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Thomas Benfield Harbottle.

Dictionary of battles from the earliest date to the present time online

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Knowles, and a^l^anish squad-
ron of equal strength. The
action was fought with little
determination, and though the
British captured one ship, the
result was far from decisive.
The Spaniards lost 298, the
British 179 killed and wounded.



Havana (Seven Years' War).

In June, 1762, the Earl of
Clanwilliam, with 11,000 Brit-
ish troops, supported by a
squadron, under Admiral Po-
cocke, laid siege to Havana.
Moro Castle, the key of the
defences, was taken by storm,
and after a siege of two months
and eight days the city was
captured.

Heathfield.

Fought 633, between the
Mercians, under Penda, and
the Northumbrians, under Ed-
win. The latter were defeated
and Edwin slain.

Heavenfield.

Fought 634, between the
Anglo-Saxons, under the Bret-
walda, Oswald of Northumbria,
and the Britons, under Cad-
wallon. The Britons were
totally routed.

Hedgeley Moor (Wars of the
Roses).
Fought April 25, 1464, be-
tween the Lancastrians, under
Margaret of Anjou and Sir
Ralph Percy, and the Yorkists,
under Lord Montague. The
Lancastrians were totally de-
feated, Percy falling in the
battle.

Heiliger-Zee (Netherlands War
of Independence).
Fought May 23, 15 68, be-
tween the '"Beggars," under
Louis of Nassau, and 5,000
veteran Spaniards, under Arem-
berg. Louis occupied a very
strong position on a wooded
height, near the monastery of
the Holy Lion, his front being
protected by a morass crossed
by a narrow causeway. The
Spanish infantry traversed this



io8



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



to the attack, but were repulsed,
and Count Aremberg, leading a
charge of horse, in the hope of
restoring the day, fell mortally
wounded. Upon this the
Spaniards broke and fled, hav-
ing suffered a loss of i,6oo men.

Heilsberg (Campaign of Fried-
land).
Fought June lo, 1807, be-
tween 30,000 French, under
Marshal Soult, and 80,000 Rus-
sians, under General Bennigsen.
The Russians occupied the
heights on both sides of the AUe,
and the plains below, being in
greater force on the left bank.
The French attacked and drove
the Russians into the entrench-
ments, but could make no
further progress, and night put
an end to an obstinate but in-
conclusive conflict, in which the
Russians lost about 10,000, the
French, 8,000 killed and wound-
ed.

Hekitai-Kan (Invasion of Korea).
Fought 1595, between the
Japanese, under Kobayagawa
Takakage, and the Chinese,
under Li Chin. The Chinese
were utterly routed, Li's army
being almost annihilated, and
he himself escaping with difti-
culty from the field.

Heligoland (Napoleonic Wars).

This island was captured,
August 31,1 807, from the Danes,
by a small British squadron,
under Admiral Thomas Russell.

Heliopolis (French Invasion of
Egypt).
Fought March 20, 1800, be-
tween 10,000 French, under
Kleber, and about 70,000 Turks,
under Ibrahim Bey. The Turks
were utterly routed, with a loss



of several thousand men, while
the French only lost about 300
killed and wounded.

Hellespont (War of the Two
Empires).
Fought 323, between the
fleet of Constantine the Great,
consisting of 200 small galleys,
imtler Crispus, and that of
Licinius, numbering 350 sail,
under Amandus. After two
days' hard fighting, Crispus
forced the passage of the Helles-
pont, and totally routed the
Eastern fleet, with a loss of 130
ships and 5,000 men.

Helorus.

Fought B.C. 492, between
Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela,
and the Syracusans, The Syra-
cusans were totally routed, and
were so weakened by this defeat,
that Syracuse fell an easy pres-
to Gelon, Hippocrates' suc-
cessor, in the following year.

Helsingborg (Dano - Spanish
Wars).
Fought 17 10, between 20,000
Swedes, of whom 12,000 were
raw recruits, under General
Steinbock, and the Danish in-
vading army. The Swedes won
a signal victory, and the in-
vaders were compelled to take
refuge under the walls of Hel-
singborg, and a few days later
to embark for Denmark. Be-
sides killed, they left 4,000
wounded prisoners in the hands
of the Swedes.

Hemushagu (Invasion of Korea).

Fought 1595, between the
Japanese, under Konishi Yuki-
naga, and the Chinese, under Li
Chin. The Japanese were de-
feated, and forced to retire upon
the capital.



