T. K. (Thomas Kelly) Cheyne.

Encyclopaedia Biblica : a critical dictionary of the literary, political, and religious history, the archaeology, geography, and natural history of the Bible (Volume 1) online

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place of Herod the Great, who gave it various buildings
(Jos. /y/i. 2I11); and was afterwards the residence of
his sister Salome (Jos. /V/ii. t).!). It is said to base
Ijeen ' burnt to the ground ' by the Jews in their revolt
against Rome (Jos. yy/ii. I81), but then to have
repulsed the enemy twice {ib. iii. '212). In Roman times
it was a centre of Hellenic scholarship ; antl under the
Arabs, who called it the ' Bride ' and the ' .Summit of
Syria,' was a frequent object of struggle. It was taken
by the Christians in 1154 ; retaken by ."^aladin in 1187 ;
dismantled and then rebuilt by Richard in 1192 (cp
Vinsauf, Itin. Ricard. {)\ff.)\ and finally demolished
in 1270. There are considerable ruins, which have
been described by Gu^riu {Jiui. 2153-171}, and, best
and most recently, by Gulhe {ZDJT 'lii^ ff. , with
plan; cp /"/iV-' J/*"///. 3 237-247). The neighbourhood
is well w.atered and exceedinglj' fertile, the Ascaloma
cicpa, scallion (shallot) or onion of Ascalon, being among
its characteristic products. See, further, PuiLlsTiNKS,
and, for Rabbinical references, Hildesheimer, Jieilr.
zur Ceoiir. FaUistinas, \ ff. G. A. s.

ASHKENAZ (n^C'wN' ; acxanaz [BADEL] ; .is-
CK.Mi/.). The people of Ashkenaz are mentioned in
Gen. IO3 and ((\cxeNez [A]) i'l ;i 1 Ch. 1 6 in connection
with Gomer ; in Jer. 51 271 (acxanazcOC or -aiOC
[Bis-\], acka. [Q]) after Minni. There is no occasion
to connect their name with the propier name Askanios in
Hom. //. 2862 18793, nor with the Ascanian triljes in
Phrygia and Bithynia, and infer that the original home of
Ashkenaz was in Phrygia (Lenormant, E. Meyer, Di. ).
Rather Ashkenaz must have been one of the migratory
peoples which in the time of Esar-haddon burst upon
the northern provinces of .Asia Minor, and upon .Armenia.
One branch of this great migration appears to have
reached Lake Urumiyeh ; for in the revolt which Esar-
haddon chastised (i R 45, col. 2, 27 jf.), the Mannai,
who lived to the SW. of that lake, sought the help
of Ispakai 'of the land of Asguza,' a name (originally
perhaps Asgunza) which the scepticism of Dillmann
need not hinder us from identifying with Ashkenaz, and
from considering as that of a horde from the north, of
I ndo- Germanic origin, which settled on the south of
Lake Urumiyeh. (See Schr. COT'I^gs; \Vi. GBA
269; ^7^6488491; similarly Friedr. Del., Sayce,
Knudlzon. ) T. K. C.

ASHNAH (^3E^'^^^ acna [AL]). the name of two
unidentified sites in the lowland of Judah ; one apparently
in the more north-easterly portion (Josh. 1633 accA
[B]), the other nuich farther south (I543, iana [BJ,
ACeNNA[A], -CANN. [I-]t).

ASH-PAN (nnnO), i K. 75o.Wn>ir.; see Censer, 2.

