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MISSOURI STATE LIBRARY
JEFFERSON CITY, MISSOURI





NEW DEAL AT CITY HAL

MMKHHMMBMMKMaBMMHHBi^H^HHMMHBMMMMMBMaiHl^MMMHBHHHBMH

Lincoln StefFens - Louis Brownlow - Loula D. Lasker

Thomas H. Reed - Harold W. Dodds * Henry Bentley

Paul R. Leach - Howard P. Jones - Luther H. Gulick

William J, Norton * Leonard D. White

A Special Number on City Government



What this school did
any school
can do...





H<



Low important is handwashing in our public schools?
Isn't it very important?

For handwashing is.just about the only phase of personal
cleanliness that can be regularly and adequately practiced
in schools. Should it not be considered, then, as the key-
stone of all cleanliness teaching? In addition handwash-
ing is an important safeguard against the spread of com-
municable disease.

Yet a nation-wide survey indicates that handwashing
facilities are inadequate in 69% of our public schools! In
some cases no soap is provided, in others no warm water,
in still others no towels or drying equipment. And even
where all of these are supplied, the time-allowance is often
insufficient for adequate handwashing; frequently there is
no supervision whatever.

Adequate handwashing does not necessarily require great
expenditures of time or money. Our interesting, free book,



This small school in rural Tennessee, with
almost primitive equipment, has succeeded
in setting a standard of cleanliness that
many "modern" city schools fail to equal.



Handwashing in Schools, suggests the simple requirements
for an effective school handwashing system.

It is not difficult. For instance, the complete handwash-
ing equipment of the school referred to above consisted
of: a gallon can with a funnel spout, an oil-can "soap dis-
penser," and clean "rag towels." (The water was warmed
on an old-fashioned stove). Fortunately most schools will
not be obliged to use such makeshift equipment. But it
was all one enthusiastic teacher needed for an excellent
handwashing routine.

What this school did any school can do! What about
your school? . . . this fall? Will it be among the 31%
which practice cleanliness or among the 69% which teach
cleanliness only by word of mouth?

We invite you to send for our
book, Handwashing in Schools.
It is free.



CLEANLINESS INSTITUTE

Established to promote public welfare by teaching the value of cleanliness




CLEANLINESS INSTITUTE, Dept. 10J,
45 East 17th Street. New York. N. Y.



Please Bend me free of all cost a copy_of "Haodwashing in Schooli."



Name..



Addren



J




Giving the American
family a "moratorium
on bills . . .



'TpHE world powers have declared a
-*- moratorium on Germany's debts a
year's delay in the payment of bills to
give her a chance to straighten out her
finances.

Social service workers know that many
an American family is in much the same
position as Germany. The depression
has thrown wage earners out of work;
bills have piled up; creditors are pressing.

Even when the pay envelope returns to
these families, they frequently are unable
to meet all the demands for immediate
payment.

They need a moratorium on their bills,
but their merchants cannot afford to give it
to them. Dealers are not bankers; they can-
not sell goods at a reasonable price and
finance families as well.

Nevertheless, families may have their
much needed relief from the pressure of
bills and yet pay their merchants at once.
Household, America's foremost family
finance organization, maintains offices in 89
principal cities. To these offices families may
come, borrow from $50 to $300, clean up
their debts, and repay Household in small
sums over as long a period as twenty months.

Household does not require that a family
have bankable securities or collateral, nor
are the signatures of outside endorsers
demanded. Only the signatures of husband
and wife, the security that is in almost every
home, and the ability to repay, are asked.

More than 330,000 families were helped
out of financial difficulties last year by




Household. This enormous volume and
efficient management have made possible a
reduction in rate nearly a third under the
charge allowed by the Small Loan Laws of
most states on amounts above $100 and up
to $300.

Social service workers are invited to write
for more information about this safe, pleas-
ant, and private Household Loan Plan that
is giving American families a practical way
out of their debt difficulties.



MONEY MANAGEMENT FOR
HOUSEHOLDS, a helpful booklet on
budgeting family income, is offered with-
out charge in advertisements in news-
papers of four and three-quarter million
circulation, and through the Household
radio program on the NBC network every Tuesday at
8 P. M., Central Standard Time. Social service work-
ers are invited to write for a copy.