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



109



Hengestesdun (Danish Inva-
sion).
Fought 835, when the men of
Wessex, under Egbert, totally
defeated the Danes and Cornish
Britons.

Hennersdorf (War of the Aus-
trian Succession).
Fought November, 1745, be-
tween 60,000 Prussians, under
Frederick the Great, and 40,000
Austrians and Saxons, under
Prince Charles of Lorraine.
Frederick surprised Prince
Charles on the march, and
utterly routed his vanguard,
comprised of Saxons, with enor-
mous loss. The Austrians were
compelled in consequence to
retire into Bohemia.

Heraclea (Pyrrhus* Invasion of
Italy).
Fought B.C. 280, between the
Epirots, 30,000 strong, under
Pyrrhus, and about 35,000 Ro-
mans, under P. Laverius Lae-
vinus. The Romans crossed
the Sirisin the face of the enemy,
when they were attacked by
Pyrrhus, and after a furious
conflict, were at last broken by
his elephants, and fled in dis-
order, losing about 7,000 men.
The Epirots lost 4,000.

Heraclea.

Fought 313, between the
lUyrians, under Licinius, after-
wards Emperor of the East, and
the troops of the reigning Em-
peror Maximinus. Licinius was
marching with 30,000 men to
the relief of Heraclea, when he
was attacked by Maximinus,
with 70,000. Licinius was at
first driven back by weight of
numbers, but his skill, and the
steadiness of his troops, enabled
him to rally, and eventually



Maximinus was defeated with
heavy loss.

Herat (Tartar Invasion of Af-
ghanistan).

This city was captured, 1220,
by 20,000 Tartars, under Sudah
Bahadur. The Governor, Emin
Malek, was entirely unprepared
to stand a siege, and surrendered
when the Tartars appeared be-
fore the walls. Having mean-
while been retaken by a coup-de-
main, by Shems-ed-din, who
held it as an independent chief-
tain, Herat was again besieged
by the Mongols, under Tuli
Khan, in 1221. After a brief,
but resolute resistance, during
which Shems-ed-din fell, the
inhabitants opened the gates
to the besiegers, and the garrison
was put to the sword.

Herat (Perso-Afghan Wars).

On November 22, 1837, Mo-
hamed. Shah of Persia, laid
siege to the city, which was held
by an Afghan garrison, under
Yar Mohamed. After a some-
what desultory siege, an attempt
was made to storm the place,
June 24, 1838, when the Persians
were repulsed with a loss of
1,700 men. From this time a
tacit armistice existed till Sep-
tember 9, when the Shah with-
drew his army.

Herdonea (Second Punic War).
Fought B.C. 210, when the
Carthaginians, under Hannibal,
defeated, and practically des-
troyed an army of 25,000 Ro-
mans, under Cnaeus Fulvius.
Fulvius was among the slain.

Hericourt (Burgundian Wars).

Fought November 13, 1474,
between the Swiss, 18,000
strong, and the Burgundians,



no



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



10,000 in number. The Bur-
gundians were totally defeated,
the town of Hericourt taken.

Hermanstadt (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1442, and notable as
being the first appearance of
John Huniades in arms against
the Turks. With an army of
Hungarians he totally defeated
Wejid Bey, who was besieging
Hermanstadt, inflicting on the
Turks a loss of 20,000 men, and
relieving the place. The Hun-
garians lost 3,000.

Hernani (First Carlist War).

Fought August 29, 1836, be-
tween the British legion, under
General Evans, and the Carlists.
Evans was defeated.

Hernani (First Carlist War).

Fought March 15 and 16,
1837, between the British legion,
and a small contingent of Cris-
tinos, under General Evans, and
about 17,000 Carlists, under
Don Sebastian, strongly posted
on the Hernani road. On the
15th, Evans attacked the Car-
lists on the Venta heights, and
after five hours' fighting occupied
the position. On the i6th,
when the conflict was resumed,
the Carlists retired into Hernani,
but reinforcements arriving,
they took the offensive, and
forced Evans to retreat.

Herrera (First Carlist War).

Fought August 23, 1837, be-
tween the Carlists, under Don
Carlos, with General Moreno in
actual command, and the Cris-
tinos, under General Buerens.
Don Carlos, who was marching
upon Madrid, attacked Buerens
before he could effect a junction
with Espartero, and severely



defeated him, the Cristinos los-
ing 50 officers, and 2,600 men
killed, wounded and missing.
Don Carlos, after tliis victory,
advanced to within twelve miles
of Madrid, when the appearance
of Espartero, at the head of
20,000 troops, obhged him to
retire.

