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Cathedra Petri. A political history of the great Latin patriarchate .. (Volume 5) online

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CATHEDRA PETRI.



political |i5tori)



GREAT LATIN PATRIARCHATE.



BOOKS XII. & XIII.

FROM THE CONCORDAT OF WORMS (a.d. 1122) TO THE CLOSE
OF THE PONTIFICATE OF INNOCENT III. (a.d. 1216).



THOMAS GREENWOOD,

M.A. CAMB. AND DURH., F.R.S.L., BARRISTER-AT-LAW.



LONDON:
WILLIAM MACINTOSH,

24 PATERNOSTER ROW.

1,865.



LONDON :
» AND SON, GREAT NORTHERN PRINTING WORKS,

Pancras Road, N.W.






PREFACE.



Three years have passed away since the publication of the
Fourth Volume of this Work.

A Fifth is now presented to the public, bringing down the
history of the Papacy to an epoch at which it may properly be
said to have attained to its greatest development both in respect
of territorial expansion and political influence. The present
Volume closes with the death of Innocent III., a pontiff whose
name stands foremost in the annals of the sacerdotal empire of
Home.

The original plan of this Work has therefore been carried out,
and the writer might lay down the pen with that kind of tran-
quil satisfaction which the fulfilment of a self-imposed task,
from which he expected neither profit nor renown, might bring
with it.

It may be repeated here that the Work was begun under the
impression that no profitable knowledge of the character and
modus operandi of the great pontifical scheme of Rome had found
its way to the mind of his countrymen. The earlier views of
the writer were in several respects favourable to the claims of
the Latin scheme. The progress of his inquiries, however, im-
parted their present shape to his labours. The change — such
as it was — was gradual and involuntary ; a condition of mind
which, at all events, affords some security for the writer's in-
tegrity, though it may not be deemed creditable to his discrimi-
nation or consistency. The error — if any there be — may, how-
ever, be imputed to the conviction, at no period of his labours

436427



IV PREFACE.

absent from his mind, that civil liberty is incompatible with mental
or religious servitude. But, prior to the investigation, it did not

follow that the Latin scheme required such :i state of mental pros-
tration as would unfit its subjects for independent volition or spon-
taneous action. It was therefore not his fault if, in the course
of the inquiry, he could not shake off the impression that the
system of the Latin church, as matured in the minds of its
most eminent legislators, and carried into practice by its most
successful ministers and advocates, was calculated upon an ab-
solute surrender of private judgment in all matters in which the
priest or the church might claim an interest. Its history, how-
ever, plainly showed this to be its normal character and opera-
tion ; and no doubt can be entertained that, at the epoch of the
reign of Innocent III., it had achieved astonishing success in
modifying political institutions, controlling the will of princes
and governments, and utilising the passions of mankind to an
extent that left to the lay community scarcely an opening for
the free exercise of the faculties upon the subjects most im-
portant to the welfare of society and the progress of social
improvement. The further inference, therefore, lay close at
hand, that if ever that scheme should recover from its present
state of comparative depression, the battle of civil and religious
liberty would have to be fought over again.

If there be any chance of such a revival, it would behove
our political leaders to look more closely into the inherent pe-
culiarities of a system which denies the right of the subject to
freedom of thought and action upon matters most material to
his civil and religious welfare. There is no mode of ascertain-
ing the spirit and tendency of great institutions but in a careful
study of their history. The writer is profoundly impressed with
the conviction that our political instructors have wholly neg-
lected this important duty ; or — which is perhaps worse — left it
in the hands of a class of persons whose zeal has outrun their
discretion, and who have sought rather to engage the prejudices
than the judgment of their hearers in the cause they have, no
doubt sincerely, at heart. It is of the last importance that the



PREFACE. v

judgment to be passed upon the papal scheme should be the
result of a careful, if not a minute, analysis; that it should be
founded upon a deliberate opinion respecting the principles on
which it was built, and an accurate observation of the practical
operation of those principles from their birth to their maturity.

