tically everv cabin, was passed around freely at log-rollings,
barn-raisings, husking-bees, in the harvest field and on-nearly
all occasions where men came together at social gatherings
or for hard labor with their hands. Even ministers of the
gospel kept liquor in their homes, and consumed it with
meals, while professional men generally held to the old Eng-
lish idea that a man could not be a gentleman unless he used
intoxicating beverages. A strong endorsement was also
given to the practice by the family physicians who prescribed
it for malaria, rheumatism, consumption, colds and nearly all
the prevailing diseases. The mothers likewise prescribed it
freely in all kinds of sickness and used it in various sorts of
pies and pastries. We have already noticed the prevalence
DARKE COLINTY 439
of brawls and rowdyism about the taverns and bars of the
county seat and mentioned the unsavory reputation of Green-
ville for the number of hard drinkers and gamblers in those
days. However, these conditions were not to continue in-
definitely as moral and discriminating men began to see the
evil efifects of these pernicious customs. Individual and
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
sporadic attempts were made at an early date to stir up senti-
ment against the common practice but with little effect. Later
men began to organize and refused to furnish liquor to men
in the harvest field, at butcherings and in similar occasions.
About 1838, Samuel Cole, Peter Kimber and Father Mur-
phy, residing near Coleville, began a movement in this direc-
tion. The "Washingtonians" seem to have organized the first
strong movement of protest, in 1842. Such prominent men as
Gen. Hiram Bell, Dr. Gilpatrick, and Judge Beers thoroug'hly
canvassed the county and held discussions on the temper-
ance question. Dr. I. N. Gard also lent encouragement to the
movement as a result of which every village in the county
became organized and Greenville was stirred as never before.
Temperance, in the sense of moderation, had been preached
before, but the idea of total abstinence was new to the pio-
neers and was opposed by large numbers of well meaning
men, thus showing the strong effect of early education and
custom on the masses. This movement seems to have largely
spent its force and was succeeded in 1855 by the "Sons of
Temperance," which organization gained a membership ex-
ceeding two hundred in Greenville alone and was instru-
mental in moulding public opinion to a large degree for a
few years. From 1868 to 1870 the Independent Order Grand
Templars flourished and enrolled nearly two hundred mem-
bers. It was succeeded by the Young Templars, who were
organized August 17, 1870, under such leaders as Dr. Sharp,
E. :\Iatchett and Mrs. D. Adams. On June 19, 1871, a lodge
of the Sons of Temperance was organized by A. M. Collins,
state deputy of Ohio, at which time the following officers
were elected and installed:
Rev. William McCaughey, W. P.
Lottie Tomilson. Assistant W. P.
Mary Webb, W. A.
Dr. C. Otwell. Deputy.
J. H, :\Iorningstar, R. S.
Dianna Seitz, Assistant R. S
John Frybarger, F. S. '
440 DARKE COUNTY
William M. Harper, Treasurer.
Rev. H. S. Bradley, Captain.
W. R. Reed, Conductor.
Sallie Hamilton, Assistant Conductor.
Clara Tomilson, I. G.
E. B. Seitz, O. G.
One hundred and eight members were enrolled in this or-
In February, 1874, the '"crusade'' struck Greenville. Some
seventy ladies, many of them prominent workers in the
churches, banded together and went from saloon to saloon,
knelt in prayer and plead with the proprietors and bar-
tenders to close their places and quit the liquor business. Out-
door meetings and parades were held regardless of the
weather and public opinion was influenced to such an extent
that all the saloons were closed until after the spring elections.
Three years later renewed interest was manifested and many
were converted to the cause of temperance, including George
Calderwood, who afterwards published a paper in the interest
of the cause and became a temperance lecturer of wide repu-
tation. Again in the eighties temperance sentiment was
greatly stirred b}' the "Murphy movement." Great meetings
were held in the Mozart hall which had recently been con-
structed on West Fourth street, at which large numbers of
old and young pledged themselves for life to total abstinence.