ASHPENAZ (T^Bt^N, ABiecApi ['], [rcol ac<J)A-
Nez [ Theod. B.\]), chief of the eunuchs under Nebuchad-



rezzar (Dan. I3). The current explanations are un-
tenable,^ and the cause is obvious. The name is
corrupt, and has been brought into a delusive resem-
blance to Ashkenaz. An earlier form of the name,
equally corrupt, and brought into an eciually delusive
resemblance to an ancient Hebrew name, is Abiezri
(niyax ; see Ahiezer, i) ; this is the form adopted by @.
What is the original name concealed in these two
api)arently dissimilar forms ? enables us to discover
it by its reading, evidently more nearly accurate than
that of MT in Dan. 1 11 /cai direv ^avtrjX 'A^Le<rdpi rip
di'ttSetx^^"'''' apxtevMovxij) eTri rbv AavirjX. . . . The
MT indeed, in tv. ii 16, represents Daniel as com-
numicating with a third person called Melzar, or ' the
Melzar' ; but a comparison of i/z'. 37-1018 shows that
this representation must be incorrect. It was the ' prince
of the eunuchs ' that Daniel must have addressed in
t'. II ; a slight transposition and a change of one point
are indispensable (see Mici.ZAU). We have now, there-
fore, four forms to compare ; (a) nrj'zx, (''') usui<,
{c) i^hcn, and (rf) n^'ca^ (Fesh. in v. n). Of these,
(a), (c), and (d), virtually agree as to the last two letters
(if in a we neglect the final ', which is not recognised in
Syro-Hex. or by l""phrem). These letters are n^-. Next,
{a), {d), (t), and((/)agree as to the presence of a labial ; the
first two arefor a mute, the others for a liquid. Also(i^)and
{c) attest a S ora 3, and (a) and (</) a ', which might be a
fragment of a *?, while (/;) and (d) present us with a a, of
which they in (a) looks like a fragment. Next, (a),{i),and
(r) attestan n or a n, and lastly, (a), (c), and {d) agree as to
1. The almost inevitable conclusion is that the name
of the chief eunuch was -li-Nti''?^, commonly pronounced
Belshazzar. Tliis is not the only occasion on which the
name Balsarezer ( = Belshazzar) has suffered in trans-
mission (see BiLSHAN, Sakkzkk). t. k. c.


("pNnb'N), iCh. 714AV, RVAsrihl.

ASHTAROTH {n)-\n^'Vi.e., Ashtoreth in her
different representations ; ACTApooe [BAL], -T&fOO.
[n'' Josh. 9 10], AcGakpoOM [A Josh. 1831] ; the adjective
is Ashterathite, 'ri^Flt^'y, o (\CTAptoe[e]i [BA], eecT.
[.i]. ec0Ap6oei [L], I Ch. 1144). Ashteroth-Karnaim

(*3"li? niri'J'J? ; ACT<Npa)e Kd,pN<MN [A], -Tep- KA.IN.

[!:]) i.e. , ' Ashtaroth of the two horns ' ? ' Ashtaroth
of (=near) Karnaini ' ?) in Uen. 145,^ and Be-esh-
terah (n-irT_;'J?3, i.e., ny}:;^^, D'Z, or 'house of
Pf Astarte'; Bocopan[B], -ppA[L], Bee-

1. Keierences. ^^^^ ^^^^^ j^ ^^^^ 2i 27, but nnnE^y

simply in Dt. I4 Josh. 9iol24 I31231, where it appears,
along with Edrei, as a chief city of Og, king of Bashan ;
and in i Ch. 656 [71] (ACHpooB [B] pAMa)e [A^']) as a
Levitical city. Then, in Am. 613 (Griitz's restored
reading) we have Karnaim as the name of a city E.
of the Jordan taken by Israel, and in i and 2 Mace.
Karnaim or Karnion as a city in Gilead with a temple
of Atargatis [t/.i'.] attached to it. The lists of
Thotmes III. {circa 1650 B.C.) contain an 'A-s-ti-ra-tu
(AV-'(-')545 ; WMM, As. u. Eur. 162, 313 ; cp Ashtarti"
Bezold and Budge, Tell el-Amarna Tabl. in B}-it. Mii.
43, 64). Whether these names represent one place or
two places is, on the biblical data, uncertain.

It is significant, however, that Eusebius and Jerome

1 For example, Halivy compares Pers. aspanj, 'hospitium'
{/As., 188 !, 228jy;) ; Nestle too explains ' hospes ' from the
Armenian 0fari^. 38). Frd. Del. and .Schr. offer no explanation.

