of Lookout Mountain and at the junction of 4 railroads. Three daily
newspapers are published. Population, 6093 in 1870, and about 10,000 in
1875. The other leading towns are Murfreesboro' (3502), Clarksville
(3200), Pulaski (3041), Columbia (2550), Gallatin (2123), Fayetteville
(1206), Greeneville (1039).
BUBLEJ'S UNITED STATES
Government and Laws. — "The General Assembly of the State
of Tenness insists of a senate and a bouse of representatives. The
number of representatives is based upon the number of voters in each
inty, "and shall nol exceed sev< oty-five, until the population of the State
reaches a million and a half, and shall never he more than ninety-nine.
Tile senators shall nol be more than one-third as many as the represent-
atives." Biennial - of the legislature are held, during which the
members arc paid $4 per day. The governor and other executive offici rs
are chosen for a term of two years, with the exception of the secretary of
who continues in office for four years. Five judges, chosen by pop-
ular election, constitute the supreme court. Circuit and chancery courts
have stablished by the legislature. The term of office forjudges is
eight y< ars. Priests and ministers of the gospel are ineligible to the legis-
lature. The State is entitled to ten representatives in Congress. The
taxable property in L874 was valued at $289,533,560.
History. — It is probable that Ferdinand de Soto visited the present
site of Memphis in 1549. In 1754 a settlement was made by colonists
from North Carolina, who were soon driven away by hostile Indians. The
first permanent settlement west of the Alleghanies was made on the Ten-
nessee River, in the year 1756, when Fort Loudon was erected. Four years
later the Cherokee Indians captured the fort aud butchered or reduced to
captivity all the whites. Until 1789 the territory was regarded as belong-
in.: to North Carolina. In that year it was ceded to the general govern-
ment. A territorial government was organized in 1794, and Tennessee
was admitted to the I'nion as the sixteenth State June 1, 1796. Oil the
8th of dune, 1*61, a majority voted to separate from the United States and
to unite with the Southern Confederacy. Fort Henry, upon theTennessi
and Fort Donelson, upon the Cumberland River-, were captured by the
Union forces in February, 1862 [see Historical Sketch, pp. 139, 142].
Full relations to the Union were restored duly 24, 1866. A new Constitu-
tion was ratified by the people March 26, 1870. Tennessee takes its name
from the Indian designation for its principal river.
Situation and Extent.— Texas is hounded on the N. W. and N.
bj I and the Indian Territory, E. by Arkansas and Louisiana,
S E Gulf of Mexico and S. W. by Mexico. It is situated between
latitud - 25 50' and 36 30' X. and longitudes 16° S& and 30° W. from
Washington, or 93 30' and 107° W. from Greenwich. The extreme length
l- 810 mde-, the breadth 750 miles and the area 274,356 square miles, or
175,587,8 to >• ■• 3. All of the New England and Middle States, together
with Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, have a small* r extent of
territory than thb Stat of Texas. Were all the inhabitants of the
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 369
United States placed within its boundaries, the population would be less
deuse than it now is in the State of Massachusetts.
Physical Features.— Surface.— There are three great divisions of
the State— viz., Eastern Texas, extending from the Sabine to Trinity River;
Middle Texas, from the Triuity to the Colorado ; and Western Texas, from
the Colorado to the Rio Grande. Along the coast are many narrow islands
and peninsulas of alluvial formation, the configuration of which is some-
times entirely changed by the terrible West Indian hurricanes. For a
distance of from 30 to 60 miles inland the land is almost monotonously flat.
Beyond this is an undulating country, extending for 200 miles, consisting
of high rolling prairies, well watered, sufficiently wooded and covered
with luxuriant vegetation. Next is a hilly and mountainous district, and
beyond this is an elevated table-land. The Llano Estacado [see Phys-
ical Geography, page 159], which covers an area of 100,000 square
miles in the north-west, has a general elevation of 2500 feet above
the sea : it is scantily wooded and subject to severe droughts. The prin-
cipal elevations above the sea level which have been noted are Leon
Spring, 4240 feet; Eagle Spring, 4842 feet; Painted Camp, 5020 feet;
Providence Creek, 5492 feet; and "Highest Point," 5896 feet. Rivers.