HOUSEHOLD

FINANCE CORPORATION . . .

Headquarters: Palmolive Building, Chicago, Illinois

. . (147 Offices in 89 Principal Cities) . .

(Consult your telephone directory for the office nearest you) . . .



THB SUBVEY, published iemi-montbly and copyright 1931 by SUBVET ASSOCIATES. Inc.. 112 East 19th Street, New York. Price: this Issue (October I. 1931,
Tol. LXTII, No. 1) 30 eta. ; $5 a year; foreign postage, SI tra: Canadian 60 eU. Changes of address should be mailed to us two weeks In advance. When payment
li by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Entered as second-class mattw. March 25, 1909, at the post office, New Tork. N. T.. under th Act of March . lT.

Acceptance for mailing at a ipecial rate of postage provided for In Section 1103. An of October 3, 1917. authorized June 26, 1918. President. Lucius B. Eastman.
Secretary, Ann Reed Brenner. Treasurer, Arthur Kellogg.



WORLD WORKERS' EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

THEIR SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE

By Marius Hansome

The book is an evaluation based on workers' associations' reports, on attendance at
their institutions and conferences, and on ten years' experience in teaching adult
classes. Henry J. Jeddeloh, reviewing it in the Journal of Higher Education, states:
"The author's capacity for critical analysis, sociological interpretation, philosophic
issues, and careful scholarship make ... a valuable addition to critical educational
literature." Price, $5.00

THE LABOR MOVEMENT IN POST-WAR FRANCE

By David J. Saposs

This is the first study of the French labor movement in all its aspects. It concen-
trates on the description and analysis of the phenomenon since the War, but enough
of its history is given to create an intelligent perspective of its beginnings and
elucidate the present situation. Benjamin Stolberg, New York Herald-Tribune Books,
has said: "In this extraordinarily detailed study, Mr. Saposs once more vindicates
his position as our foremost student of labor as seen from the inside. His pains-
takingness is only equaled by his perspicacity. . . ." Price, $6.00

FUGITIVE PAPERS

By Russell Gordon Smith

This posthumous collection contains papers on the problem of social control, the
culture-area concept, the individual in society, youth and the moral code and sev-
eral other papers. Franklin Henry Giddings calls it the best introduction to
sociology that has ever been written, and William Fielding Ogburn, in the
American Journal of Sociology, writes: "There are not many words but they are
put together with a skill and charm that play upon the emotions and mind of the
reader and reveal the writer as a person of intellectual and spiritual power. The
author has style." Price, $1.50

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOLOGY TO SOCIAL WORK

By Robert M. Maclver

One of the Forbes Lectures of the New York School of Social Work, this book is
the first to enunciate its particular subject-matter; it shows how sociology orients
the social worker in his tasks and aids him in making more specific studies in his
own field of interest. Price, $2.00

THE PROHIBITION EXPERIMENT IN FINLAND

By John H. Wuorinen

Here is an account, by a Finnish- American author, based on information received
from official sources, of the effects of a decade of prohibition on law, crime,
society, etc., in a country whose experience is being cited by both wets and drys
in the United States. Price, $3.50

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS

Descriptive announcements of any books we publish will be sent upon request



(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY)

2



THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF SOCIAL WORK

A STUDY OF FAMILY CASE WORK

By Maurice J. Karpf

The author, who is director of the Training School for Jewish Social Work, ex-
amines the literature of social work and related subjects, case records, the curricula
of social work schools; and discusses the contributions of the social, psychological
and biological sciences, with valuable references to their pertinent literature in
an attempt to answer four questions: What knowledge do social ivorkers need?
What knowledge do they use? What knowledge do they receive? And how may
their work acquire a scientific basis? Price, $3.75

AN HYPOTHESIS OF POPULATION GROWTH

By Ezra Bowen

In the year 1831 the total population of the world was approximately one billion.
Since that year it has doubled. Will the terrific nineteenth-century rate of increase
continue? Will over-propagation bring the world shortly to the verge of starva-
tion? May poverty be eliminated from human existence? Will the ivhite race
prevail? Is progress a living fact? An answer to each of these questions may be
found in this brief book. The author is head of the department of economics of
Lafayette College. Price, $3.75