2 If sve adopt the form Ti'JO. ^ slight difference in the summa-
tion will be the result.

* Here it is described as the abode of the Rephaim at the time
of the invasion of Chedorlaomer. Or were there two neighbour-
ing cities? Kuenen, Buhl, and Siegfr.-St. read ' A.shtaroth <ind
Karnaim,' claiming l as on their side. Probably, however, the
ri^^ht reading is Atrraptofl Kapi/aic [AL] (see Nestle, Marg.).
Moore explains ' the Astarte of the two-peaked mountain ' ; see
especially G. F, Moore, JBL 156^. [97]), and cp col. 336, n. 3.



(05(2) 20961 1 84 s 26898= 108 17) record the existence in

2 The OS '^''"''^ ^^^ '" Batanea of two places called
gi+ga Astaroth-Karnaim, ' which lay 9 R. m.

apart, between Adara (Edrei) and Abila'
of the Decapolis ; one of them, 'the city of Og,'
(say) 6 R. m. from Edrei, the other ' a very large town
of Arabia [in which] they show the house of Job ' ; and
in the Peregrinatio of S. Silva of Aquitaine (4th cent.)
Carneas is mentioned as the place where she saw Job's
house. Now, at the present day there is a Tell 'Ashtarah
on the Bashan plateau, on the W. of Hauran, 21 m. E.
of the Lake of Gahlee (long. 36 E. , lat. 32' 50' N. ),
1900 ft. above the sea ; and 2 m. N. lies El-Merkez,
where the tombs of Job and his wife are shown, and
there was the ancient Christian monastery of Job, while
1 m. farther N. , at Sheikh Sa'd, is a basalt monolith,
with Egyptian figiu-es, known as Job's stone (see Erman,
ZZ)/^/ '15 205-211). In this neighbourhood, then, must
have lain one of the Ashtaroths of the OS. It does
not suit the datum of the latter ' between Adara
and Abila ' ; but this ma}' be one of the not infrequent
inaccuracies of the OS. From this Ashtaroth Eusebius
l^laces the other 9 R. m. distant. Now, 6 R. m. S. ,
near the W. el-Ehrer (the upper Yarmuk), lies Tell el-
Ash' ari, which some (like van Kasteren) take as the
second Ashtaroth.^ This, Buhl [Cicog. 249) prefers to
find 8 R. m. S. of Tell 'Ashtarah in Muzeirlb, the great
station on the //(//road, with a lake and an island with
ruins of pre-Mohammedan fortifications. A market has
been here since the Middle Ages, and the place must
have been important in ancient times. Moreover, it
suits another datum of the OS. in lying about 6 R. m.
from Edrei.

Much more difficult is the question of identifying
any of these sites, or the two Ashtaroths of the OS. ,
OT "t ^^''^ *^^ corresponding names of OT.
SI es. yj^^^gg jjj jj^jg p^^f Qf Palestine have
always been in a state of drift. That Tell 'Ashtarah
is the 'Ashteroth Karnaim of Gen. 14 5 or the 'Ashtaroth
of other texts has in its favour, besides its name, the
existence of a sanctuary, even though this has been
transferred in Christian times to Job. On the other
hand, Muzeirib must have been of too great import-
ance not to be set down to some great place-name
of the OT ; and its accessibi.ity from Edrei suits the
association, frequent in the OT, of the latter with Ash-
toreth. As to the Karnaim of i Mace. 026 (which, of
course, is the same as the Karnaim of Am. 613), it cannot
have been Muzeirib, as Buhl contends, for in such a case
the lake would certainly have been mentioned in con-
nection with the assault of Judas upon it (a lake is
mentioned near Caspis or Casphon \_q.v.'\ which Judas
took previously) ; and in 2 Mace. 12 21 Karnion is said
to be difficult to get at bia. ttjv iravTuiv tQv tottcji'
(TTevoTTjTa. This does not suit Muzeirib, or Tell
'Ashtarah, or Sheikh Sa'd. Furrer, therefore, has sug-
gested for Karnion A'rcn or "Grcn, the .Agraina of the
Romans, in the inaccessible Lejd. Till the various
sites have been dug into and the ancient name of
Muzeirib is recovered, however, we must be content to
know that there was an 'Ashteroth Karnaim near Tell
'Ashta7-ah, and that possibly there was a second site
of the same name in the same region in OT times.

