and Negro child wel-
fare in North Carolina. Miss Crawford
will be assistant to Lieutenant Oxley and
have charge of case-records.

Memorial Fund for Pittsburgh
Welfare

MORE than $15,000,000 was left by
Henry Buhl, Jr., president of the
Boggs and Buhl Department Store, Pitts-
burgh, to found the Buhl Memorial
Foundation of Pittsburgh; a permanent
fund for social welfare, the income and
part of the principal, if necessary, to be
applied from time to time where most
needed.

Miscellaneous

THE SIXTH ANNUAL SUMMER
Training Course of the New England and
Middle Atlantic Division of the Boys' Club
Federation will be held in Palisades Inter-
state Park from August 19 to September 2,
1927.

"SHARE YOUR FLOWERS," is the
slogan on a poster designed by James
(Continued on page 431)



LITERATURE



CHILD HEALTH IN SMALL COMMUN-
ITIES Bulletins describing the Common-
wealth Fund child health demonstrations
two in small cities, two in rural countiet.
No 1. Program and Policies. No. 2. Marion
County, Ore. No. 3. Athens. Ga. No.. 4.
Progress Report. Mailed free on application
to Director of Publications. Room 1648, J/o
Seventh Avenue. New York.

FOURTEEN IS TOO EARLY: SOME
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF
SCHOOL-LEAVING AND CHILD

LABOR by Raymond G. Fuller, published
by the National Child Labor Committee, 215
Fourth Avenue, New York City, price 35

UP-TO-DATE CHILD LABOR PUBLI-
CATIONS Child Labor Facts, 1927;
Selected Bibliography on Child Labor (1920-
1927); Children Working in Missouri, 1927.
Price 10 cents each. National Child Labor
Committee, 215 Fourth Avenue. New York
City.

A BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PSYCHOLOGY

by Helen G. Estey, Gardner, Mass. 69
pages, $1.00 a copy. Obtained of author at
Gardner, Mais.



School of Social Work

SIMMONS COLLEGE

COURSES IN:

Medical Social Work
Psychiatric Social Work
Family Welfare
Child Welfare
Community Work

Address
THE DIRECTOR

18 Somerset Street, Boston, Massachusetts



The Pennsylvania School of Social
and Health Work

Graduate Training

For Social Case Work, Community Work, Public Health
and Social Research



Carefully correlated study and practice, under skillful
supervision, with special consideration of needs of indi-
vidual students.



SOCIAL SERVICE BUILDING

311 South Juniper Street
Philadelphia, Pa.



HOUSES SUPPLYING INSTITUTIONAL TRADE

Dry Goods

FREDERICK LOESER fit CO.
484 Fulton Street Brooklyn, N. Y.

Groceries

SEEMAN BROS.
Hudson and NortK Moore Streets New York

Electric Clock System
LOCKWOOD & ALMQUIST, Inc.

501 Fifth Avenue New York City



Now One Dollar

Mind in the Making

By James Harvey Robinson

Printed from the plates of the original

$2.50 edition, on good paper, cloth bound

By return mail, postpaid in the C7. S.

Survey Associates,

112 East 19 St., New York City

I enclose $ for copies of the popular edition of

Robinson's "Mind in the Making" at $1 each.



COMMUNICATIONS



Name
Street, No.
City, State



Poverty and Growth

To THE EDITOR: The article in your issue of April I
What Makes Children Grow, by Mary Ross, based upon th
study, Poverty, Nutrition and Growth, under the Medic:
Research Council of Great Britain, has just come to my atter
tion. Miss Ross hails the study as bearing on the age-ol
question, Are the poor the cause or the result of the miserab
conditions which mark their lives? and infers that the con
elusions drawn by the authors tend to point toward the fir
alternative and to "upset some of the generalizations on whic
social workers, nurses and physicians have hoped to rq
comfortably."

Before we cease to "rest comfortably" on these generaliza
tions I submit there are several points which social worker
should not ignore. On page 6 of the introduction to the repor
on which the article is based the authors state: "Its purpos
was not to demonstrate what was already known, viz, tha
the town child of the poorer classes is on the average less well i
grown and less vigorous than the child of the well-to-do 01
than the country child, but to study the influence of the variouil
parental and environmental conditions of the slum child anc
try to ascertain why some slum children remain puny ano
small while others are large and strong." This seems ar.
important fact to keep in mind before considering the statement
that "there was little evidence of a direct relation between
the si/e or nutrition of the child and the income of the family
per person."

Again (I quote from Miss Ross" article): "Slum children
between the ages of one and five were found to be about 10
per cent lighter than country children, age for age, but there
is evidence that this difference is at least in part an inborn
characteristic: the town parents were smaller. More and
more the towns are ceasing to draw recruits from the country
and are breeding their own population." Is it not possible to
take the second sentence of the above quotation as explaining
the first and to suppose that adverse environmental conditions
may have affected the size of the parents as well as that of
their children?

The study of Poverty, Nutrition and Growth is indeed a
painstaking effort to discover the relation of different environ-
mental conditions to the physical growth of children, in which
child health workers will find much food for thought. But
should we not be careful not to generalize too broadly from
its very tentative conclusions, in considering so complex a sub-
ject as the relation of environment to growth?

NORA L. REYNOLDS

New York City

To THE EDITOR: The surprising finding of the investigation
reported in my article was the inability to find a correlation
between the physical development of the 11,000 British slum



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