Herrings, The (Hundred Years'
War).
Fought at Roncray-St. -Denis,
February 12, 1429. Sir John
Fastolfe was in charge of a
convoy of salt fish for the Eng-
lish army before Orleans, and
hearing of the approach of a
French force, under the Bastard
of Orleans, intrenched himself
at Roncray. Here the French
attacked him, and were repulsed
with heavy loss, the Bastard
being severely wounded.

Hexham (Wars of the Roses).

Fought May 15, 1464, when
the Yorkists, under Montague,
surprised the Lancastrians, under
Somerset, in their camp at
Linnels, near Hexham. The
Lancastrians were practically
in a trap, and had no option but
to surrender. Somerset and
many other important leaders
were taken, and promptly exe-
cuted. Tliis success secured
Edward IV on the throne.

Himera (First Carthaginian In-
vasion of Sicily).
Fought 480 B.C., between the
Syracusans and Agrigentines,
557,000 strong, under Gelon,
Tyrant of Syracuse, and the
Carthaginians, said to number
300,000, under Hamilcar. The
Carthaginians were totally
routed, and Hamilcar slain.



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



Himera (Second Carthaginian
Invasion of Sicily).

This place was besieged by
the Carthaginians, under Hanni-
bal, B.C. 409. A first assault
was repulsed, and Diodes arriv-
ing in the harbour with 25 ships,
rescued half the inhabitants.
Three days later he returned
for the remainder, but too late,
for before he could reach the
harbour the breach was stormed.
The town was sacked, and 3,000
prisoners were sacrificed to ap-
pease the shade of Hamilcar, who
had fallen in the battle of 480.

Hippo (Invasion of the Vandals).
Siege was laid to this city in
May, 430, by the Vandals, under
Genseric. It was defended by
Boniface, Count of Africa, who
having command of the sea, was
able to keep the city well pro-
visioned, and after fourteen
months Genseric retired. A-
mong those who died during the
siege was St. Augustine.

Hochkirchen (Seven Years'
War).
Fought October 14, 1758,
between the Prussians, under
Frederick the Great, and the
Austrians, under Count Daun.
Frederick, who was encamped
on the heights of Hochkirchen,
was surprised in the early morn-
ing by the Austrians, who broke
into his camp and seized his
artillery. He succeeded, how-
ever, in forming up his troops,
and descending into the plain,
made good his retreat to Baut-
zen. The Prussians lost 9,000
men, including the Prince of
Brunswick and Marshal Keith,
all their tents and baggage, and
loi guns. The Austrians lost
8,000 killed and wounded.



Hochstett (Wars of the French
Revolution).
Fought June 19, 1800, be-
tween 70,000 French, under
Moreau, and about 80,000 Aus-
trians, under de Kray. Moreau
crossed the Danube with the
object of cutting off the Aus-
trians from their base, and forc-
ing them to evacuate Ulm. In
a battle which lasted 18 hours,
he succeeded in establishing
himself upon the left bank, and
making Ulm untenable. The
French took 5,000 prisoners
and 20 guns, but the losses on
both sides in killed and wounded
were small for the numbers
engaged.

Hoechst (Thirty Years' War).

Fought June 10, 1622, be-
tween 20,000 Palatinate troops,
under Christian of Brunswick,
and 33,000 Imperialists, under
Tilly. Christian having failed
to join forces with Mansfeldt,
was in retreat, and was engaged
in holding a bridge over the
Main. While thus employed
he was overtaken by Tilly, and
though a village covering the
bridge was held gallantly for
five hours, he was at last over-
powered, losing about 12,000
in killed, wounded and prisoners.
The Imperialist loss was com-
paratively small.

Hogland (Russo- Swedish Wars).
Fought 1789, between the
Russian fleet, under Admiral
Greig, and the Swedes, under
the Duke of Sudermanland.
Each side lost a ship, but strate-
gically the affair was a Russian
victory, for the Swedes were
compelled to seek the protection
of the forts of Sveaborg.



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



Hohenfriedberg (War of the
Austrian Succession).
Fought June 3, 1745, between
the Austrians and Saxons, under
Charles of Lorraine, and the
Prussians, under Frederick the
Great. The Saxons, who were
encamped at Strigau, were at-
tacked in the early morning,
and defeated before the Aus-
trians could come to their aid.
Frederick then turned upon the
Austrians, and routed them,
after desperate fighting. The
Austrians and Saxons lost 4,000
killed and wounded, 7,000 pri-
soners, including 4 generals, and
66 guns. The Prussians lost
2,000.