As will be noted, all these movements were of temporary
duration. On February 19, 1880. however, there was formed
in Greenville, an organization of a more permanent nature,
which still exists after over thirty-four years of earnest labor
in the cause of temperance. This organization is known as
the "Women's Christian Temperance Union," and has prob-
ably accomplished more in the field of systematic and pro-
gressive temperance work than all previous organizations to-
gether. The first officers were : President, Mrs. May Fergu-
son ; vice presidents, Mesdames Martin, Adams, \\''ebb, East-
man, Gross and Frances Clark ; secretary, Mrs. Ella ^Matchett ;
corresponding secretary. Mrs. Bowman.
On December 6, 1887, the women of the county who were
especially interested in temperance held -a convention at the
\L E. church in Greenville for the purpose of efi^ecting a
county organization of the W^ C. T. U. The convention was
called to order by the district president, Mrs. M. C. Happer-
sett, of Urbana, Ohio. After devotional exercises and ad-
DARKE COUNTY 441
dresses an election was held at which the following officers
were chosen : President, ^Irs. O. A. Newton ; county organ-
izer, Mrs. L. A. Macklin; recording secretary, Miss Clarissa
Sinks ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Abbie D. Lecklider ;
treasurer, Mrs. John C. Turpen.
The object of the union as set forth in the constitution is
"to arouse the women of this county to engage in an effort
for the promotion of temperance in every place and family,
and to strengthen, encourage and assist each other in this
important work." Prominent among the workers in the or-
ganization, besides those already mentioned have been Mes-
dames Linda Mace, A. B. Maurer, J. W. Cassatt, L. Clawson,
Mary Webb, M. E. Bowman, Deborah R. Adams, W. S. Rich-
eson, Enoch Westerfield, Alex. Kerr, J. G. Reid, J. C. Weaver,
W. B. Hough, Jno. H. Martin, John Martz, Aaron Brandon,
Xoah Tillman. C. A. Nelson. Kitty Vaughn. Robert Jamison,
John Klefecker. Charles Schreel, Ella Matchett. Hattie Guy,
George W. Studebaker, Bert Martz, Stella Tillman, Will
Cochran, George W. Hartzell. Mary Lockett, J. N. Reigle,
Lydia Morrison, R. T. Humphreys. Mary T. Horn, D. W.
Spidel. Cora Stokely. A. J. Landis. H. F'. Hartzell, Charles
Minnich, T. H. Monger, Cora Along. W. D. Brumbaugh. Delia
\\ inget, Mattie Klinger, Alice Kunkel, Mary Martin. Lizzie
Martin, Anna Guthridge, besides the wives of several min-
isters and others who have moved elsewhere.
The Greenville organization is strong and active today,
and is administered by the following officers and committees:
President — Mrs. Celia Hershey.
Secretary — Mrs. Catherine Teagarden.
Treasurer — Mrs. Mary Horn.
Antinarcotics — Mrs. Linda Mace.
Christian Citizenship — Edith Overholser.
Flower Mission — Laura Mathews.
Fair Literature — Mrs. Alary Hartzell.
Literature — Mrs. Lola Aukerman.
Mother's Meeting — Mrs. Daisy Alartin.
Mercy — Mrs. Jennie Halle}'.
Prison Work — Mrs. Florence Moore.
Press Reporter — Airs. Alinnie Colegrove.
Parliamentarian — Alice Kunkel.
Socials and Red Letter Days — Airs. Josie Williams and
Airs. Laura Westerfield.
Sabbath Observance — Airs. Pearl Owens.
442 DARKE COUNTY
Sabbath Work — Mrs. Emma Somers.
Temperance and Mission — Mrs. Cora Landis
The officers of the county organization are :
President — Mrs. Emma Mathews.
Vice President — Laura Westerfield.
Corresponding Secretary — Mary Mansfield.
Recording Secretary — Ella Lowry, New Madison.
Treasurer — W. W. Fowler, Union City.
Advisory Committee — Mrs. Florence Jobes, IMrs. Nellie
Sellers, Arcanum, Mrs. W. B. Rice, Gordon, Mrs. Dessie
White, HoUansburg, Mrs. Florence Boyd.
Besides the W. C. T. U. an active Prohibition Club was
recently organized in Greenville. The following are now the
President— ^^'. C. Mote.
