for protection against fire, and for sanitary purposes. Offices for foreign
commissions are placed along the sides of the building in the side aisles, in
close proximity to the products exhibited, as many of the 24 feet spaces
being partitioned off for that purpose as may be required.
Offices for the
administration may be placed in the ends of the building and on the second
floor. The form of the building is such that all exhibitors will have an
equally fair opportunity to exhibit their goods to advantage. There is
comparatively little choice of location necessary, as the light is uniformly
distributed and each of the spaces devoted to products is located upon one
of the main thoroughfares. The departments of the classification will be
placed in parallel sections running lengthwise of the building, from east to
west, and will be wider or narrower in proportion to the bulk of the arti-
cles exhibited. The countries exhibiting will be located geographically, in
sections running crosswise of the building, from north to south.
This structure, which is one of the affixes to the great exhibition, is
located on a line parallel with and northward of the Main Exhibition Build-
ing. It is on the most commanding portion of great Lansdowne plateau,
and looks southward over the city. It is elevated on a terrace six feet
above the general level of the plateau, the plateau itself being an eminence
116 feet above the surface of the Schuylkill River. The entire structure
is in the modern Renaissance. The materials are granite, glass and iron.
No wood is used in the construction, and the building is thoroughly fire-
proof. The structure is 365 feet in length, 210 feet in width and 59 feet
in height, over a spacious basement 12 feet in height, surmounted by a
dome. Exterior — 1. The Main Front. — The main front looks southward;
it displays three distinctive features: 1. A main entrauce in the centre of
the structure, consisting of three colossal arched doorways of equal dimen-
sions. 2. A pavilion at each end. 3. Two arcades connecting the pavil-
BURLEY'S CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE.
ions with the centre; central section, 95 feet long, 72 feet high; pavilions,
45 feet long, 60 feet high; arcades, each, 90 feet long, 40 feet high. ' The
front or south face of the central section displays a rise of thirteen steps
to the entrance, 7<> feet wide. The entrance is by three arched doorways,
each 40 tilt high and 15 feet wide, opening into a hall. Between the arches
of the doorwavs are clusters of columns terminating in emblematic designs
illustrative of science and art. The doors, which are of iron, are relieved
by bronze panels, having the coats-of-arms of all the States and Territo-
ries. In the centre of the main frieze is the United States coat-of-arms.
The main cornice is surmounted by a balustrade with candelabras. At
either end is an allegorical figure representing science and art. The dome
rises from the centre of the structure to the height of 150 feet from the
ground. It is of glass and iron, and of a unique design; it terminates in
a colossal bell, from which the figure of Columbia rises with protecting
hands. A figure of colossal size stands at each corner of the base of the
dome. These figures typify the four quarters of the globe. Each pavilion
displays a window 30 feet high and 12 feet wide; it is also ornamented
with tile-work, wreaths of oak and laurel, 13 stars in the frieze and a
colossal eagle at each of its four corners. The arcades, a general feature
in the old Roman villas, but entirely novel here, are intended to screen the
long walls of the gallery. These each consist of five groined arches. These
arcades form |»r oades looking outward over the grounds and inward
over open gardens, which extend back to the main wall of the building.
These garden-plate are each 90 feet long and 36 feet deep, ornamented in
GROUND PLAN OF ART GALLERY.
A South Halls 8680 sq.
B Middle Halls 7760
C North Halls 8534
D End Galleries 8248
E Pavilions 7608
F End Booms of Corridor 2796
(i Corridors 7408
II Booms (north) 8044 sq. ft.
I Booms " 5348
K Booms " 2612 "
L Reception Rooms 4894
M Reception Hall 4956 "
N Centre " 6833 "
E Pavilions 5088 "
Height of Picture fastenings above floor line 23 feet 4 inches.
Galleries A, B, C, D, F, G, N, are lighted from above.
Rooms E, H, I, K, L, M, are lighted from the side.
Rooms H, I, K, are repeated in the second story, and are 14 feet from floor to ceiling throughout.
Height of Pavilions and Reception Hall 52 feet.
Height of Centre Hall 77 feet.
