T. G. (Thomas George) Bonney.

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(Napoleon, 1815) to Grenoble. (9) 1865. In the Savoy Alps and Western
Oberland. (10) 1867. To Pontresina by the Albula Pass; thence by the Val
Viola and Stelvio to Trafoi, Botzen, the Pusterthal and the Cortina district,
returning by the Brenner, (n) 1868. Zigzag route in Glarus Alps to Coire,
thence to Pontresina, the Ortler district, and Western Tyrol, returning by the
Achensee to Munich. (12) 1870. In the Oberland. (13) 1872. The Brenner
to Botzen; through the Dolomites to Lienz, and "across country" to Salzburg;
the Salzkammergut. (14) 1873. By Arlberg and upper valley of Inn to
Pontresina ; thence by the Italian Lakes along southern valleys of the Pennines
to Zermatt and Val d'Herens. (15) 1874. By Western Oberland and St. Lue
to Zermatt, leaving by Val d'Herens. (16) 1875. About the Pennines between

375



Appendix I



Zermatt, Courmayeur, and Chamonix. (17) 1878. Italian Lakes and St.
Gotthard (halts on return from Italy). (18) 1880. To Pontresina by Albula
Pass ; thence south of the Bernina and eastward by the Adamello district to the
Dolomites, returning by Brenner. (19) 1881. Saas district ; Simplon, excursion
to Lago Maggiore ; Eggischhorn, and Belalp. (20) 1883. Lepontine Alps and
Belalp. (21) 1885. Across the Alps from Maderanerthal to Italian Lakes,
returning by Great St. Bernard, Champery, and Sixt. (22) 1887. Across the
Alps through Dauphine and through the Tyrol, from head of Pusterthal to
Kitzbiihel ; approaching by Lago di Garda and Trent, and returning by the Inn
valley and Arlberg. (23) 1889. Lepontine Alps and Zermatt. (24) 1891. To
Lepontine Alps by the Grimsel, and then to Saas district ; excursions from
Rhone valley on return. (25) 1893. Lepontine Alps. By Bernardino Pass to
Coire and Pontresina, returning vid Davos. (26) 1895. B Y Gemmi Pass to
Zinal, returning by Grimsel. (27) 1896. District about Splugen, Bernardino,
and Lukmanier Passes, returning by the St. Gotthard. (28) 1897. Val Piora
and Lower Haslithal. (29) 1900. Arolla ; halts in Rhone valley. (30) 1901.
Saas district. (31) 1902. By St. Gotthard, Orta, and Biella, to Val d'Aoste and
Cogne, returning by Little St. Bernard. (32) 1903. Val d'Anniviers. (33) 1905.
Saas district. (34) 1907. Saas district and Val d'Ossola. (35) 1911. Airolo
and Grindelwald.

In the course of these travels I have made, not reckoning walks without any
special aim, about no definite ascents, 65 of them up to or above 10,000 feet,
and have crossed, almost always on foot, more than 170 passes, 36 of them above
that altitude, so that, as my ramblings have extended from the Viso to the
Salzkammergut, I may claim to have acquired a fair knowledge of the chain. On
some of these journeys I was alone ; on four I was with near relations, who could
not undertake laborious excursions ; in more than half I fortunately had travelling
companions. Of them, I regret to say, death has deprived me of W. and G. S.
Mathews, R. W. Taylor, and E. Walton ; but there still remain J. C. Hawkshaw,
W. G. Adams, J. Parkinson, J. Eccles, and E. Hill, the comrade of several
journeys, beginning with 1880. To the last-named three I am indebted for much
help in working out geological questions.

The following is a list of my papers dealing with Alpine physiographical or
petrological questions l :

On the Formation of Cirques. Q.J., 1871, p. 312.

Lakes of the North-Eastern Alps, and their bearing on the Glacier-
Erosion Theory. Q.J., 1873, P- 3&2.

Notes on the Upper Engadine and the Italian Valleys of Monte Rosa, &c.
Q.J., 1874, p. 479.

Some Notes on Glaciers. G.M., 1876, p. 197.

On Mr. Helland's Theory of the Formation of Cirques. G.M., 1877,
p- 273.

On some specimens of Gabbro irom the Pennine Alps. M.M., 1879, p. 5.

On some Serpentines from the Rhaetian Alps. G.M., 1880, p. 538.