Vice President — Mr. D. P. AA'hitesell.
Secretary — Mrs. Emma Mathews.
Treasurer — Mr. George Mace.
Recorder — Mrs. I.. C. Somers.
The vote for Daniel Poling, candidate for Governor of Ohio
on the Prohibition ticket in the fall of 1912 was nearly twelve
Perhaps the most striking evidence of the growth of the
temperance sentiment throughout the county in recent years
was afforded by the election held under the Rose County
local option law on Friday, October 16, 1908. The opposing
forces were stronglv organized, the "dry" forces being led by
Rev. L. E. Smith of the Baptist church, whom they had em-
ployed to superintend the campaign. The county was covered
and guarded by an army of workers, both men and women,
who kept the local ".Anti-Saloon League" posted on every
mo\'e and canvassed thoroughly every district. .As a result
the vote cast was the largest in the history of the countv up
to that time, the total being nearly eleven thousand — more
than a thousand votes over that cast in the Herrick-Patter-
son campaign of 1905 in which the liquor question entered
prominently. The result showed a majority of two hundred
and eighty-four in favor of the temperance people who carried
eleven in the incorporated villages and were especially
strong in the rural precincts. Greenville, Versailles, L^nion
City, New IMadison, Yorkshire, and Osgood showed compara-
tive small "wet" majorities in this election. At the next
local option the decision was reversed at the polls but it is
DARKE COUNTY 443
readily seen, and generally acknowledged that the temper-
ance sentiment has increased with the years and is probably
stronger today than ever before, largely, no doubt, because
of the persistent activity of the various forces above men-
tioned in conjunction with the work of the state and national
temperance organizations and the changed conditions of the
The Pioneer Association.
On July 4. 1870, thirteen pioneers met in Hart's Grove and
organized the first pioneer association of Darke county.
Over sixty years had passed since the first settlers came to
Darke county and these patriotic survixors of early days
realized that it was time that reliable data relating to the early
life of the settlers be secured and preserved in order that
future generations might in a measure learn to appreciate the
hardships, and sacrifices incident to pioneer life and become
acquainted with the customs of those early days.
The following pioneers were present and signed the con-
stitution : Henry Arnold, Aaron Hiller, Israel Cox, John S.
Hiller, David Studabaker, John Wharry, Josiah D. Elston,
James Cloyd, John Martin, Robert Martin, Henry W. Emer-
son, John Stahl and William F. Bishop. James Cloyd was
elected president, John S. Hiller and H. W. Emerson vice pres-
idents, John \\'harry secretary and H. Arnold, treasurer.
The first big annual basket meeting of the new society was
held in Hart's Grove on July 4, 1871 and was a grand suc-
cess. It was at this meeting that the ceremonies attending
the removal of the remains of the Wilson children were per-
formed as described elsewhere. Yearlv meetings were held
for several j-ears thereafter at various places, including
]\lorningstar"s grove, the fair ground, probate court room and
city hall at which interesting addresses were made by such
.speakers as Hon. G. V. Dorsey, of Piqua, H. K. McConnell,
H. A\\ Emerson. Dr. I. N. Gard, Abner Haines of Eaton, G.
D. Hendricks, Hon. Wm. Allen, A. R. Calderwood and others.
In the intervening years many names were added to the roll
of the society, but on account of the advanced age of the
signers, the ranks rapidly depleted and the annual meetings
seem to have declined in attendance and interest until the
first generation of the descendants of the pioneers took up
tlie work and endeavored to continue it.
In 1907 the association reorganized and elected A. H. Gil-
444 DARKE COUNTY
bert, president; James W. Martin, secretary; B. F. Coppess,
treasurer. Since that time the annual meetings have been
held in the fair grounds in September at which instructive and
inspiring addresses have been made by George Martz, Prof.