On the whole subject see especially /CDPf xm. xiv. and xv.,
Schumacher, Across the Jordan (203-210), and Buhl, Stud, zur
Topos^r. dcs y.Ostjordanlandcs, 12 JT-t /'' 248-250; also
Moore, JBL It) iS5.ff^-' 'i''"^l> f'^"' ">" Kgyptological explanation of
the name ' Ashtoreth of the two horns,' WMM, As. u. Kur. 313.

G. A. S.

ASHTORETH (JTIPIB'J?), a goddess of the Canaanites

1 Sub A<rr. Kapvaeiv. ~ Sub Kapvaetfi.

3 So Schumacher. ' The double peak of the southern summit
oi Tell el- Ash'ari, formed by the depression running from N.
to S., would make the appellation of K.arnaim, or "double-
horned," extremely appropriate ' {.Across Jordan, 208). In a
Talmudic discussion as to the constructions for the Feast of
Booths it is said that Ashteroth Karnaim was situated between
two mountains which gave much shade {Succa, za; cp Neub.
Ge'o^-. 246). Many regard this statement as purely imaginative.


2. Chaxacter.


and PhoL'nicians. The Massoretic vowel-pointing, which
^ is followed by ICV, gives the word the vowels

of bi'isheth, ' scandalous thing ' (cp Molech
for Melik) ; the true pronunciation, as we know from
tlic dr. 'AffTdprrj (so even "al ; alongside of aarapujO
[HAL]) and from Augustine,* was ''Ashtart.' In the
or the name in the plural (the 'AshUiroth) is coupled
witii the JJaals, in the general sense, ' the heathen
gods anil godilesses,' "^ a usage with which the Assyrian
i/tini u-istardti is compared. Solomon is said to have
built on the Mt. of Olives (i K. II5, cp 33) for the
rhiLnician 'Ashtart a high place, which was destroyed
more tlian three centuries later by Josiah (2 K. 23 13).

( )f the character of this goddess and her religion we
k-aru nothing directly from the O T. Her name docs
not occur either in the prophets or in
historical texts in any other connections
than those cited above ; it is nowhere intimated that the
licentious characteristics of the worship at the high places
were derived from the cultus of Astarte. The weeping
for Tanunuz (I'>.. 814), which Clyril of Alexandria and
Jerome identify with the Phu'iiician mourning for Adonis
(so (?'-''"*.'), was more probably a direct importation of
the Babylonian cult.-* This is doubtless true also of the
worship of the ' Queen of Heaven ' (Jer. 7 18 [bkaq
tt; (jTparigL toj ovpavov], 44 17 _f.), whatever the name
may mean (see Qikkn OK Hkavkn). The law which
forbids women to wear men's garments, or men women's
(Ht. 225), may Ix; aimed at obscene rites such as obtained
in the worship of many deities in Syria and Asia Minor,
but need not refer specifically to the cult of Astarte.