On a supposed case of Metamorphism in an Alpine rock of Carboniferous
Age. G.M., 1883, p. 507.

Note on the Nagelflue of the Rigi and Rossberg. G.M., 1883, p. 511.

1 The following abbreviations are used in the references: A.J. = Alpine Journal. B.A. =
British Association. G.J. = Geographical Journal. G.M. = Geological Magazine. M.M. =
Mineralogical Magazine. G.A. = Geologists' Association Proceedings. P.M. = Philosophical
Magazine. QJ. = Quarterly Journal of Geological Society. (Some of the titles are condensed.)



376



Appendix I



Presidential Address to Geological Society. Q.J., 1886, p. 49 (proc.).

On a Glaucophane Eclogite from the Val d'Aoste. M.M., 1887, p. i.

On a variety of Glaucophane from the Val Chisone. M.M., 1887, p. 191.

Origin of Banded Gneisses. G.M., 1887, p. 573.

Rounding of Pebbles by Alpine Rivers. G.M., 1888, p. 54.

Notes on two Traverses of the Crystalline Rocks of the Alps. Q.J. ,
1889, p. 67.

On the Crystalline Schists and their Relation to the Mesozoic Rocks in
the Alps. Q.J., 1890, p. 187.

The Effects of Pressure on Crystalline Limestones. G.M., 1889, p. 483.

Note on the Effect of Pressure upon Serpentine in the Pennine Alps.
G.M., 1890, p. 533.

Petrological Notes on the Euphotide of the Saas-thal. P.M., 1892, p. 237.

Growth and Sculpture of the Alps. A.J., vol. xiv., pp. 38, 105, 221.

On the so-called Gneiss of Carboniferous Age at Guttannen. Q.J> 1892,
p. 390.

Do Glaciers Excavate? G.J., 1893, p. 481.

Note on the Nufenenstock. Q.J., 1893, p. 89.

On some Schistose Greenstones and Allied Hornblende Schists. Q.J.,
p. 94.

On a Secondary Development of Biotite and Hornblende in Crystalline
Schists, &c. Q.J., p. 104.

On some Quartz-schists from the Alps. G.M., 1893, p. 204.

Some cases of the Conversion of Compact Greenstones into Schists.
Q.J., 1894, p. 279.

Mesozoic Rocks and Crystalline Schists in the Lepontine Alps. Q.J.,
1894, p. 285.

Some Notes on Gneiss. G.M., 1894, p. 114.

On an Alpine Nickel-bearing Serpentine with Fulgurites. Q.J., 1896,
p. 452 (with E. Aston).

On a Pebbly Quartz-schist from the Val d'Anniviers. G.M., 1896, p. 400.

The Kirchet and its Critics. A.J., 1897, p. 29,

Additional Note on Sections near Summit of Furka Pass. Q.J., 1897,
p. 16.

Note on an Ovenstone (Talcose-schist) from near Zinal. G.M., 1897,
p. no.

Outline of Petrology and Physical History of the Alps. G.A., 1897, p. I.

Garnet-actinolite Schists on Southern Side of the St. Gotthard Pass.
Q.J., 1898, p. 357.

Some small Lake-basins in the Lepontine Alps. G.M., 1898, p. 15.

Plant-stems in the Guttannen Gneiss. G.M., 1900, p. 215.

Schists in the Lepontine Alps. G.M., 1901, p. 161.

Alpine Valleys in Relation to Glaciers. Q.J., 1902, p. 185.

Moraines and Mud-streams in the Alps. G.M., 1902, p. 8.

The Magnetite Mines near Cogne. Q-J-, 1903, p. 55.

Microscopic Structure of Serpentine-forming Minerals, &c. (including
Alpine). QJ-, 1905, p. 690 (with Dr. C. A. Raisin).

Southern Origin of Northern Zone of Savoy Alps. Q.J., 1907, p. 294.

Antigorite and the Val Antigorio. QJ., 1908, p. 152.

Presidential Address (on Icework). B.A., 1911, p. 3.

377



APPENDIX II

NOTES ON THE FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

1. (Frontispiece). Crags of the Galenstock. From the Galen-sattel. A view

from the Oberland to illustrate the splintered character of the Slaty
Crystallines. See pages 93-96.

2. Mont Blanc and Aiguilles des Charmoz. A characteristic illustration of the

scenery of the Slaty Crystallines (protogine more or less fissile). See
page 93.