J. T. Martz, Hon. James I. Allread, Allen Andrews, D. L.
Gaskill, Oscar Krickenberger, Hon. O. E. Harrison, 'George
W. Manix, Jr., and others.
An organization of the "Pupils of the Greenville schools
during the fifties and sixties" has been effected and these now
hold a joint meeting with the pioneer association. At a
special meeting held Xovemljer 21, 1911, a movement was
started having as its aim the erection of a log memorial
building in the fair grounds for the purpose of housing pio-
neer relics and holding the annual meetings. This building
is being erected and will, no doubt, be completed before the
annual fair of 1914. At this time A. H. Gilbert is presidnt, Z.
T. Dorman, vice president and John C. Turpen, treasurer.
The names of the pupils of the Greenville schools in the
"fifties and sixties" as entered on the roll of the society is as
Mary Clew Alter, Greenville, O. ; John Ashley, Lincoln, 111.;
Wilson Arnold, Greenville, O. ; Xewton Arnold, Greenville,
O. ; W. W. Angel, Bluffton, Ind. ; Hon. Allen Andrews, Ham-
ilton, O. : Judge M. T. Allen, Los Angeles, Gal. ; \\'ade Bier-
ley, Harvey- Bierley, Wesley Bierley, Rachel Collins Black,
Jennie Hiller Bell, Alexander T. Bodel, Clififord Boyd, John
Bell, H. L. Brumbacher, Chas. Burdg. William Clew, Adeline
Craig Cubertson, William Collins, A. \\". Compton, J. S.
Clark, Chaney Craig, Dr. David L. Corbin, David Culbertson,
John Calderwood, George Coover, Frank Coover, Geo. W.
Calderwood, W. L. Collins, Mrs. W. J. Collins, G. P. Calder-
wood, G. W. Calkins, Z. T. Dorman, Mary Brown Duboice,
Elizabeth Derush Dye, Chester B. Fletcher, L. T. Fitz, Sadie
Faror Sater, Charles Frizell, Henry Fox, A. H. Gilbert, Ellen
Greenawalt, Esty, James Gorsuch, Helen Peyton Gilbert.
Jonathan Gorsuch, Horace Garst, W. J. Gilbert, Plenny Gar-
land, O. E. Garland, Edward Hufnagle, Emily Shepherd
Hartzell, B. F. Howard, Celia Lavendar Helm, A. C. Helm,
Samuel Hamilton, Helen Webb, Jinks, John Jinks, Volney
Jinks, Jennie Krug Kitzmiller, Tip King, Harry Knox. Anna
Coover Kenan, S. C. Keltner, Mrs. Jacob Keck, A. Kolp, John
Keck, Emma Dorman Lewis, Nancy Calderwood Lecklider,
T. C. Lynch, Isaac H. Lynch, Dr. William Lynch, Hon. Chas.
DARKE COUNTY 445
Lindermood, George Lines, James Laurimore, James AIcAl-
pine. Allen Miller, Frank Martin, Newton Martin, Dr. Ga-
briel Aliesse, Harry ?ileans, James W. Martin, Americus
Miesse, Percy Mackley, Pothena J. Shade Morgan, Lizzie
^IcAlpine, Hirondo Miesse, Andrew McKhann, George Os-
walt, Dr. ^^'m. Otwell, Bart. Otwell, John Porter, Wm. Purdy,
Mary J. Hamilton Rush, Robert Roby, James Ries, \A'. L.
Ries, Mar}' L. Ridan, Hall Robison, John Schnaus, Perry
Sharp, J. A. Smith, Alex. Swisher, O. Stines, Celinda Martin
Sebring, L W. Slawter, Lon Shade, J. Sanford Shepherd, Fla-
vins Shepherd, John Sharp, Sarah Coovers Sweet, Phoebe
Hamilton Sparks, Susan Mincer Studabaker, Mrs. E. M. Stev-
enson, Odlin Speece, Philip R. Stover, Geo. W. Seitz, Jack
Shade, Martha Wharry Turpen, John C. Turpen, Elizabeth
Fletcher Troy, Ed Tomlinson, Lottie Tomlinson, Clara Tom-
linson. Helen Creager Tomlinson, Wm. Vantilburg, John Van-
tilburg. ]\Irs. ■\Iollie Vandyke. Capt. James ^^'harry, Robert
Calvin ^^'ilson, Dottie Webster.
The Greenville Historical Society.