Many inscriptions from the mother -country and

its colonics, as well as the testimony of Greek and Latin

^ . writers, prove the prominent place which

, ^^y"^ the worship of .\starte had among the
Phuenicians ; Egyptian documents place
the ''Ashtart of the Hittite country' by the side of the
' .Sutech of Heta,' the principal male divinity; the
Philistines deposited Sauls armour as a trophy in the
temple of 'Ashtart (i S. 31 10 "al ^^ a(rTapT[]i.ov } ,
jjcrhaps the famous temple at Ashkelon of which
Herodotus writes (lios);'* the stele of Mesha, king of
Moab (9th cent. B.C.), tells how he devoted his prisoners
to .Vshtar-Chemosh ; a city in Bashan often mentioned
in the OT lx;ars the name Ashtaroth (cp also Ashteroth
Karnaim, Gen. 14 5, and Bceshterah, Josh. 21 27; see
Asiitakoth). '.Ashtart w.as worshipped in Babylonia
and .\ssyria under the name I star (considerable frag-
ments of her myth have been preserved) ; in Southern
Arabia as '.\thtar (masc. ); in Abyssinia as 'Astar ; ^
in Syria as '.\tar or '.Athar (in proper names : cp Atak-
<;.\ris [(/. V. ] Dercdto). The .\rabs are the only Semitic
people among whom we do not find this deity ; and
even here it is possible that al-Lat and al-'L'zza were
originally only titles of Astarte. The normal phonetic
changes in the word show that the worship of Astarte
did not spread from one of these peoples to the others,
but was common to them Ixjfore their separation.
The fem. ending is peculiar to the Palestinian branch
of the race, and, as has Ix.-en observed, in Southern
.\rabia '.\thtar was a god, not a goddess.

Unlike Baal, Astarte is a proper name ; but under
this name many diverse divinities were worshipjjed.
The I star of Arbela was recognised by the Assyrians
themselves ;is a goddess different from the Istar of

1 Qua-s/. 16 in Jnd., Estart, Astart. Confirmatory evidence
is Kiven by the Kgyptian transcription.

_ - judj;. 2 13 106 I S. 7 3 (^hal Ta ak^^ 4 12 10 ((Sbai. rots
oA(re<Ti'); all belonging to the later elohistic(K-j) or deiiteronomic

^ The identification of Tanimuz with Adonis is found also in
Melito (Cureton, Spicil. 25). The connection of the myths is
unquestioned. See Tammuz.

< It is, of course, not to lie inferred that the Philistines wor-
.shipped Astarte before they invaded Palestine. The temple was
an old Canaanite sanctuary.

5 HaMvy's discovery- is confirmed by the recent publication of
the .\xum inscriptions.

4. Character.




Nineveh ; the Istar of Agade from the Istar of Urku
(see Assyria, 9. Babvi.onia, 26). The inscription
of I'lshmunazar shows that more than one 'Ashtart had
a temple in Sidon ; and we know many others. Whether
those differences are only the conse(|uence of natural
divergence in the worship of the priniitive .Semitic deity,
in the immense tract of time and space, or, as is alto-
gether ntore jjrobable, in great part due to the identifi-
cation of originally unconnected local nutnina with
Astarte, the result is the same : ' there were many
Astartes who were distinguished from one another by
character, attributes, and cultus a class of goddesses
rather than a single goddess of the name.'-'

Astarte was often the tutelary divinity of a city, its
'proprietress' [ba'alat); and then, of course, its pro-
tectress and champion, a warlike god-
dess. On the other hand, she was a
goddess of fertility and reproduction, as apjx;ars strik-
ingly in the myth of the descent of Istar. These two
characters might l)e attributed to different .AsUirtes,
as among the .Assyrians (cp the Aphrodites) ; but
they might also coexist in one and the same goddess,
and this is doubtless the older conception.

The figures from Babylonia and Susiana, as well as
from Phoenicia and Cyprus, which are believed to rc|)re-
sent Astartes, express by rude exaggeration of sexuality
the attributes of the godiless of generation.* That
the cultus-images of .\starte were of similar tyjies is not
probable. At Paphos she was worshipped in a conical
stone, and many representations show the evolution
from this of a partially iconic idol.