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

IN RELATION TO COMPENSATION AND HEALTH INSURANCE
By Rosamond W. Goldberg

Because of the growth of industry, involving an increasing use of various metals
and chemicals and a greater complexity of processes, the worker has constantly
become more exposed to occupational diseases. The author deals with the hazards
in dusty trades, metal, chemical and miscellaneous industries; the regulation and
prevention of occupational diseases; workmen's compensation legislation and
judicial decisions -relating to these diseases indicating that only through a health
insurance adapted to American conditions will workers get their rightful compen-
sation. Price, $4.50

ALABAMA IN THE FIFTIES

By Minnie Clair Boyd

This study of the civilization of ante-bellum Alabama relegates the glamorous
colonel and his lady-in-crinoline to the background and stresses the importance of
the plain people who planned well but futilely for posterity. Price, $4.25

THE NEGRO AS AUTHOR

By Vernon Logging

An historical and critical survey of the literature consciously produced by the
American Negro before the end of the nineteenth century, this book discusses the
ivork of two hundred and more authors who reflect their social environment.

Price, $5.00

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS

Descriptive announcements of any books we publish will be sent upon request



(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVZT)



WHAT IS THE VALUE OF



HUMAN CONTACT?




THE cost of telephoning is as little as it can be
made. Its value can be infinite.

If it is worth your while to save time, to be
in touch with people at a distance, to do busi-
ness quickly, to keep in touch with friends and
family if such things have a value, the tele-
phone holds limitless possibilities for you.

It is the means of extending your person-
ality. Unlike commodities, telephone calls
cannot be made wholesale. Each one is a per-
sonal service. Each goes when and where you
wish. At your request you have five thousand
or five million dollars' worth of property at
your command, two or three people or perhaps
a hundred attending the wires along which
your voice travels. It is the work of the Bell
System to do this well and cheaply. Its



hundreds of thousands of trained workers
must keep every part of its 4000 million dol-
lars' worth of equipment ready for instant use.
Here is a business run on the smallest mar-
gin of profit consistent with service, security
and expansion. Its operation and maintenance
have the benefit of the continual research of
the 5000 members of Bell Laboratories, the
general and technical staff work of the
American Telephone and Telegraph Com-
pany, and the production economies effected
by Western Electric.

Every resource of the Bell System is devoted
to making your service clear, quick and
inexpensive. As new telephones are added, as
improvements are made, you get constantly
greater satisfaction and value.



AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY if





Graphic Number



Vol. LXVII, No. 1



October 1, 1931



CONTENTS

COVER DESIGN - Drawing by Wilfred Jones
FRONTISPIECE - TO THE VOTERS - -

- - - A color print of 1856

WHITHER CITY GOVERNMENT? -

Loula D. Lasker 7

IS CITY GOVERNMENT BREAKING

DOWN? Thomas H. Reed 8

CITY GOVERNMENT GROWS UP - - -

H. W. Dodds 9

AS STEFFENS SEES IT - Lincoln Steffens 12
HANDWRITING ON THE WALL - Cartoons 15
WHEN CITIZENS UNITE - Henry Bentley 19
A NEW DEAL AT THE CITY HALL - - -

. . . . . . .... Louis Brovmloiv 22

STRONG MAYOR vs. CITY MANAGER -

Paul R. Leach 24

STRAWS THAT SHOW WHICH WAY THE

WIND BLOWS Cartoons 28

WHO ARE THESE CITY MANAGERS?

Leonard D. White 29

CITIES WITH A DIFFERENCE Etchings 32

THE GREATEST SOCIAL WORKER OF ALL

William J. Norton 34

RURAL MUNICIPALITIES OF TOMORROW

. . - Howard P. Jones 37

WHY MUNICIPAL RESEARCH? - - - -

Luther Gulick 38

FROM HISTORY'S RAG-BAG

. . - - John Palmer Gavit 40

LETTERS & LIFE - Edited by Leon W hippie 42

TRAVELER'S NOTEBOOK 5

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS - 64




The Gift of It

TO go back only as far as 1904 when Lincoln
Steffens wrote his Shame of the Cities, or to
1896 and Lord Bryce's American Commonwealth,
there has been a steady upward swing of city
government. Today the thoroughly bad cities are the
exception; even they are better than they were; a matter
striking and important when it is recalled that the
time coincides almost exactly with the great folk move-
ment of our time the surge from country to city. The
evidence of it is given in this special issue of Survey
Graphic, planned and carried out by Loula D. Lasker
and illustrated by Florence Loeb Kellogg, associate edi-
tors, with the help of many kind and expert friends,
in particular of Louis Brownlow and Howard P. Jones.