To this object all the leisure hours of the writer, for a period
of thirty years, have been devoted. Without the assistance of
literary friends — excepting an occasional opinion they may have
been kind enough to express, and for which he returns them his
sincere thanks — and without consulting any controversial works,
ancient or modern, excepting such as have the character of his-
torical documents, he lias brought his work down to a period at
which the sacerdotal scheme of Rome was, both in theory and
practice, fully unfolded. All its principles of action were legis-
latively established, and its modus operandi illustrated by a vast
and consistent series of acts done under them. But since the
death of Innocent III., a period of three centuries of almost
fruitless struggle against the political inconveniences of the
Latin system had elapsed before any combined movement on
behalf of civil and religious liberty could be hazarded. The
question therefore arises whether, between the death of that
great pontiff and the reformation of the sixteenth century, any
such changes in the theory or practice of the Roman theocracy
had taken place as to divest it of those inconveniences, and to ob-
viate the dangers to civil and religious liberty, which no rational
observer will be bold enough to affirm did not threaten those
vital interests of society at the concluding period of the Volume
now submitted to the reader.

The first subjects of inquiry, before we can be sure that such
change — if any — is of a nature to dispel our apprehensions, must
be, whether the change is in principle, or only in the modus
operandi — whether it has or has not been effected with a reser-
vation of the underlying principle in all its integrity — whether
it is real, or a mere subterfuge to keep the principle out of
sight until that kind of practical pressure could be brought to
bear upon the outer world which should familiarise men's minds



VI PREFACE.

with any further steps for the redintegration of the whole
scheme, and thus to obviate the danger of a premature disclo-
sure of its intrinsic character and its practical tendencies.

The writer therefore proposes — if life and health be granted
— to consider these questions in what he takes leave to call a
Supplemental Volume. It is intended to adhere as closely :is
possible to the chronological order of the events and incidents
bearing upon the subject. It is not disguised that the ultimate
issue must be whether the combination of spiritual and temporal
government in the same hands is reconcilable with the welfare of
society in the mass; whether, in fact, it be not a political ano-
maly, a combination of discordant elements, a ferment of mis-
chief, and a perpetual shock to the religious and political aspira-
tions of the world of thought and action. That parties — either
in religion or politics — should cease to persecute one another, is
a consummation rather to be wished than hoped for. All that
the statesman or the political philosopher can do is to take from
them the power to do mischief to each other, or to disturb the
existing order of society with impunity.



CONTENTS.



BOOK XII.

CHAPTER I.

INNOCENT II. AND ANACLETUS II.

PAGE

Honorius II. — Adverse election of Coelestine II. — his abdication — Hono-
rius claims the patronage of the abbey of Monte Casino — his success
— Roger II., king of Sicily, claims the reversion of Apulia against the
Pope — and is excommunicated — Papal armament against Roger — Paci-
fication — Roger does homage to the Pope — Death of Honorius II. —
— Double elections ; Innocent II. and Anacletus II. — Bernard, abbot of
Clairvaux, defends the election of Innocent — his objections to the elec-
tion of Anacletus — Innocent migrates to Pisa — Characters of Innocent
and Anacletus — Innocent goes to France — Defence of Anacletus — Pro-
test of canon Reimbold of Liege — Bernard gains over Louis of France
— and Henry I. of England — Lothar of Germany gained by Bernard —
Corrupt election of Lothar — Synod of Liege — Homage of Lothar — his
imprudent request — Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux — Character of Bernard
— Labours and miracles of Bernard — Causes and effects of his influence
— Bernard on the papal prerogative — Coronation expedition of the empe-
ror Lothar to Rome — Irregularities of the coronation — Subserviency of
Lothar — Retreat of Emperor and Pope from Rome — Abbot Bernard at
Pisa — Synod, and anathema against Anacletus — Bernard undertakes
the restoration of pope Innocent — Lothar's second expedition into Italy
— Dissensions between Pope and Emperor — Monte Casino — The Em-
peror appoints a new abbot, and the Pope yields the point — Retreat
and death of the emperor Lothar — Bernard defends the title of Inno-
cent II. before Roger king of Sicily — Adjournment of the discussion —
Death of Anacletus II. — Election of Victor IV. — Abdication of Victor,
and reconciliation with Innocent — Great council of the Lateran — The
temporal and spiritual state of the church declared to be feoffs of the
Holy See — King Roger again invades and conquers Apulia, &c. — Inno-
cent the prisoner of Roger — Accommodation — State of Rome — The
papal government overthrown — Pontifical theory of the severance of
Church and State — Illustrative transactions in France — Case of the see
of Bourges— Affair of Theobald of Champagne — Peter of Clugny on the
royal and pontifical status — Bernard's compromise in the case of Ralph
of Vermandois — Plot to entrap the king — Death of Innocent II. —
Coelestine II. pope — Accommodation with France ..... 1



VI 11 CONTENTS.