3. Dolomite Peaks from the Marmolata. The Antelao is on the left ; in the

centre (nearer) the Civetta ; on the right the Pelmo. Illustrates the
scenery of this variety (Dachstein Dolomite) of the Compact Coherents.
See pages 23, 99.

4. View from Froppa Glacier, Marmarola. Another characteristic view of

Dolomite Peaks. Page 102.

5. Northern side of Aiguilles des Charmoz. This point of view brings out

even more strongly the splintered aspect of the Slaty Crystallines. See
pages 93-96.

6. The Wetterhorn near Grindelwald. A very characteristic example of the

scenery of the Compact Coherents (limestone). See page 81.

7. The Cinque Torre. The Dolomite rock in a far stage of ruin. See page

101, where the woodcut is from a sketch made by myself in 1867.

8. The Drei Zinnen. One of the most striking examples of the "ruined

fortress " character of this variety (Dachstein Dolomite) of the Compact
Coherents. See page 100.

9. Bergschrund of a glacier. A very characteristic example from near the Col

du Geant. Pages 106, 134.

10. Upper snowfields of the Ortler. Shows the bergschrund at the foot of the

steep snowslopes which rest on the ridges of rock. The track of the
travellers can be seen rather below it. If my memory is correct (after
forty-five years) the summit of the Otler appears on the right. See
page 106, in.

11. Icefall of the Rhone Glacier. The view is taken from the Furka Road and

includes a considerable part of the glacier. See page 139.

12. Moraines of the Ober Aletsch Glacier from the Sparrenhorn. In this view

the medial moraines are very distinct. See page 140.

13. Gorge of the Trient. Illustrates the gorges common in the rocky steps ol

" hanging " valleys. This is cut in the gneiss, and opens into the Rhone
Valley at Vernayaz. Note the potholes on the walls of the gorge. See
page 187.

14. Crevasses on a glacier. A characteristic view of the crevasses on a broken

378



Appendix II



part of a glacier (probably the Corner) rather below the snow-line. See
page 139.

15. Moraines of the Gross Aletsch Glacier. The view is from the Belalp. One

medial moraine is very conspicuous, and we can note the gradual dis-
persion of other and smaller by the formation of crevasses nearer the
side. See page 140.

16. A glacier table. A large boulder supported by a pedestal of ice. The

bystander will serve as a scale. See page 143.

17. Pierre-a-bot, near Neuchatel. An erratic from the Mont Blanc range. See

page 144.

18. Dirt-bands on a glacier, Mer de Glace. See page 146.

19. The Glacier Garden, Lucerne. Great potholes "Giants' Kettles," the relics

of moulins of a vanished glacier. See page 147.

20. End of Pre de Bar Glacier. This glacier is on the southern side of the Mont

Blanc range near its eastern end (Col Dolent). The photograph illus-
trates the lobe-like outline assumed by the end of a glacier when free
from obstacles. See page 141.

21. View down the Saasthal. The photograph was taken looking down on Saas

Grund from an alp near the path between Saas Fee and Almagell. It
shows the steep slopes characteristic of the lower part of the valley and
the gentler curves of the upper parts. See page 186.

22. Ice-worn rocks near the Grimsel. This ice-worn buttress of gneiss, on the

left bank of the Aar, a short distance below the Grimsel Hospice, is
the finest example of a Roche Moutonnte which I have seen in the Alps.
See pages 148, 187.

23. Lago Ritom. In the Val Piora, Lepontine Alps. A characteristic view of

one of the small and high-lying Alpine lakes. The step at the head is
mentioned page 194. See pages 182, 194.

24. Val Tournanche, uppermost part. The view gives a good idea of the rather

flat step or "basin" not uncommon towards the head of some of the
Alpine valleys. See page 186.

25. Avalanche on the Wetterhorn. This view, taken on the way to the Great

Scheidegg from Grindelwald, represents one of the comparatively small
avalanches which may be seen on this mountain and still more fre-
quently on the Jungfrau. The avalanche, about the middle of the cliffs,
looks like a small waterfall. See page 221.

26. The Marjelen See. The photograph was taken about four years ago. See

page 229.

27. St. Cyprian and the Rosengarten group. This sketch by Mr. E. T. Compton

represents a characteristic piece of valley, village, and mountain scenery
in the Dolomites.