— The Red River constitutes the boundary between Texas and the
Indian Territory for 400 miles. Navigation is obstructed by the " great
raft" above Shreveport [see Louisiana, page 259]. The Sabine consti-
tutes the boundary between Louisiana and Texas; and the Rio Grande,
1800 miles long and navigable for 450 miles, separates Texas and the ter-
ritory of the United States from Mexico. Within the limits of the State
are the Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe and San Antonio, all flowing
with a rapid current in a south-easterly direction and discharging their
waters into the Atlantic. During the rainy season steamboats ascend these
streams to a distance of from 100 to 350 miles. The rivers and bays abound
in fish, of which the principal varieties are the redfish (sometimes weighing
50 pounds), pike, codfish, trout, flounder, etc. Forests. — Eastern Texas is
very heavily timbered. Immense forests of yellow pine extend through
the river valleys, yielding pitch, tar and turpentine. Many " motts," or
" islands," of timber exist in the prairies. Live-oaks are abundant along
the coast. The other most common trees are the ash, beech, cedar, cotton-
wood, cypress, elm, gum, hickory, hackberry, mesquit, mulberry, oak,
pecan, poplar, tapulo, walnut, willow and yapon, or tea tree. Wild Animals
and Birds. — The black bear, wolf, peccary, moose, deer, antelope, fox, opos-
sum, raccoon, etc., are met with in the forests, and vast herds of buffaloes
and mustangs range the prairies. Among the many species of birds are
the wild turkey, wild goose, canvas-back duck, pheasant, grouse, plover,
woodcock, swan, pelican, paroquet, oriole and mocking-bird.
Soil and Climate. — A deposit of alluvial soil, 30 feet deep aud
370 B I WLE V 'S UNITED STATES
of inexhaustible fertility, is often found along the river-bottoms. The
prairies have a rich, chocolate-colored or "black-wax" loam, resting upon
a subsoil of gray clay. A remarkably uniform and pleasant temperature
prevails throughout most of the year. Ice seldom forms, and cattle thrive
all winter without artificial shelter or food. However, the "Northers"
prevail during November, December and January, and there are sometimes
storms of terrible severity. During the winter of 1855-6 it is said that
one-quarter of all the oeat cattle in the State perished from the effects of
the cold. The lowest temperature observed was 17 degrees. Hurricanes
of very gnat violence prevail upon the coast. The "September cyclone,"
or equinoctial storm, is always looked for with apprehension. An account
of the ravages of a cyclone in Texas is given in another article [see PHYS-
ICAL G I' x iK.vi'iiY, page 179]. The isothermal lines crossing the State are:
Spring, 55°-75°; summer, 75°-85° ; autumn, 55°-75°; winter, 35°-60°;
annual mean, 55°-75°. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, the mean
temperature at Galveston was 72.8°, and the maximum was 98.5°. Upon
57 days during June, July and August the mercury rose above 90°. The
mean for the coldest month (January) was 55?, and for the warmest (Au-
gust S4.4°. At Indianola the mean was 70°, the minimum (in February)
36° and the maximum (in August) 100 degrees.
Agricultural Productions. — As a cotton State Texas ranked
fifth in 1870. The production during the years 1873 and 1874 was 742,-
565 bales. Rice and sugar-cane are important crops. Wheat thrives
above the 32d parallel of latitude. The Federal census reported 18,396,-
523 acres in farms, of which 2,964,833 acres were improved; average size
of farms, 301 acres (those of California and Oregon alone were larger);
value of farms, farm implements and live-stock, $100,971,937 ; value of
productions, $49,185,170. In 1873 the number of acres devoted to Indian
corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, potatoes and tobacco was 1,373,895, and the
value of the crops was $22,356,720. The number of live-stock reported
in 1874 was 699,100 horses (next to Illinois and Ohio), 97,900 mules,
2,415,800 cattle (more than double the number in Illinois, which ranked
i'l, and nearly one-seventh of all the neat cattle in the United States),
526,500 milch cows, 1,147,400 hogs and 1,338,700 sheep. Most of the
fruits common to the Northern States are grown in Texas, and the orange,
lemon, banana, lime, fig, pine-apple, nectarine and olive thrive.
Manufactures. — The census reported 2399 manufacturing estab-
lishments; hands employed, 7927; value of materials, $6,273,193; value
of products, $11,517,302. The leading industries in value were: Lumber,
$1,736,482; beef, packed, Sl,052,106; cotton goods, §374,598; saddlery
and harness, ?:54«,307; tin, copper and sheet-iron ware, $334,665; car-
riage- and wagons, 8289,124; hides and tallow, 8272,740; flouring-mtll
products, $254,264 Stoves and hollow-ware of excellent quality are
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 371
produced. The numerous rivers afford au abundauce of water-power,
which has been, as yet, very little improved.