CHAPTER II.

BERNARD AGAINST THE SCHISMATICS.

PAGE

Church and clergy of the twelfth century — Fermentation in the religious
mind of the twelfth century — Dissent in France — "Followers of the
Apostles" — Heresy of bishop (iilbert of Poitiers — Errors of Peter Abse-
lard — Bernard against Abaelard and Arnold of Brescia — Citation of
Abaelard — Condemnation of his writings by the Pope — Arnold of Brescia
— Bernard against Arnold — Arnold at Zurich, assailed by Bernard — Ar-
nold in Pome — Coelestine II. and Lucius II. popes — Death of Lucius II.
— Eugenius III. pope — he is driven out of Rome— Revolution and out-
rages in Rome — Restoration and second expulsion of Eugenius — Revival
of the crusading mania — Bernard the prophet of the crusade — Disas-
trous issue, &c. — Bernard assailed as an impostor, &c. — his retort —
Apology for Bernard — his conduct, how far censurable — his justification
— Bernard against the Romans — his summons to the emperor Conrad
— Pope Eugenius in France — Bernard in disgrace with the curia — Com-
mission to Bernard to make inquisition into the heresy of the Henri-
cians — Bernard an inquisitor and persecutor — he attempts to reform the
curia — Inveterate corruption of the curia — The legatine commission —
Bernard on the irregularities of the legates — Bernard " De Considera-
tione" — Death of Eugenius III. — Death of Bernard of Clairvaux —
Death of Suger of St. Denys — Shifting of the scene . . . .34



CHAPTEK III.

FREDERIC I. AND HADRIAN IV.

Death of Conrad III. — Election of Frederic I., Redheard — Accommodation
with Eugenius III. — State of Italy— Rivalry and ambition of the cities
of Italy — Warfare of the Lombard cities — -Conrad of Hohenstauffen in
Italy — The emperor Lothar in Italy — Relation of the Italian king-
dom to the empire — Frederic I. in Italy ; diet of Roncaglia — Hadrian
IV. pope — Arnold of Brescia and the political heretics — Character
of the Roman people — how treated by Hadrian — Frederic sacrifices
Arnold of Brescia to the Pope — Martyrdom of Arnold — Reception of
Frederic by Hadrian IV. — Neglected ritual — Bombastic address and
complaint of the Romans to the Emperor — Preposterous demands of
the Romans — Reply of the Emperor — Advance to Rome — Coronation of
the Emperor — Insurrection of the Romans, and danger of the Pope and
Emperor — they evacuate Rome— Retreat of the Emperor — War between
Hadrian and William of Sicily — Defeat of William — he recovers his
lost territories — The Pope besieged in Beneventum — Negotiation —
Treaty of St. Marcion — Resulting relations between the empire and the
papacy — Claims of the empire upon the Norman feoffs of Southern
Italy — Growing alienation of Emperor and Pope — Rupture between
Fmneror and Pope - Affair of the archbishop of Lund— [nsolent rhes-
sage of thePope — Stormy reception and dismissal of the papal legates



CONTEXTS. IX

PAGE

— The Emperor's vindication of his treatment of the legates — Frederic
prohibits unlicensed visits to Borne — Reply of the German clergy to the
complaint of the Pope — Hadrian's explanation — The Emperor accepts
the apology 57



CHAPTER IV.

FREDERIC I. AND ALEXANDER III.