28. A street in Zermatt. A very characteristic view in one of the log-built alpine

villages. The porch of the church is visible down the street. From
a sketch by Mr. Joseph Pennell. See page 337.

29. Before the Hotel Mont Rose, Zermatt. On the left is the well-known wall

bounding " The Club Room of Zermatt," drawn by E. Whymper in 1864
("Scrambles amongst the Alps," page 264, where many of the best-
known climbers of that day are introduced). See page 357.

30. On a snow arete. Climbers crossing the head of a couloir just below an arete.

See page 367.

379



Appendix II



31. A mountain hut. The photographs represent (i) The outside. (2) The inside

of one of the little mountain huts, often more than 8,000 feet above sea-
level, for which climbers are largely indebted to foreign Alpine Clubs.
Page 364.

32. On steep rocks. Another incident in mountain climbing. Page 367.

I am indebted to the kindness of the following friends for photographs repro-
duced in this volume. For I (Frontispiece), n, 17, 21, 26 to Mr. J. J. Lister,
F.R.S. ; for 5, 9, 12, 13, 16, 18, 19, 20 to Dr. Tempest Anderson, F.G.S. ; for 6
to the Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, President 01 Queens' College, Cambridge ; for 22
to Mr. J. Eccles, F.G.S. (and to Messrs. Kegan Paul &. Co. for a cliche of
the block) ; for 23 to Prof. E. J. Garwood. I have also to thank Mr. E. T.
Compton for illustration 27 ; Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond for 10, 14, 15, 25, 31 ; and
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin for 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32.



380



INDEX



ADAMELLO, 92

Adige (Etsch), 161

After-glow, 250

Agriculture, 333-5

Aletsch glacier, 108, 229

Algze, 274

Alpine Club, English, 359; Swiss,

363 ; French, 363 ; German, 363
Alpine Journal, cited, 138, 168, 222,

224, 230, 245, 254, 281, 313, 363
Altels, avalanche from the, 223
Androsace (A. helvetica), 264
Anemone (A. sulfurea ; A. montana),

261 ; A. Halkri, 262
Asbestos, 216
Architecture, 337-8
Atmosphere, rarity of, 235, 239 ;

transparency of, 248, 251 ; aqueous

vapour in, 250
Augen-gneiss, 16, 27, 32
Austrians engage French and Russians,

320-2
Avalanches, "dust," 219; "ground,"

219-20; ice, 221-4; rock, 224-7;

mud. 227

BAEDEKER'S Guide, cited, 235, 345,

352, 365

Baillie-Grohman, cited, 284, 286, 289
Ball's "Alpine Guide," cited, 108, 109,

116, 123, 124, 127, 128, 205, 276,

3H

Barbery (Berberis vulgaris), 258
Barriers of rock, 197-9
Basaltic rock, 41
Bears, 276
Beavers, 278



Bern, Geological Museum, 59, 60;

changes in town, 355
Bilberry (Vacciniunt myrtillus), 258
Birds of prey, 290-2 ; game birds,

293-4 ; smaller birds, 294-5
Bernard, Great St., morgue on, 317;

see Passes

Bernard, Little St., see Passes
Boner, Charles, cited, 281
Botzen, Dolomite mountains near, 43 ;

earth-pillars near, 203
Breccias, 21, 48-50
Browne, Rt. Rev. G. F., on Glacieres,

cited, 207
Butterflies, 300-2

CALVIN, 116

Campion (Lychnis), 259, 262

Caves, 206-9

Chamois, 280-7

Chestnut, Spanish, 258

Charpentier, De, cited, 136, 143, 144

Chlorite, 216

Chough, 292

Cirque, 173, 180, 182-3, 190, 194

Climbers and Climbing, 366-7

Clouds, 240-3

Clover (Trifolium), 259

Coherents, compact and slaty, 90, 96

Columbine (Aquilegia atrata), 259;

(A. alpind)) 261
Compact coherents, 90, 96 ; compact

crystallines, 88, 91, 92
Conway, Sir Martin, cited, 228
Coolidge, W. A. B., cited, no, 114,

276, 291, 312, 315, 327, 331, 333
Copper, 215

381



Index



Coral formations, 42, 43, 47
Corrie, sec Cirque

Cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idcza) , 258
Cretaceous rocks, 45
Carboniferous rocks, distribution of, 21,
36 ; composition of, 37 ; where found,