Mineral Resources.— Speaking of the mineral wealth of the
country, Col. Forney says: "God in his generosity seems to have given a
share of all his best gifts to Texas." Horace Greeley, who made a journey
through Texas in 1871, wrote : "As yet the mineral wealth of Texas sleeps
undisturbed and useless. She has iron enough to divide the earth by rail-
roads into squares ten miles across, but no ton of it was ever smelted. She
has at least five thousand square miles of coal (probably much more), but
no ton of it was ever dug for sale. She has gypsum enough to plaster the
continent annually for a century, but it lies quiet and valueless— a waste of
earth-covered stone." Gold, silver, copper, lead, nickel, alum, cobalt, man-
ganese, arsenic and various precious stones, such as the ruby, agate, garnet,
amethyst and opal, have been found. There are large deposits of potters'
clay, fire-clay and marl, and extensive quarries of granite, marble, slate,
soap-stone, etc. Salt is very abundant. These mineral resources are almost
untouched. The total value of the mining products of the State, as
reported by the census in 1870, was only $900.
Commerce and Navigation.— There are five customs districts
— viz., Brazos de Santiago, Corpus Christi, Paso del Norte, Saluria and
Texas. For the year ending June 30, 1874, the value of imports was
$4,366,183; value of exports, $21,639,402; number of vessels entered in
the foreign trade, 250, of which 103 were American and 147 foreign ; ves-
sels cleared, 284, of which 137 were American. The tonnage of all Texas
ports was 20,008, divided among 335 vessels. Twenty vessels were built
during the year. Cotton was exported to the amount of 274,379 bales.
Railroads.— There were 32 miles of railroad in 1854. In 1874 the
mileage had increased to 1650; total capital account, $64,565,342; cost
per mile, $40,079; total receipts, $6,968,886; receipts per mile, $4464;
receipts to an inhabitant, $7.26; net earnings, $2,798,277. The Texas
Pacific Railroad is designed to extend from Shreveport, Louisiana, across
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to the Pacific Ocean, at San Diego.
Public Institutions and Education. — The State Peniten-
tiary, at Huntsville, contains 278 cells, and a new building has just been
completed, having 125 cells. Both these buildings are inadequate, as the
number of prisoners in 1874 was 1453. The number of homicides reported
from Texas during 1870 was 323. Seven paupers were relieved in 1850
and 202 in 1870. An Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb
was opened in 1857. The new Constitution makes it the duty of the legis-
lature to provide for the support and maintenance of public schools through-
out the State, free to all children between the ages of six and eighteen.
In 1874 the school population was 300,000, of whom 129,542 were enrolled
in the public schools. The average daily attendance was 83,082; number
372 i:ri:i. i: vs united sta tes
of schools, 1874; teachers, 2236. There are 12 colleges and univer-
sities, 1 Bchool of theology, 2 Bchoola of medicine and 1 school of science.
The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, at Bryan, possesses a
property valued ;it $291,240. Five institutions are reported for the higher
education of voung ladies. In 1870 the number of* libraries was 455, re-
ligious organizations 843, with 647 edifices, newspapers 112. In 1875 21
daily newspapers and 168 periodicals of all kinds were published.
Cities and Towns. — Austin, the State capital, is situated on the
Colorado River, 160 miles above its mouth. Steamboats ply upon the
river, and there is railroad connection with Houston. Three daily and two
weekly papers are published. The number of inhabitants in 1870 was
1428, and was estimated at 7500 in 1875. Galveston, upon an island at
the entrance <>t' Galveston Bay, 290 miles west of New Orleans, is the lead-
in- city of Texas. It is an important port for the shipment of cotton,
lumber, tattle and hides. Steamers run regularly to New Orleans, Ha-
vana. New York and Liverpool. It is the seat of the Texas Medical Col-
and the University of St. Mary. The most important buildings are
tli- Custom-House, Court-House, City Hall, Opera-House and House of
Refuge. Tlure are 15 churches and 11 newspapers, of which 5 are issued
daily. The population was 13,815 by the Federal census, and is estimated,
in 1875, al 25,000. Houston, on Buffalo Bayou, 45 miles above Galveston,
is a rapidly-growing city. It was settled in 1836, and named in honor of
1 I Bam. Houston. The City Hall and Market-House was erected at a
coel of $400,000. There are extensive machine- and car-shops, iron- and
brass-fbunderies and lumber-yards. Three daily and six weekly news-
paper- are published, and 12 churches represent the various denominations.