♦570 BURLET'S UNITED STATES
the centre with fountains and designed for the display of statuary. A
stairway from the gardens reaches the upper line of these arcades, forming
a m ! promenade, •'!•"> feet above the ground. Its balustrade is orna-
mented with vases, and i- designed ultimately for statues. The cornices,
the atticas and the crestings throughout are highly ornamented. The walls
of the east and west sides of the structure display the pavilions and the
walls of the picture-galleries, and are relieved by five niches designed for
statues; the frieze is richly ornamented ; above it the central dome shows
to great advantage. The rear or north front is of the same general cha-
racter as the main front, hut in place of the arcade is a series of arched
window-, twelve in number, with an entrance in the centre; in all thirteen
openings above, in an unbroken line, extending the entire length of the
structure. Between the pavilions is the grand balcony — a promenade 275
feel long and 45 feet wide and elevated 40 feet above the ground, overlook-
ing northward the whole panorama of the Park grounds. The main en-
trance opens on a hall 82 feet long, 60 feet wide and 53 feet high, decorated
in the modern Renaissance style. On the farther side of this hall three door-
way-, each 16 feet wide and 25 feet high, open into the centre hall; this
hall is 83 feet square, the ceiling of the dome rising over it 80 feet in height.
From its east and west sides extend the galleries, each 98 feet long, 84 feet
wide and 35 feet in height. These galleries admit of temporary divisions
tor the more advantageous display of paintings. The centre ball and gal-
leries form one grand hall 287 feet long and 85 feet wide, capable of hold-
ing eight thousand persons — nearly twice the dimensions of the largest hall
in the country. From the two galleries doorways open into two smaller
galleries 28 feet wide and 89 feet long. These open north and south into
private apartments which connect with the pavilion-rooms, forming two
side galleries 210 feet long. Along the whole length of the north side of
the main galleries and central hall extends a corridor 14 feet wide, which
open- on its north line into a series of private rooms, thirteen in number,
designed for studios and smaller exhibition-rooms. All the galleries and
central hall are lighted from above; the pavilions and studios are lighted
from the sides. The pavilions and central hall are designed especially for
exhibitions of sculpture.
This structure is located west of the intersection of Belmont and Elm
avenue-, at a distance of 542 feet from tin- west front of the Main Exhibi-
tion Building and '11-i feet from the north side of Elm avenue. The north
front of the building will be upon the same line as that of the Main Ex-
hibition Building, thus presenting a frontage of 3824 feet from the east to
the west end of the exhibition buildings upon the principal avenue within
the grounds. The building consists of the main hall, 360 feet wide by
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE.
1402 feet long, and an annex on the south side of 208 feet by 210 feet.
The entire area covered by the main hall and annex is 558,440 square
feet, or 12.82 acres. Including the upper floors, the building provides 14
acres of floor space. The principal portion of the structure is one story
in height, showing the main cornice upon the outside at 40 feet from the
ground, the interior height to the top of the ventilators in the avenues
being 70 feet and in the aisles 40 feet. To break the long lines upon the
exterior, projections have been introduced upon the four sides, and the
main entrances finished with facades, extending to 78 feet in height. The
east entrance will form the principal approach from street-cars from the
Main Exhibition Building and from the railroad depot, Along the south
side will be placed the boiler-houses and such other buildings for special
kinds of machinery as may be required. The west entrance affords the
most direct communication with George's Hill, which point affords the best
view of the entire exhibition grounds.
Ground Plan. — The arrangement of the ground plan shows two
main avenues 90 feet wide by 1360 feet long, with a central aisle between
and an aisle on either side. Each aisle is 60 feet in width ; the two ave-
nues and three aisles making the total width of 360 feet, At the centre
of the building is a transept of 90 feet in width, which at the smith end is
prolonged beyond the main hall. This transept, beginning at 36 feet from
the main hall and extending 208 feet, is flanked on either side by aisles of
60 feet in width, and forms the annex for hydraulic machines. The prom-
enades in the avenues are 15 feet in width, in the transept 25 feet and in
the aisles 10 feet. All other walks extending across the building are 10
feet in width, and lead at either end to exit doors.