In the astro-theology of the Babylonians the planet
Venus was the star of Istar. It is a common but ill-
founded opinion that in Palestine Astarte was a moon
goddess. The name of the city, Ashteroth Karnaim, is
often alleged in support of this theory. Kven if the
translation, ' the horned .\starte,' Ix; right, however, it is
a very doubtful assumption that the horns represented
the crescent moon it is cjuite as natural to think of the
h(jrns of a cow or a sheep, or of an image of the goddess
made after an I-'gyplian type (see Ecivi'T, 13) ; " and
it is a still more unwarranted assumption that Astarte
was elsewhere in Palestine represented in the same \\ay.
It would be a nuich more logical inference that the horns
were the distinctive attribute of this particular .Astarte.*
The other testimony to the lunar character of Astarte is
neither of an age nor of a nature to justify much confidence
[De dea Syr. 4 ; Herodian, v. G4). The point to be in-
sisted on is that the widely accepted theory that Astarte
was primarily a moon goddess, by the side of the sun
god, Baal, has as little foundation in the one case as in
the other.

In Dt. 7 13 ' the 'iishtdroth of the flocks ' are parallel
to the 'offspring of the herds,' from which it has l)eeii
ingeniously argued that among the nomadic Semites
Astarte was a sheep-goddess (W'RS, Rel. Sent. <"-' 3 1 o, and
469^) ; but this also seems hazardous.

Of the cultus of -Astarte we know comparatively little.
Religious prostitution ( I kit. 1 199 ; Stralxj xvi. 1 20 ;

6 Cultus ^P- J'"'^"'- ^^-f'- f"-""- ^''^-'^^ '' ^' '''" '*'-''''
* 6, etc. ) was not confined to the temples

of Astarte, nor to the worship of female divinities.
Nu. 25 1-5 connects it with Baal-peor ; Am. 2? Dt. 2.'Ji8
(17), etc., show that in Israel similar practices infected
even the worship of A'ahwe. There is no doubt, how-
ever, that the cultus of Astarte was saturated with these

' In the period from which most of our monumental evidence
comes, still another cause must l>e recognised : syncretism with
the Egyptian religions (see E;(;ypt, | 16).

2 This use predominates in Hebrew, which has, indeed, no
other word for ' goddess ' ; but, as has been remarked above, it
is found in Assyrian also.

3 Heuzey, Rn>. Arcli/ol. xx.vi.v., 1880, p. \ ff.\ Ohnefalsch-
Richter, Ky/>ros, etc. On the origin of this type sec, however,
S. Rein.-ich, R,-!>. ArclUot. 3 se'r. 2ii, 1895, p. 3b' ff.

Cp the representation of Haalat of Byblos, tV.V 1 i, PI. I.
8 On Ashteroth Karnaim see //>*/, It) 155^.



The origin and the meaning of the name are obscure ;
but tliis is liardly a sufficient reason for supposing that
the nicjst universally worshipped of Semitic divinities was
of non- Semitic extraction (see Haupt, /.DMG 34
758). The relation between Astarte anil Aphrodite is
an interesting and important question, upon which we
cannot touch here.

Literature. f^tXAcn, De Dis Syris, syn. ii. ch. 2 ; Movers,
Phonizier, 1 55<)-65o ; Scholz, Giitzendienst nnd ZaubcKwesen
bei den alten //ebniern, 259-301 ; Baudissin, art. 'Astarte und
Aschera'in/'^AX'*) "2147-161 (where the lit. in full may be found);
Raethgen, Beitr. zur seinit. RcL-gesch., 1888 ; E. Meyer, art.
'Astarte' in Roscher's L,.v. dcr grivch. it. Rom. Myth. 645-655,
in part corrected by his art. ' H.ial,' //'. 28677?! ; Harton, ' Ash-
torethandher liilluence in the OT,'//'^- '^^17,ff-\ ' The Semitic
Isblar-cult,' //<\''raita, 9 133-165 10 1-74. See also Driver's very
COJnprolicnsive article ia Hastings, DB. g. F. M.

ASHUR (>in'^\S), I Ch. 224 AV, RV Ashhuk.