Railroads diverge from Houston in six directions. The population is esti-
mated at 20,000; it was 13,818 in 1870. San Antonio was settled by the
Spaniards in 1694. It has two daily newspapers and is the principal town
in Western Texas. Population, 12,256. Other leading towns are Browns-
ville, Corpus Christi, Jefferson, Sherman, Dallas, Georgetown, Indianola
Population. No census of the population of Texas was taken while
it was under Mexican rule. The estimated number of inhabitants in 1806
7000, and in 1836,52,000. According to the United States census,
the population in 1850 was 212,592 (slaves, 58,161); 1860, 604,215 « slaves,
: 1870,818,579 free colored, 253,475). The foreign-born num-
1 62,411, and the natives 756,168, of whom 388,510 were born in
• 7,658 in ..th.r parts of the United States. Only 26,050
native 'lex;,,,, were residing outside the State of their birth. The density
■pulation was 2.98 to a Bquare mile.
Government and Laws.— The legislature consists of 30 senators
and '.tii representatives, who meet biennially and are paid eight dollars per
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 373
clay. The executive officers are a governor, lieutenant-governor, comp-
troller, treasurer and commissioner of the general land-office. Judicial
authority is vested in a supreme court of three judges, and thirty-five dis-
trict courts, presided over by a single judge, who is required to hold three
terms of his court annually in each county of his district. A superintend-
ent of immigration is appointed by the governor, and holds his office for
four years. General elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first
Monday in November of every alternate year, beginning with 1872.
Homesteads are exempt from execution for debt. The public debt on the
1st of January, 1875, was $4,012,421.
History. — Fort St. Louis was erected near the present, site of Mata-
gorda by a company of French colonists, in 1687. In 1690 the Spaniards
established, not far from the same spot, the mission of San Francisco.'
The territory was long under the government of Mexico, and shared in
the internal dissensions of that country. The privilege of maintaining a
State government of their own was refused to them, and the Texans took
up arms. The first battle was fought Oct. 2, 1835. Hostilities continued
at intervals for ten years. On the 1st of March, 1845, Texas became one
of the United States. The Mexican war followed [see Historical Sketch].
An ordinance of secession was passed Feb. 5, 1861. A new Constitution
was adopted in 1869. In the summer of 1874 six companies of soldiers
were organized for service against hostile Indians, and many of the settle-
ments were thus saved from destruction. A terrible cyclone desolated a
belt of country 40 miles wide on the 16th and 17th of September, 1875.
Water stood five feet deep in the streets of Galveston, twenty-five buildings
were blown down, several persons were killed and property was damaged
to the amount of $200,000. The town of Velasco was entirely swept away;
only two houses remained standing at Matagorda ; and the word from In-
dianola was : " One-quarter of the people are gone. Dead bodies are strewn
for twenty miles along the bay. Nine-tenths of the houses are destroyed."
Only five out of the three hundred houses in the town were left standing.
Four hundred lives were destroyed in the State by this cyclone.
Situation and Extent. — Vermont is bounded on the N. by
Canada East, E. by New Hampshire, S. by Massachusetts and W. by New
York. It is situated between latitudes 42° 44' and 45° N. and longitudes
3° 35' and 5° 27' E. from Washington, or 71° 33' and 73° 25' W. from
Greenwich. The length from north to south is 158 miles, the breadth be-
tween 40 and 90 miles and the area 10,212 square miles, or 6,535,680 acres.
Physical Features. — Surface. — The Green Mountains, called by
the early French travellers Monts Verts, extend through the whole length
of Vermont and form the water-shed between the affluents of the Connec-
374 BURLETS UNITED STATES
ti.-tit River on the easl and those of Lake Champlain and the Hudson on
the west. The mosi elevated summits arc: Mount Mansfield, 4359 feet;
Camel's Bump, U88 feet; Killington's Peak, 3675 feet; and Ascutney,
i. Most of the hills are smooth and rounded and wooded or cov-
I with grass to the very top. Rivers and Lakes. — The Connecticut
River constitutes the eastern boundary, and drains an area of 3750 square
miles in the State. At Bellows Falls the river has a descent of 44 feet in
the course of half a mile. Its principal affluents are the Passumpsic,
Whit.'. Queechy, Black and Wesl Rivers. Flowing westward are the
Missisquoi, Lamoille, Onion or Winooski and Otter Rivers, which dis-
cliar-!' their waters into Lake Champlain. This lake, which constitutes
the boundary between Vermont and New York for 140 miles, has an ex-
treme width of 16 miles and is deep enough to float the largest vessels.
It- waters find an outlet through the Richelieu, or Sorel, into the St. Law-
rence. Salmon-trout, hass, whitclish, pickerel, etc., are caught in great
numbers from the lake. It contains several islands, of which the largest
are North Hero, South Hero and La Motte. Lake Memphremagog, on
the Canada line, lies partly within the limits of Vermont, and receives sev-
eral small tributaries from that State. Forests. — Upon the Green Moun-
tains are heavy growths of the various evergreen trees, such as the fir,
cedar, spruce, pine and hemlock. Hard wood is also abundant, including
the ash, beech, birch, elm, hickory, basswood, butternut, oak, sugar-maple
and most of the trees common to the Northern States.