Construction. — The foundations consist of piers of masonry. The
superstructure consists of solid timber columns supporting roof trusses,
constructed with straight wooden principals and wrought-iron ties and
struts. As a general rule, the columns are placed lengthwise of the build-
ing, at the uniform distance apart of 16 feet. The columns are 40 feet
high to the heel block of the 90-feet span roof trusses over the avenues,
BURLEY'S CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 673
and they support the heel of the 60-feet spans over the aisles, at the height
of 20 feet. The outer walls are built of masonry to a height of 5 feet,
and above that are composed of glazed sash placed between the columns.
Portions of the sash are movable for ventilation. Louvre ventilators are
introduced in continuous lengths over both the avenues and the aisles.
The building is lit entirely by side light, and stands lengthwise nearly east
Shafting. — The building admits of the most complete system of
shafting, the facilities in this respect being very superior. Eight main
lines may be introduced, extending almost the entire length of the struc-
ture, and counter-shafts introduced into the aisles at any point. The
hangers will be attached either to the wooden horizontal ties of the 60-feet
span roof trusses or to brackets especially designed for the purpose, project-
ing from the columns, in either case at the height of 20 feet from the
Hydraulic Annex. — The annex for hydraulic machines contains a
tank 60 feet by 160 feet, with depth of water of 10 feet. In connection
with this it is expected that hydraulic machinery will be exhibited in full
operation. At the south end of this tank will be a waterfall 35 feet high
by 40 feet wide, supplied from the tank by the pumps on exhibition.
The liberal appropriations of the city of Philadelphia have provided
the horticultural department of the exhibition with an extremely ornate
and commodious building, which is to remain in permanence as an orna-
ment of Fairmount Park. It is located on the Lansdowne terrace, a short
distance north of the Main Building and Art Gallery, and has a com-
manding view of the Schuylkill River and the north-western portion of
the city. The design is in the Mauresque style of architecture of the
twelfth century, the principal materials externally being iron and glass.
The length of the building is 383 feet, width 193 feet, and height to the
top of the lantern 72 feet. The main floor is occupied by the central
conservatory, 230 by 80 feet, and 55 feet high, surmounted by a lantern
170 feet long, 20 feet wide and 14 feet high. Running entirely around
this conservatory at a height of 20 feet from the floor is a gallery 5 feet
wide. On the north and south sides of this principal room are four forcing
houses for the propagation of young plants, each of them 100 by 30 feet,
covered with curved roofs of iron and glass. Dividing the two forcing
houses in each of these sides is a vestibule 30 feet square. At the centre
of the east and west ends are similar vestibules, on either side of which
are the restaurants, reception-room, offices, etc. From the vestibules orna-
mental stairways lead to the internal galleries of the conservatory as Avell
as to the four external galleries, each 100 feet long and 10 feet wide, which
674 BURLEY'S CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE.
surmount the roofs of the forcing houses. These external galleries are
connected with a grand promenade, formed by the roofs of the rooms on
the ground floor, which has a superficial area of 1800 square yards. The
east and west entrances are approached by flights of blue marble steps
from terraces 80 by 20 feet, in the centre of each of which stands an open
kiosque 20 feet in diameter. The angles of the main conservatory are
adorned with eight ornamental fountains. The corridors which connect
the conservatory with the surrounding rooms open fine vistas in every di-
rection. In the basement, which is of fireproof construction, are the
kitchen, store-rooms, coal-houses, ash-pits, heating arrangements, etc.
b'76 BUELEY'S CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE.
This structure will stand north of the Horticultural Building, and on
the eastern side of Belmont avenue. It will illustrate a novel combination
of materials, and is capable of erection in a few months. Its materials are
wood and glass. It consists of a long nave crossed by three transepts, both
nave and transept being composed of Howe truss arches of a Gothic form.