This association was organized January 23, 1903, for the
following purposes: To further the study of local history;
to secure a fitting memorial within the site of Fort Green-
ville commemorating the signing of Wayne's treaty ; to co-
operate with the curators of the public museum in collecting,
preserving and exhibiting articles of historical interest ; to
acquire, mark, and preserve local historical landmarks.
Frazer E. Wilson was elected first president; Dr. George L
Gunckel, vice president ; Dr. John E. Monger, secretary and
Prof. Jas. J. Martz, treasurer. The other charter members
were George A. Ivatzenberger, Osborn ^^'ilson and A. C.
This small group of active workers soon increased the
membership of the society and set about to accomplish its
objects. Results were soon apparent. In the summer of
1906 the Greenville Treaty Memorial was erected and dedi-
cated, and in the fall of 1907 the Fort Jefferson monument was
unveiled as described in the chapter on "Notable Events."
Besides these worthy accomplishments the society removed
the remains of William P. Dugan, a soldier of the Revolution,
from the old Water street cemetery to the soldiers' plot in
the New cemetery, secured oil portraits of St. Clair, Wayne
446 DARKE COUNTY
and Little Turtle, and some very valuable collections for the
museum. Indirectly it has stimulated the study of local his-
tory in the public schools and encouraged the growth and
proper use of the public museum by both the schools and the
general public. It does not consider its original objects as
fully accomplished but hopes to be instrumental in finally
securing the erection of a large and suitable treaty memorial
by the United States government, the marking of all the
really historical sites in the county, and the establishment oi
a course of local history study in the high schools of the
The present officers are: J. J. O'Brien, president; G. A.
Katzenberger, vice-president : F. E. Wilson, secretary ; Wil-
liam J. Swartz, treasurer. Meetings are held at irregular
intervals to hear specially prepared papers on local historical
subjects or to plan for the accomplishment of its various
The Darke County Medical Association.
The first medical society in Darke county was organized
July 15, 1848, for the purpose of regulating fees for services,
raising the ethical standards of practicing physicians, dis-
couraging quackery, promoting the interest of the profes-
sion and planning for better healtli conditions among the
I. \. Gard was chosen the first president and R. Gilpatrick
vice-president, A. Koogler recording secretary, O. G. Potts
corresponding secretary and Alfred Ayers, treasurer for the
ensuing year. liesides these physicians Doctors J. E.
Matchett. Otwell, Baskerville, Stiles, Dorwin. Hostetter,
Harter, Larrimore, Howe and Evans were members. Meet-
ings were held at intervals, but finally discontinued
until 1855 when the society was revived. At that time
the additional names of W. H. Matchett, E. Lynch,
S. D. Hager. Blunt, McCandless, Early, Williamson and
Lecklider are noticed on the records. Interest again
waned and the society was reorganized April 6, 1863,
at which time E. Otwell was chosen president, J. C. William-
son vice-president, E. Lynch secretary, J. A. Jobes corre-
sponding secretary and .\. Koogler treasurer. Drs. John Ford,
Francis Kusnick, S. K. Sour, J. P. Gordon, C. T. Evans, W. E.
Hooven, James Ruby and H. W. Dorwin were received as
members during this year, Theo. LufT in 1864 and J. E.
DARKE COUNTY 447
Fackler and O. E. Lucas in 1865. From 1848 to 1869 fifty-
four physicians were enrolled as members of the association,
of whom seventeen died during that period.
The society today is active and well organized and stands
in the front ranks of similar associations in Ohio. Meetings
are held monthly. The present officers are: President, J. C.
Poling; vice-president, G. W. Burnett; secretary-treasurer, J.
E. Hunter ; delegate, J. E. Monger ; alternate, M. M. Corwin ;
legislation, A. W. Rush ; censors, H. A. Snorf, J. S. Niederkorn
and (J. P. Wolverton. Public health. W. T. Fitzgerald, J. E.
Hunter and E. G. Husted.
The membership is forty-six, viz.: J. C. Poling and C. I.
Stevens, Ansonia ; P. W. B3fers, I. H. Hawes and W. A. Jones,
.\rcanum ; A. M. Brandon, Beamsville ; Louis Bigler and J.