ASHURITES, THE (n-l^'.^H, ton GAceipei [B],
GacoyP ['^^' ezpi I f- ; ' Jezreel ' follows]), are mentioned
in 2 Sam. "Jgy among various clans subject to the i
authority of Ishbaal. Posh. Vg. read n^c'jri, the j
Gcshurites, which is accepted by some (see Gksuur), j
while others (Kamph. Ki. Klo. Gr. ) folh^w the Targ. {
(iCK n'aT '?;. cp ") and read nt^xri (cp Judg. 1 32)
i. e. , ' the Asherites, ' whose land lay to the W. of Jordan !
above Jczrcel, which is mentioncu ne.\t, the enumeration
proceeding from N. to S.

ASHVATH (nV^'i;; AceiG [BA], -coyaG [L]), iu a '
genealogy of AsHiiR (y.T'. , 4 ii. ), i Ch. Jssf.

ASIA(h <\ClA[Ti.\\'H]). Great uncertainty prevailed
during the apostolic period as to the usage of the names 1
of the districts of Asia Minor. The boundaries of several !
of the districts had long been uncertain ^those between j
Mysia and Phrygia were proverbially so (Strabo, 564). |
This confusion arose from the fact that the names i
denoted ethnological rather than political divisions, and
belonged to diverse epochs. They are like geological
strata, which are clear enough when seen in section but
impossible to disentangle when represented on a single
plane. A further complication arose when the Romans
imposed upon the country the provincial system. Tiie
official nomenclature was applied without any account
being taken of the older history or of ethnical facts or ;
popular usage. In the case of Lycia, Bithynia, or j
Pamphylia there was no distinction of any moment I
between the old and the new usage ; but in the case of
Galatia and .Asia the difficulty of distinguishing the j
precise sense of the names is very great. !

The province of Asia was formed in 133-130 B. C. when i
Attains III. of F^ergamus left his kingdom by will to ;
Rome ; the name Asia had early come into use because i
there was no other single term to denote the ^gean j
coast lands. The area of the province was subsequently |
increased, first by the addition of Phrygia (116 B.c;. ) ;
we are, therefore, confronted by the difficulty of j
distinguishing whether, in any given case, the word Asia
is restricted to the coast or extended to the entire j
province in other words, whether it includes Phrygia
or not.

In Acts 2(5, Asia indicates the towns of the highly civilised
coast land, for the enumeration is popular and Greek in style,
as is proved by the mention of Phrygia alongside Asia : accord-
ing to the Roman mode of speaking, Phrygia was included in
Asia, with the exception of that small part round Antioch
(Phrygia Galatica) which fell to the province Galatia. Such
names as Phrygia,Mysia, or Lydia were to a Roman without
any political significance, being merely geographical terms
denoting parts of the province of Asia, used on occasion to
specify exactly the region referred to by the speaker (Cic.
pro Flac. xxvii. 65; Asia vesira constat ex Phrygia, Mysia,
Caria, Lydia). Such use can be paralleled from the NT. In
Actsl67 Kara ri\v 'iUvtjiav (Ti. WH] is used to define rigidly
the point reached by the apostles when warned from Bithynia.
In Actsfig, a decision is more difficult. The Jews who 'dis-
puted 'with Stephen were probably those educated in the schools
of .Smyrna or Pergamus ; but we cannot on a priori grounds
decide that some of them did not belong to Phrygia. Here,
therefore, .-Xsia may or may not be used in its Roman sense.
So also in Acts 21 27 = 24 18.



The whole question of the sense in which geographical
terms are used by the writer of Acts centres round Acts
166, where the apostles are forbidden to preach in .Asia
{Kuikvdivrt^ . . . XaX^crai t6v \6yov iv -rg 'Affiq,
[Ti. WH]). Those interpreters {e.^i;^., Con. and Hows.
I324) who take the preceding words (oi9)\dov Se tt)v
^pvylav Kal raXarur/c x^po-" [I ' WH]) to express the
opening up of new ground by missionary enterprise
N. of Antioch in Pisidia are compelled to restrict
the prohibition of preaching in Asia to the coast land
in other words, to take I'hrygia, Galatia, and Asia in
their popular non-Roman sense for all Phrygia N. of

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