State of Lombardy — Milan regains the ascendency — Submission of the Mi-
lanese in 1158 — Diet of Roncaglia — Difficulties of government — Insur-
rection of the Milanese— Impediments to good legislation — Siege and
capture of Crerna — Preparations of the Milanese — Frederic fills vacant
sees — transfers the estat es o|J:h£,countess Matilda to the duke of Bava-
ria — Intemperate address of Hadrian IV. to the Emperor — Frederic
retaliates upon the Pope — Extravagant demands of the Pope — Soothing
reply of the Emperor — Character of the papal demands — The renun-
ciation of the treaty of Worms 1 >y Lothar not binding, &c- — Rejection
of the papal demands — Epitome of the controversy — Death of Hadrian
IV. — State of parties in the Sacred College — Election of Roland Ban-
dinelli — Alexander III. — Character of the election — Victor TV. — Policy
of the Rolandists — Policy of the Emperor — Contrariety of views of the
connection between church and state — Imperial opinion — Pontifical
opinion — Letters of the Emperor convoking a general council — his
invitation to the rival popes — Reply of Alexander III. — Difficulties of
the Emperor — Council of Pavia — Character of the council ; its compe-
tency — Tendency of the Ghibelline principle of the union of church and
state — Qualifications and policy of Alexander III. — Advice of the bishop
of Lisieux — Excommunication of the Emperor — Pontifical vituperation
— and specious imputation — Efforts of the Rolandist legates in Eng-
land and France — their success in England — Difficulty in France ; coun-
cil of Toulouse — Ultimate success — Failure in Germany — Letters of
Alexander to Eberhard of Salzburg, .Sec— A single convert gained —
Gains to the cause of Alexander — Difficulties of the Pope — Siege of Mi-
lan — Surrender of Milan — and flight of Alexander into France — Medi-
ation of Henry of Troves — Alarm of Alexander — he refuses to attend
the proposed conference — Interview between the Emperor and the king
of France at St. Jean de Losne — Tergiversation of Louis VII. — Flight of
Alexander III. into Aquitaine — Breach of faith and flight of Louis VII. 87



CHAPTER V.

FREDERIC I. IN ITALY HIS FAILURE AND RETREAT.

Prospects of the Emperor — Interviews of Alexander III. with the kings of
England and France — Great council of Tours — Converts to the pon-
tifical party — Eberhard of Salzburg — Arnold of Lisieux on sacerdotal
prerogative — The clergy, their eminence — The Emperor a vassal of the
church — Canons of the council of Tours — Activity of Alexander III. —
Alexander III. and the monastic bodies — he contemplates the eman-



CONTENTS.

PAGE

cipation of the clergy from the Becular state — Ten dency of the policy of
Alexander ITT.— Italian poUc) of Frederic I. — Discontents in Italy —
Death of Victor IV.— Election of Guido of Crema (Pascal III.)— Revolt
of the Lombard cities — Diet of Wiirzburg — Embassy of Henry II.
against Alexander III.— The diet pledged to Pascal III. — Papal and
Guelfic interest predominant in Italy and Rome — Return of Alexander
III. to Rome — Frederic I. in Italy — he marches to Rome — Insurrection
of the Lombards — Intent of the insurgents — Operations of archbishop
Christian of Maintz — Siege of Rome — defended by pope Alexander —
Dangerous delays — Capitulation of Rome — Evasion of the Pope — Pro-
jects of Frederic I. — Pestilence in the imperial army — Destruction of
the army — Moral effect of the overthrow of the army — Retreat of Fre-
deric I. — Escape of the Emperor, and his measures to retrieve the dis-
aster — Lombard cities ; building of Alexandria — The Romans — Death
of Pascal III., and election of Calixtus III. — The Pope and the empe-
ror of Constantinople — Frederic I. proposes to negotiate with the Pope —
Alexander III. demands implicit submission — Divergency of the impe-
rial and pontifical theories — The Pope takes the city of Tusculum under
bis protection — Breach of compact by the Romans 123



CHAPTER YI.

CLOSE OF THE PONTIFICATE, OF ALEXANDER III.