85

Crystalline rocks, 12, 27, 79, 85 ; com-
pact, 88 ; slaty, 89

Cultivation, line of, 257

Crystalline schists, 35, 56-68

Cyclamen, 259

DAUPHINE, 86, 94

Denudation by glaciers, 178-9, 186 ;

by rivers, 179, 185, 190, 191 ; by

avalanches, 219
Devil's Bridge, 348
" Dip " and " Strike " valleys, 154
Dirt-bands on glaciers, 146
Dolomites, 22-3, 42, 43, 96-102

EARTH-PILLARS, 203-5, 22 7
Edelweiss, 263-4
Elder (Sambucus ebulus), 258
Elm, landslip at, 226
Eocene rocks, 46, 52
Eritrichium nanum, 265

FAULTING (overthrust), 81-5

Fee Glacier, 117, 186

Felspar, 29, 218

Ferns, 270-2

Fish, 297-9

Floods, 229-32

Flora, true Alpine, 260, 261

Flysch, 24, 46, 47, 48, 49

Fohn, 247

Folding, 74, 79-84

Foliation, 14-17, 199

Forbes, J. D., cited, 107, 135, 146

Fossils at Col d'Anterne, 21 ; in the
Flysch, 24, in Silurian rock, 36 ;
Carboniferous, 36, 37, 61 ; Cretace-
ous, 46, 48; Miocene, 52, 54; sup-
posed, at Guttannen, 59

Foxes, 277

Foxglove (Digitalis lutea), 259



GABBRO, 92

Galize, Co de la, crossed in sixteenth
century, 128

Garnets, 30, 64, 217

Garwood, Prof., cited, 191, 193, 199,
200, 201

Geikie, Prof. J., cited, 142

Gentians, 258, 262, 265

Geum, 262

Gilbert and Churchill (quoted), 100,
102

Glaciers, Bernina group, III
Oberland group, 113
Pennine group, 115
Confluence of, 119
Mont Blanc group, 122, 125
Graian group, 126
Dauphine group, 130
formation of, 134
veined structure of, 134-5
motion of, 136-8
mean movement of, 138
retreat of, 149, 157
erosive agency of, 178-9, 202
as dams, 229
See also Moraines

Glacier generating line, 109

Glacieres, 207-10

Glacial age, 149, 179, 192

Glacier ice, plastic nature of, 138

Gneiss, 13, 14, 28; origin of, 18, 20,

29, 35
Gold, 214
Golden ball (Trollius Europaus),

260

Grand Combin, 122, 361
Grass of Parnassus, 259
Green schists, 31, 32
Grindelwald, Lower Glacier of, 189
Guttannen, supposed fossils at, 59-61

HABKERENTHAL, 48-9

Hanging valleys, 166

Hannibal's passage of the Alps, 312-13

Hare, 278

Harebell (Campanula), 259

Hippurites, 46

382



Index



Hornblende, 31, 32,216
Hotels, 352

INN, river, 159, 167 ; valley of, 169
Insects, 303-7
Iron mines, 215

JOHNSON, W. D., cited, 181
Jurassic rocks, 23, 43, 82

" KNOT and prism " rocks, 67-8
Kyanite, 217

LADY'S slipper (Cypripedium calceola),

259

Lake-dwellings, 309

Lakes, formation of, 200-2, 228 ; sub-
glacial, 230 ; colour of water, 249 ;
storms on, 250

Landslips, 224-7

Languages spoken in Alps, 330-1

Larkspur (Delphinium alpinuni), 259

Lavas, 40

Lichens, 273

Lily, martagon, 260; St. Bruno's, '"260

Limestone rocks, 24, 81, 82, 186, 187

Lugeon, Prof., 82, 83

MACUGNAGA, 117
Manufactures, 332
Marine conditions on site of Alps, 36 ?