The nave is 820 feet in length by 125 feet in width, with a height of 75
feet from the floor to the point of the arch. The central transept is of the
same height and a breadth of 100 feet, the two end transepts 70 feet high
and 80 feet wide. The four courts enclosed between the nave and transepts,
and also the four spaces at the corners of the building, having the nave
and end transepts for two of their sides, will be roofed and form valuable
spaces for exhibits. Thus the ground plan of the building will be a paral-
lelogram of 540 by 820 feet, covering a space of above ten acres. In its
immediate vicinity will be the stock-yards for the exhibition of horses,
cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, etc.
This comprehensive system of building — viz.. Main Building, covering
21.47 acres; Art Gallery, covering 1.5 acres; Machinery Building, cover-
ing 14 acres; Horticultural Building, covering 1.5 acres; Agricultural
Building, covering 10.15 acres — provides for the accommodation of the
seven departments of the classification.
There will be required, in addition to these buildings, a number of smaller
structures for the administration of the exhibition, all of which are now
being designed, with a view to their early erection. The preparation of the
grounds allotted to the Commission in Fairmount Park and the construe-
HURLEY'S V SITED STATES
PLAN OF CENTENNIAL GROUNDS.
tion of the various buildings are far advanced, and will be vigorously urged
forward. Although the erection of the buildings and the grading of the
Park were not commenced until July, 1874, the progress made to this date
ensures their timely completion on a scale and in a manner that will answer
the requirements of the exhibition in every particular.
Bi sides the exhibition buildings proper, numerous applications have been
made by manufacturers and by the commissions of foreign governments for
permission to erect pavilions and various ornamental and useful structures
within the exhibition grounds. A number of fountains, memorial statues and
other decorative objects are in preparation under the auspices of local organ-
izations. These adjuncts will add essentially to the attractions of the Park.
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 679
The fence-line of 16,000 feet, or over three miles, on which the fence
is to be built during the month of May, encloses two hundred and thirty-
six acres, which is exclusive of the stock-yards for the exhibition of horses,
cattle, sheep, swine, etc.
Within this enclosure the principal structures have been grouped in the
most economic, suitable and convenient positions. Facilities for transporta-
tion from distant points within the grounds will be provided, but the whole
area will contain objects of interest throughout its entire length and breadth.
The walks and roads throughout the grounds will have a total length of
seven miles, and apart from the main exhibition building and its principal
annexes, the entire surface intervening will be covered with the pavilions
of States and nations, costly buildings (erected by individuals to display
special exhibits), fountains, statues, vases and shrubbery, which, with a
lake of pure water three acres in extent and the parterre of flowers of
native and exotic plants surrounding the Horticultural Building and inter-
spersed over the ground, will, with other features presented by the beautiful
Park, afford an enchanting scene.
A careful survey of the grounds made it appareut that it was indispen-
sable for the preservation of uninterrupted intercourse between the build-
ings, and that access might be obtained from one portion of the enclosure
to another by the shortest lines, that the whole of the two ravines known
as Lansdowne and Belmont should be included within the exhibition
boundaries ; and as this line will interrupt the travel on the Park road to
Belmont, Chamouni and George's Hill, we have determined, with the assent
of the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, to construct two bridges, cross-
ing the ravines where they open into the Schuylkill, and by these to divert
the road from Sweetbrier Vale along the river, and from thence to continue
it on the north side of the exhibition line to a point where it will intersect
the road now travelled.
Drainage. — A system of drainage for the buildings and grounds has
been devised which will promote the convenience of the occupants and
visitors and serve the purposes of utility and health.
Water. — As an abundant supply of water for all the purposes of the
exhibition is indispensable, temporary pumping-works have been erected
at the river Schuylkill for a supply of not less than 4,000,000 gallons per
day for use within the exhibition enclosure, which will render it entirely
independent for a full supply of this indispensable element.
Gas. — The trustees of the City Gas- Works have shown a just appre-
ciation of the requirements of the exhibition and surrounding avenues for
a supply of gas by making arrangements to lay their mains to Belmont
680 BURLEY'S UNITED STATES
and Elm avenues, from which points it will be supplied in quantities
desired by service-pipe within the enclosure.