Hohenlinden (Wars of the French
Revolution).
Fought December 3, 1800,
between the French, 60,000
strong, under Moreau, and
70,000 Austrians, under the
Archduke John. Moreau occu-
pied the small clearing of Hohen-
linden, and the surrounding
forest, while the Austrian army
marched by five distinct routes
to rendezvous at Hohenlinden.
The Archduke's attack on the
village was repulsed, and mean-
while Moreau had fallen upon
his advancing columns atvarious
points, and after severe fighting
defeated them. The Austrians
lost 7,000 killed and wounded,
12,000 prisoners and 87 guns.

Hollabrunn (Campaign of the
Danube).
A rearguard action to protect
the retreat of the main Russian
army, under Kutusoff, No-
vember 16, 1805, between 7,000
Russians, under Prince Bagra-
tion, and the French, under
Lannes. Bagration did not



retire until he had lost half his
force.

Homildon Hill (Scottish Wars).
Fought September, 1402, when
the Percies lay in wait for
a Scottish force, under Murdach
Stewart, and Archibald, Earl of
Douglas, who were returning
from a foray into England.
The Scots were totally routed,
losing Stewart, 4 Scottish
peers, and 80 gentlemen of
rank.

Honain.

Fought 629, between 12,000
Moslems, under Mohammed,
and a force of pagan Arabs,
4,000 strong. The Moslems were
lured into the valley of Honain,
and were assailed by slingers
and archers from the surround-
ing heights. They were, how-
ever, rallied by the Prophet, and
totally routed the Pagans, who
submitted to the rule of Mo-
hammed.

Hondschook (Wars of the French
Revolution).
Fought September, 1793, be-
tween the Austrians, under
Freytag, and the French, under
Houchard. The Austrians occu-
pied a strong position from
which they were driven in dis-
order, and with heavy loss
As a consequence of this victory,
the siege of Dunkirk was raised.

Hooghly, The.

Fought November 24, 1759,
between three British ships,
under Commodore Wilson, and
a Dutch squadron of seven sail.
After two hours' fighting, the
Dutch were completely defeated,
and all their ships captured.
Meanwhile a force of 700 Euro-
peans and 800 Sepoys landed



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



113



from the Dutch fleet, was de-
feated with heavy loss by 330
British troops and 800 Sepoys,
under Colonel Forde.

Huesca (Mohammedan Empire
in Spain).

Fought 1 105, when the Moors,
under Ali attacked the Spaniards,
who, under Alfonso VI of Cas-
tile, were besieging Huesca.
Ali was utterly routed, losing
10,000 killed in the battle.

Huesca (First Carlist War).

Fought May 23, 1837, be-
tween 20,000 Carlists, under
Don Carlos and Don Sebastian,
and 12,000 Cristinos and British
under General Irribarreu. The
British legion behaved un-
steadily and the Cristinos were
driven from the field, though
the pursuit was checked by a
brilliant cavalry charge, in
which Irriba.rreu fell. The
Cristinos lost over 1,000 killed
and wounded, of which number
the British legion lost 277.

Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought May, 1866, between
the Paraguayans, under Lopez,
and the Argentinians, under
Mitre. Mitre attacked the Para-
guayan entrenchments, but was
repulsed with heavy loss.

Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought February, 1868, be-
tween the Paraguayan batteries,
and a flotilla of Brazilian gun-
boats, endeavouring to force the
passage. Their attempt was a
complete failure, and the whole
flotilla was sunk.

Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought September, 1868, be-
tween the Paraguayans, under



Lopez, and the allied armies of
Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.
The allies largely outnumbered
Lopez's forces, and forced him
to abandon his entrenchments
at Humaita, and retire to Te-
bienari.

Humblebeck (Dano-Swedish
Wars).
Fought 1700, when Charles
XII, with a small force of Swedes,
landed in face of the Danish
army, which was strongly en-
trenched close the shore, and
drove them headlong from their
position with heavy loss.