42, 44

Marine beds, 252
Marjelen See, 229
Marmot, 279
Matterhorn, 96, 119, 177
Meije, 82

Mesozoic rocks, 22
Meteorological observations, 234
Mica schists, 14, 28
Minerals, 214-18
Miocene rocks, 52-5, 159; Alps, 178,

196 ; fauna of Miocene c.ge, 54
Mistletoe, on firs, 268
Molluscs, 300

Monkshood (Aconitum napellus), 258
Monro, Dr., cited, 309



Mont Blanc, 87 ; observatory on, 235

Mont Collon, 92

Mont Iseran, a pass, 128

Monte Viso, 176

Moraines, lateral, 140 ; terminal, 140-2 ;

ground, 145 ; Dora Baltea, 142
Mosses, 273

Mosso, Dr. A., cited, 234
Moths, 302
Moulins, 147
Mountain-sickness, 236, 238-40

NAGELFLUHE, 25, 53, 96, 192
Napoleon, 318, 322
Narcissus, 260
Neocomian system, 24, 45
Neolithic man, 308, 330
Nummulites, 47

OBERGESTELEN, 221
Oligocene period, 24 (note)
Olivine, 33, 35, 215
Otters, 278

PASSES, chief Mont Genevre, 315;
Mont Cenis, 315 ; Little St. Bernard,
316 ; Great St. Bernard, 317 ; Monte
Moro, 317 ; Antrona, 317 ; Simplon,
318 ; Gemmi, 318 ; Grimsel, 318 ;
Furka, 318 ; St. Gotthard, 319 ; Luk-
manier, 322 ; San Bernardino, 322 ;
Spliigen, 323; Septimer, 323; Arl-
berg, 324 ; Flliela, 324 ; Albula, 324 ;
Julier, 324-5 ; Bernina, 325 ; Maloja,
!59> *67, 325 ; Stelvio, 326 ; Brenner,
73> 176, 327 ; Ampezzo, 171, 328

Peasantry, 335-9

Penck and Bruckner, cited, 149, 165,
185, 192

" Perched blocks," 143-4

Permian rocks, 22

Persicaria, 259

Phyllites, 61, 69

Piedmontite, 217

Pliocene rocks, 55 ; age, 196

" Plucking," 181

Primula, 260



383



Index



QUARTZ, 30, 218

RAILWAYS, 343-6

Rainfall, 252

Ramsay, Sir A., cited, 179, 200

Randa, 222

Ranunculus, 261, 265

Rauchwacke, 41, 64

Rhododendron, 260

Rigi, 53, 96

Ritom, Lago, 182, 194

Roche Melon, shrine on, 129 ; struck

by lightning, 245
Roman remains, 314, 325
Rossberg, 225
Rubus saxatilis, 258
Ruskin, cited, 90, 199, 240, 260, 266,

273

SAAS, 1 86

Sallow-thorn (Hippophce rhamnoides)*

258

" Sapping," 1 80

Saussure, De, 124, 137, 234, 287, 306
Saxifrages, 259, 265
Sedum, 259, 260
Seracs, 125, 139, 221
Serpentine, 33-4, 215
Silene acaulis^ 263, 264
Silurian rocks, where found in Alps,

21, 35 ; composition, 36
Silver, 214
Sky, colour of, 249
Slaty coherents, 90 ; id. crystallines, 21,

89,93

Snakes, 295-7
Snow-line, 103-5, 195
Sollas, Prof., experiments of, 145
Springs, mineral, 211-14
Squirrel, 278



Stag, 280

Steinbock (Copra ibex}) 287-90
Steps in valleys, 191-9
Strawberry, 258

TABLE, Glacier, 143

Talc-schist, 216

Temperature in Pliocene period, 195 ;

in Ice Age, 192
Thrust-faulting, 81, 84
Thunderstorms, 243-6
Thyme, 259
Titian, 102

Toblacher Plateau, 170
Trees, 266-9
Triassic rocks, 40-42
Tschudi, cited, 277, 291
Tuckett, F. F., cited, 245
Tunnels, Mont Cenis, 316, 344; St.

Gotthard, 319, 344; Simplon, 317,

344 ; Albula, 345
Tyndall, on glaciers, 135, 137, 146, 163,

250, 253

VALLEYS, formation of, 163-6, 168
Vaudois, 207,331, 338
Verrucano, 22, 39
Villages, 337
Vine, 257-8

WALLENSTADT, Lake, Mountains south

of, 80
Watershed of the Alps, 78, 84, 86, 1 18 ;

of the Cottian Alps, 156 ; of the

Pennine Alps, 174
Weisshorn, 177
Wetterhorn, 189

Whymper, E., cited, 205, 316, 350
Winter sports, 368-9
Wolves, 277



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