^^^ Van Lue, Gettysburg ; L. R. Emericlc, Ithaca ; J. M. Ander-
son. G. \\'. Burnett, W. T. Fitzgerald, W. E. Guntrum, J. K.
Hunter, E. G. Husted, S. A. Hawes, Wm. Lynch, B. F. Met-
calf, J. E. Monger, D. Robeson, A. W. Rush, H. A. Snorf, C.
G. Swan, R. H. Spitler, A. F. Sarver, O. P. Wolverton, Green-
ville : J. E. Detamore, Hill Grove ; G. W. Harley, A. \V. Meek,
W. D. Bishop, Hollansburg; H. C. Reigle, Lightsville ; J. T.
Patton, New Weston ; E. A. Hecker, New Madison ; J. D.
Hartzell, North Star ; \Y. A. Cromley, Palestine ; C. F. Puter-
baugh. Painter Creek: J. O. Starr, Pittsburg; E. H. Black
and J. M. DeFord, Rossburg; ^I. M. Corwin, Savona ; J. B.
Ballinger, W. C. Gutermuth, J. S. Xiederkorn, E. G. Reprogle,
C. F. Rvan, Versailles; E. A. Fisher, Yorkshire.
BENCH AND BAR.
(By George A. Katzenberger, Attorney.)
The judicial system of this country, with its vast com-
plex, but harmonious organization, may justly be regarded as
among the most notable achievements of the human intellect.
Through its numerous tribunals of every grade, from that of
the supreme court of the United States to local justices of the
peace, it takes cognizance of every question of constitutional
construction, or of personal and property rights, that can arise
out of the social conditions or commercial activities of an in-
definite number of separate communities, organized as states,
and forming a federal union — the foremost nation of all the
world. It reaches the daily life of the people. It protects the
weak against the strong, the peaceable against violence, the
innocent against wrong, the honest against fraud, the indus-
trious against rapacit}-. By the universal consent of enlight-
ened men, justice is regarded as a divine attribute, and such
is its essential nature, therefore, as to impart dignity and
purity to all those who are worthily engaged in its adminis-
tration. The wise and just judge has, therefore, in all ages
and societies, been held in universal esteem.
The American lawyer can only be admitted to the practice
of the profession upon proof of good, moral character and
of such proficiency in knowledge of the law as to enable him
to render valuable service in the administration of justice.
The special law of each state prescribes the character and
method of the examination tri which each applicant for admis-
sion must be subjected, the length of time he must have de-
voted to the study of the elementary principles of the law and
the .system of its practice.
As the judicial departments of the government, federal and
state, can be administered only b}^ those learned in the law
and trained in its practice, the legal profession is the one only
calling, indispensably necessary to the continuation of our
constitutional system. Those called to the performance of
legislative or executive functions need not necessarilv be
450 DARKE COUNTY
lawyers. Indeed, many of those who have most acceptably
filled the various offices in both, have been called from other
pursuits. It is different with the judiciary. Xo man can at-
tain the dignity of the bench who has not demonstrated his
fitness and learning at the bar ; and who has not displayed in
the course of his legal practice those abilities, correct habits,
and moral principles that commend him to the endorsement
of his fellow-members of the profession for promotion.
As is generally known, the first legislature, which assem-
bled under the new state government of Ohio, passed an act
on the 15th of April, 1803, organizing the judicial courts of
the state. A presiding judge of the court of common pleas
was required to be appointed in each circuit, who, together
with three associate judges (not necessarily lawyers) consti
tuted the courts of common pleas of the respective coun-
ties. ^Montgomery county then comprised all the territory
north of the line of Butler and Warren counties as far as the
state line, and west to its western boundary, thus including
Darke county. The same act provided that until permanent
seats of justice should be fixed in the several new counties,
by commissioners appointed for that purpose, tht temporary
seat of justice, and the courts, should be held in the county of
Montgomery, at the house of George Newcom, in the town
The time fixed by the statutes for holding the court of com-
mon pleas in Montgomery county was the fourth Tuesdays
in March, July and November ; and that fixed for holding the