Transportation.— It is a cause of congratulation that, whether as
to materials for exhibition or visitors to the exhibition, the arrangement*
are as perfect for their approach as it is possible to have them. The steam
roads which connect with the grounds of the exhibition connect also with
the wharves in Philadelphia and all the railroads entering the city, so that
from abroad or our own country no transshipments are required, and the
approaches from the various parts of our extended city will be made
equally convenient by many horse railroads and some of the steam roads,
which will set down their passengers immediately at the entrance.
EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE BOARD OF
FINANCE OF APRIL 23, 1875.
Buildings and Grounds.— Within the year last past much pro-
gress has been made in the work of preparation of suitable buildings for
the exhibition and the preparatory adaptation of the grounds. A con-
tract has been made with Richard J. Dobbins for the erection and con-
struction of the permanent " Memorial Building," to be used in 1876 as an
Art Gallery, and for its final completion on the first day of January, 187(1.
This building, 365 feet in length, with a width of 210 feet, requires more
time for its completion than the other structures, because of its per-
manent and massive character, the materials composing it being granite,
iron, brick and glass. The first work in the excavation of the cellar
was done on the 4th day of July, 1874, and the building at this time
has assumed such proportions in its progress that all doubts of the
ability of the contractor to perform the requirements of his agreement
within the time allotted to him have been dispelled. The design is
in the Renaissance style of architecture; and as its form rises day by
day, enveloped in solid blocks of granite, hewn from the quarries of
Virginia, New Hampshire and Maine, it fully meets the expectations of
your Board, and those associated with them in its superintendence, as a
graceful and appropriate memorial building of the great event, the mem-
ory of which it is intended to perpetuate. The undertaking required more
work to he done in a shorter space of time than was ever accomplished on
any building which can be reasonably compared with it. Time, however,
in tin- instance, is of the essence of the contract ; and Mr. Dobbins' progress
thus far in its erection, with the accumulation of wrought material for the
portion yet to be done, and facilities for transportation and building, give
your Board, who are familiar with the details, the confidence expressed.
The contract price of the building is $1,199,213, and the appropriation by
the State of Pennsylvania and city of Philadelphia of -51,500,000 will be
CENTENNIAL GAZETTEER AND GUIDE. 681
sufficient to cover all the expenses for heating, terracing, lighting, extra
work and unforeseen contingencies which may be developed in the progress
Main Building. — The Main or Industrial Building, 1880 feet in
length and 464 feet in width, to be constructed with a frame of iron,
was also awarded to Richard J. Dobbins in July, 1874. The foundations
for this building, consisting of 672 stone piers, were built during the
last autumn, and are ready to support the superstructure. The contract
time for the completion of the buiMing is January 1, 1876, and since the
award the materials have been prepared in the mills, shops and glass-
works, and quantities are now on the ground ready for use. Some idea of
the large amount of material which enters into the requirements of a struc-
ture covering twenty acres may be formed from the statement that to com-
plete it 3928 tons of iron must be rolled and fitted, 237,646 square feet
of glass made and set, 1,075,000 square feet of tin roof sheeting (equal to
24f acres) welded and spread. This material has been prepared and made
ready for use as fast as it could be handled on the ground. The work for
erection commences with the present week. The agreement provides that
the west wing of the building shall be erected by the first day of Septem-
ber, the east wing by the first day of October, the central pavilion and
towers by November 1, 1875, and the whole building by January 1, 1876.
It is possible and probable that the entire framework will be erected before
the first day of September ; and as the roofing, glazing, painting, flooring
and finishing of the part first erected commences with the erection of the
first spans, we have much confidence that the contractor will be able to an-
ticipate the time fixed for the delivery of the completed building. The
consideration for this building, enlarged from the original design, is
$1,420,000, exclusive of drainage, water-pipe, plumbing, painting and
Machinery Building. — This building, 1402 feet in length and
360 in width, with an annex on the south side of 208x210 feet, providing
14 acres of floor space, was contracted for by Philip Quigley, of Wilming-
ton, Del., January 27 of the present year. The contractor has worked out
his material and shown commendable energy in pushing forward the work
of erection, which he has already commenced. The contract requires its
delivery by October 1, 1875, but he fully expects to entirely complete more