THE career of Prof. Thomas H. Reed, now of the
University of Michigan, led him from New York
where he was attorney for the Anti-Saloon League across
the continent to be city manager of San Jose, Cal., and
back again to lecture on municipal government at his
alma mater, Harvard University. He is the author of
numerous books on American government and politics.
Page 8.

FROM 1914 to 1927 Harold W. Dodds was electoral
adviser for the United States to Nicaragua, and in
1928 acted as chief adviser to General Frank R. McCoy,
chairman of the National Board of Elections in Nica-
ragua. He is now professor of politics at Princeton
University, editor of The National Municipal Review,
chairman of the administrative committee of the School



of Public and International Affairs of Princeton Uni
versity and a member of the New Jersey Regional Plan-
ning Commission. Page 9.

MORE than a quarter of a century ago, Tammany
Boss Croker cooly informed the Mazet Committee,
"I am working for my pocket all the time." It was
Lincoln Steffens who, in his Shame of the Cities, told
the story of this unholy alliance of business and politics.
The famous muckraker now sixty-five years old gives
his present point of view on city government in his
article, page 12.

HENRY BENTLEY is head of the famous Cincin-
nati City Charter Committee, which has whipped
the political machine founded by Boss Cox at election
after election. This group of practical idealists was
responsible for the adoption of the city-manager plan
in Cincinnati and shares the credit for its successful
continuance in operation. The committee has even kept
local enthusiasm for the reform administration at white
heat for six years, thereby answering the cynic's query,
"Can reform last?" Page 19.

TOUIS BROWNLOW is director of the Public Ad-
L*r ministration Clearing House, organized about a
year ago as an exchange for information and to foster
cooperation among organizations of operating officials,
research units, technical experts and others in the field
of administration (page 22). An ex-newspaper man
and one of the country's earliest and most outstanding
city managers, as well as past president of the National
City Managers Association, Mr. Brownlow has also
been a commissioner of the District of Columbia, and
chairman of its public utilities and zoning commission.

PAUL R. LEACH, political writer for The Chicago
Daily News, was recently sent by his paper to
study the city-manager plan in operation in various
cities, and find out whether the new form of govern-
ment, tested by experience, proves satisfactory. Page 24.

AJTHOR of a standard treatise, The City Manager,
based on his study of thirty cities of varying sizes
and locations, Professor Leonard D. White of the Uni-
versity of Chicago has been during the past year director
of research in this field for President Hoover's Com-
mission on Social Trends. Page 29.

PAST president of the National Conference of Social
Work, founder of the Cincinnati Community Chest,
lecturer in sociology at Western Reserve University,
member of the staff of the Cincinnati Bureau of Municipal
Research, at present director of the Children's Fund of
Michigan this is only a partial list of William J.
Norton's activities in two decades which qualify him
particularly to appraise the work of government the
greatest social worker of them all. Page 34.

A> public-relations secretary of the National Munic-
ipal League, Howard Palfrey Jones is the in-
terpreter to the general public of the League's steady,
intelligent pressure for good government. He is also
a department editor of The National Municipal Review.
Page 37.

LJTHER H. Gulick, Eaton professor of municipal
government at Columbia University, is also director
of the National Institute of Public Administration and
the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, Institute
of Public Administration. He has been research director
for New York state legislative commissions on taxation
and retrenchment since 1919. Page 38.






Courtesy Kennedy and Company. N T ew York



TO THE VOTERS

This color print of an eager electorate all attention for the details of government might, we
venture to suggest, have been an idyllic interpretation even in the less distracting days of 1856
when it was engraved. Even then government was not so simple as President Jac\son had
described it a generation earlier. In our era of radio and headlines the people are torn with
divers distractions. Meanwhile government grows more and more complicated. Do we come
to an impasse or is a solution developing?











GRAPHIC NUMBER



OCTOBER 1
1931




Volume LXVII
No. 1



Whither City Government?