Soil and Climate. — A deep, black, alluvial soil, of very great fer-
tility, is characteristic of the river valleys. Some of the uplands have a
loam which i- strong and quick and produces large crops. Excellent pas-
turage is afforded on the slopes of the hills and mountains. The valley of
Lake Champlain, protected from the north-east winds by the mountains
and open toward the south, is very favorably situated for agriculture.
Very greal variations of temperature are experienced. The mercury
reached 106 at Montpelier on the 8th of June, 1871, and on Christmas
day, 1*7 - J, tfu rm rcury congealed, which indicated a temperature of at least
40 degrees below zero. Thus the range of the thermometer was 146 de-
Eaat Calais enjoyed Christina- day, 1873, with the mercury indi-
During the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, the mean
temperature at Burlington was 43.6°, the maximum 89° and the minimum
Opon 'leven days the mercury fell below zero. The isothermal
crowing Vermont are: Spring, 40°; summer, 62°-67° ; autumn,
17 ; winter, 15 -20°; annual mean, 45°. Snow falls about the
middle of Nov,,, ,i„ T an d remains until the end of April.
\'-rri<-iiMiir;il Productions.— Vermont has a smaller proportion
2.] per cent of it* farm land- unimproved than any other States except
IUinoM 25.3 per cent, and New York (29.6 per cent.). The last census
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 375
reported 4,528,804 acres in farms, of which 3,073,257 acres were improved ;
average size of farms, 134 acres; value of farms, farm implements and
live-stock, 8168,506,189; value of productions, $34,647,027. The forest
products were valued at $1,238,929, and the oichard products at $682,241.
This State ranked first in the production of maple-sugar (8,894,302 pounds),
and next to New York and Ohio in cheese (4,830,700 pounds). In 1873
the Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potato, tobacco and
hay crops occupied 1,065,334 acres, and were valued at $18,568,796. The
number of live-stock in 1874 was 71,000 horses, 128,000 oxen and other
cattle, 195,700 milch cows, 53,500 hogs and 543,600 sheep (more than in
any other New England State).
Manufactures. — The number of manufacturing establishments
reported was 3270; hands employed, 18,686; value of materials, $17,007,-
769; of products, $32,184,606. The value of the leading industries was:
Woollen goods, $3,550,962; lumber, sawed, $3,142,307; lumber, planed,
$2,526,228; flouring-mill products, $2,071,594; leather, tanned, $1,249,-
942; carriages and sleds, $839,029; cotton goods, $546,510; scales and
balances, $1,629,000. A firm in this State, which has been in existence
for forty-five years, manages " the largest scale manufactory in the world."
Its workshops cover ten acres, and the products are sent to every im-
portant nation on the globe; the annual sales amount to $2,000,000.
Minerals and Mining. — Numerous deposits of iron ore have been
found among the mountains. Copper, lead and manganese exist in small
quantities. Kaoline, or potters' clay, is abundant. The marble quarries
are of great extent, and furnish marble both white and variegated. Pro-
fessor Collier is of the opinion that "there is hardly a farm in the State
where hidden [mineral] wealth may not exist." The product of 54 min-
ing establishments, at the last census, was valued at $905,410, and the
value of the marble- and stone-work was $960,984.
Commerce and Navigation. — Burlington is the only port of
entry. Quite an extensive commerce is carried on with the Canadas
through Lake Champlain. During the year ending June 30, 1874, the
value of imports was $7,282,166, and of exports, $4,076,355 ; 98 Ameri-
can and 859 foreign vessels entered, and 76 American and 865 foreign
vessels cleared. Six steamers and 19 other vessels, with an aggregate
capacity of 5494 tons, belong to the district of Vermont.
Railroads and Canals. — The mileage of railroads in 1874 was
778; total capital account, $27,755,284; cost per mile, $35,638; receipts,
$4,463,678 ; receipts to an inhabitant, $13.36 ; receipts per mile of railroad,
$6002; net earnings, $1,782,571. Real estate belonging to railroads is
subject to taxation. A canal connects Lake Champlain with the Hudson
Public Institutions and Education. — A State-Prison was
376 BURLEY'S UNITED STATES
established at Windsor in 1807. The Asylum for the [nsane, which pos-
- a property valued al $500,000, is nol a State institution, although it
•:,,.„ receiv< d aid from the State. The deaf and dumb are supported