Great men — The Emperor in Germany — Archbishop Christian in Italy —
Expedition of 1174 ; siege of Alexandria — Negotiations for peace
thwarted by the Pope — Negotiations ; demands on both sides ; rupture —
Haughty demeanour of the papal legates ; opening of the campaign of
1176 — Defeat of the Emperor at Legnano — Consequences of the defeat
— Approach of the parties — Pontifical demands — Provisional treaty of
Agnani — Alexander III. removes to Venice — The Emperor proposes the
city of Venice as a proper place for the negotiation — Suspicions of
the city delegates ; they yield to the determination of the Pope — Pro-
gress of the negotiation — The Emperor approaches Venice — The treaty
of Venice of 1178 — Ceremonial interview between the emperor Frederic I.
and pope Alexander III. — Character and scope of the treaty of Venice
— Advantages derived by the Pope from the treat)' — Practical defects
of the treaty — Dispute about the county of Bertinoro — Feud between
the Romans and the citizens of Viterbo — Difficulties of the papacy —
—Convocation of the great council of the Lateran — Questions for the
council — Difficulties as to the Matildian estate — Imperial claim to the
Matildian estate — Title by testamentary bequest — Growth of heresy ;
the Albigenses, &c. — Prevalence of heresy in the South of France — In-
quisition in Languedoc — Meeting of the fourth general council of the
Latins — Measures of the council ; election law- — Reformatory ordinances
— Intent and object of the Pope in council — Decree of extermination
against the Albigenses — Pause in the narrative 155



CONTENTS. XI



CHAPTER VII.

EXTERNAL POLICY OF ALEXANDER III. ; SCANDINAVIA ; ENGLAND.

PAGE

Foreign policy of the Holy See — Foundation of the missionary church of
Hamhurg — Gradual conversion of the Scandinavian heathen — Progress
of Christianity in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden — Triumph of Chris-
tianity in Scandinavia — Submission of the Scandinavian churches to
Rome — State of the northern churches, and reforms of pope Alexander
III. — Expansion of the Latin scheme — its scope and objects at this
period — Original powers of the crown in ecclesiastical affairs in the Eng-
lish church — Powers of the Anglo-Saxon kings — Introduction of canon
or decretal law — Earlier conflicts between canon law and the common
law of the land — Henry I. and archbishop Anselm — End of the contest
— The legatine commission in England — The "law and custom of Eng-
land" in ecclesiastical concerns — Encroachments of Rome on the " law
and custom of the realm" — The Constitutions of Clarendon — Nature and
origin of the statute — Character and designs of Becket — Privileges and
profligacies of the English clergy — Becket and the " salvo &c." — Do-
mestic position of Henry II. prior to the enactments of Clarendon —
Articles of the Constitutions — Becket subscribes the Constitutions ; his
remorse and absolution — Policy of Alexander III. — Persecution of Becket
by Henry II. — Heroism of Becket — Parliament of Northampton; the
king's ultimatum — Becket's reply to the ultimatum — his protest against
the judgment of the court — Escape of Becket, and his reception in
France — Vindictive proceedings of Henry II. against the archbishop —
Becket's address to pope Alexander III. — his reception by the Pope —
Henry II. threatens the Pope with secession — Becket in France ; tone
and character of his correspondence — he excommunicates the king's
ministers — his view of ecclesiastical privilege — Henry II. declares his
prerogative, and his resolution to uphold the laws and customs of the
country — Becket, as legate, renews his excommunications — he endea-
vours to persuade the Pope to excommunicate Henry II. — Temperate
remonstrance of the bishops to Becket — Intemperate rebuke of the pri-
mate to the bishops of England — Self-exculpation of Alexander III. ;
his policy — Becket disputes the competency of the papal legates — Arts
resorted to to thwart the pacification — Becket's guiding principle — Con-
trasted management of Alexander III. — Failure of the Pope's attempt
at pacification — Failure of the attempt of the king of France to recon-
cile Henry II. with Becket — The legation of Gratian and Vivian ; its
failure — -Vivian alone attempts to resume the negotiation — Alexander
III. contemplates more rigorous methods — Efforts of the Pope to pro-
cure the restoration of Becket — The pope takes the management of the
controversy into his own hands — Terms of reconciliation agreed upon
between the Pope and the King — Mutual dispositions of Becket and the
King — Interview between the King and the archbishop — Disposition of



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