By LOULA D. LASKER




I

:



OVERNMENT can no longer be
thought of as a mere police agency, a
protective institution, but as a system
of public services whose scope and
functions are limited only by the de-
mands of the community and its capacity to pay for
what it wants. Are cities meeting the challenge of
this expanding concept of government? The citizen
of X-town where graft is rampant, the citizen of
Y-town where judgeships are a reward for political
service or are sold to the highest bidder, the citizen
of Z-town whose children must needs find in the
streets their only playground, may answer no but
after all, X, Y and Z are not the whole equation.
For the social scientist, the student of government
who surveys the whole gamut of cities from A to Z,
tells us that in spite of rotten politics and inefficiency
in individual cities from coast to coast, municipal
government by and large is on the upgrade. He
tells us that just as the Machine Age has developed
new solutions for new problems, as the twentieth-
century corporation has introduced efficiency meth-
ods, so municipal government has developed and
expanded in the spirit of the times.

In spite of the truth behind the newspaper head-
lines exposing racketeering of fifty-seven varieties,
bootlegging, bribery, graft and vice conditions that
can scarcely be equalled in tales of fiction, the situa-
tion is not hopeless. Far from it, for though de-
Jlorable, these are but scum on the surface. The
act is, to quote one of the leading social scientists
speaking at the last Conference on Good Govern-
ment in Cleveland, "public administration has made
otable advance in the cities in the last twenty-five
years. The spoils system has fought a stubborn
but losing battle and the lines of expert administra-
tion have advanced. The most striking evidence of



this is the adoption of the city-manager system in
over four hundred cities, but almost equally notable
is the development of professional standards in the
city service. Technical and professional practice
has made surprising progress. American cities
have learned to substitute mastery for drift in
dealing with their physical plan and administrative
problems."

Not many years ago most American cities used
accounting methods similar to those of the village
general store. Some still do. But since the first
modern budget system was installed in New York
in 1907, cities the country over have similarly pat-
terned their financial transactions, and citizens may
know in advance how their money is to be spent.
This is a typical illustration of the application of
modern scientific principles to city government.

NOT many years ago most American cities could
number their services on two hands; today
these services cover a wide and varied range from
the provision of pure water to keep the body healthy
to the provision of good concerts to supply food for
the spirit.

More than half of our people are city dwellers.
By the middle of the century two thirds will live in
urban centers. Urban standards then are the na-
tion's standards. As the cities go, so goes the
country.

As politics wanes and management becomes more
effective, a sophisticated public is demanding more
and more of its municipal government especially
in the field of social engineering. In what measure
and by what methods these demands are being met
is told in the sheaf of articles by distinguished
economists, social scientists and newspaper political
writers on the following pages.



Is City Government Breaking Down?



By THOMAS H. REED



DO! That there are grave evils connected
with municipal government today is un-
deniable. City officials are often corrupt
and incompetent and city government waste-
ful and inept. In particular cities there are
acute conditions of graft, extravagance, and
inefficiency which can only be diagnosed as the symptoms of
some deep-seated disease. But municipal government in gen-
eral is not breaking down. On the whole, it is much better
than it was fifty years ago. Scandals in New York, Chicago,
Detroit, and other cities may indicate that we are now in the
hollow of a depression civic as well as economic. But the
depths of today are as hilltops compared with the sinkholes of
depravity in which our cities slumbered contentedly in 1880.
The ills we experience are always much more vivid to us
than those of which we read in books. The ache in my
tooth today is more impressive than the yellow fever my
grandfather died of fifty years ago. There is always a
tendency, therefore, to look back on the old days as the good
old days, when in fact they may have been very bad days
indeed. There is no way of truly estimating the present
value of an institution such as municipal government except
by comparing it to what it was. If it shows progress, even
slight and halting progress, it is not breaking down.

City government begins in elections. We talk glibly of
election frauds today. Imagine what they would mount to
if there were no registration of voters, no regulation of
caucuses and primaries, and no secret ballot. Fifty years
ago there were not a half dozen cities with an effective
registration system. Caucuses were run just as the gang
wanted to run them, with no possible legal restraint on
their action. Dig Alfred Henry Lewis's Boss out of the
dust on some forgotten library shelf and read how it was
done. And the ballots used in elections were printed by
the parties or candidates and handed to the voters outside
the polling place. In Massachusetts "in 1878 the Repub-



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