Hydaspes, The (Alexander's
Campaigns in Asia).
Fought B.C. 327, between
65,000 Macedonians and 70,000
Asiatics, under Alexander the
Great, and the army of the
Indian king Porus, numbering
30,000 infantry, with 200 ele-
phants and 300 war chariots.
Alexander crossed the river a
few miles above Porus' entrench-
ments, and utterly routed him,
with a loss of 12,000 killed and
9,000 prisoners, including Porus
himself. The Macedonians lost
1 ,000 only.

Hyderabad (Conquest of Scinde).

Fought March 24, 1843, be-
tween 6,000 British troops, under
Sir Charles Napier, and 20,000
Beluchis, under Shir Moham-
med. The latter was strongly
entrenched behind the FuUali,
but the Beluchis, being thrown
into disorder by a heavy artil-
lery fire, were overthrown by a
charge of cavalry on their ex-
posed flank, and a frontal attack
lay the 22nd Regiment. This
defeat put an end to the resist-
ance of the Scinde Emirs.



114



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



Hysiae.

Fought, approximately, 668
B.C., between the Spartans and
the Argives. The former were
totally defeated, and Argos was
left in undisputed possession of
the supremacy of the Pelopon-
nesus.



I.



Ichinotani (Taira War).

Fought 1 1 89, between the
troops of the Shogun Minamoto-
no-Yoritomo, under his brothers
Xorigoris and Yoshitsune, and
the forces of the Taira clan.
The Taira were signally defeated.

Iclistavisus (Germanic Wars).

Fought 16, between 8 Roman
legions, under Germanicus, and
the Germans, under Arminius.
The Germans attacked the Ro-
mans in the open plain, but
failed against the superior dis-
cipUne of the legionaries, and
were routed with enormous loss.
Arminius with difficulty cut his
way out of the press and es-
caped.

Immac (Revolt of Elagabalus).

Fought June 7, 218, between
the Syrian legions, under Elaga-
balus, and the Imperial troops
and Pretorians, under the Em-
peror Macrinus. The Pretor-
ians, by their superior valour
and discipline, broke the legions
opposed, and the victory would
have been theirs, but at the
crisis of the fight, Macrinus fied,
and this so discouraged his
troops, that in the end they
were totally defeated.

Imola (Napoleon's Italian Cam-
paigns).
Fought February 3, 1797,



when 8,000 French and Italians,
under Victor, defeated the Papal
troops, 7,000 strong, under
General Colli. Victor took the
Papal army in the rear, and
routed them with a loss of a few
hundred only, as no stand was
made.

Indus, The (Tartar Invasion of
Kharismia).
Fought B.C. 1 22 1, between
300,000 Tartars, under Genghis
Khan, and the army of Jellalla-
din. Sultan of Kharismia, 30,000
strong. Jellalladin fought with
his back to the river, and after
an obstinate conflict, in which
he inflicted heavy loss on his
assailants, was driven across
the Indus, ha\dng lost 19,000
men killed and drowned. The
Tartars lost 20,000.

Ingavi.

Fought November 18, 1841,
between the Bohvians, under
Balhvian, 3,800 strong, and the
Peruvians, 5,200 strong, imder
Gamarra. The Peruvians were
utterly routed, and their army
dispersed, Gamarra being among
the killed.

Ingogo (First Boer War).

Fought February 8, 1881
when a small British column,
consisting of 5 companies of
infantry, 4 guns, and a small
mounted force, attacked the
Boer position, and were repulsed
with a loss of 139 killed and
wounded. The Boers admitted
a loss of 14 only.

Inhlobane Mountain (Zulu War).
Fought March 28, 1879, when
a British force of 1,300 men,
under Colonels Buller and Rus-
sell, attacked a strong Zulu
kraal, and after severe fighting,



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



115



were repulsed with considerable
loss.

Inkerman (Crimean War).

Fought November 5, 1854,
when 50,000 Russians, under
Prince Mentschikoff, attacked
the British position at Inker-
man, held by about 8,000 troops.
There was a dense fog, and the
battle was chiefly a series of
detached hand-to-hand combats
some of the most serious fighting
being round the Sandbag Bat-
tery, where the Russians lost
1,200 killed. At 10 o'clock, the
French arrived on the scene,
and the Russians were soon in
full retreat, having suffered very
heavy loss.

Inverlochy (Civil War).

Fought February 2, 1645,
when Montrose, with 1,500
Royalist Highlanders, defeated
3,000 Campbells and Lowland
Covenanters, with a loss of 1,700
men. Argyle left the command
of his forces to Campbell of
Auchinbrech, taking refuge in a
vessel on Loch Linnhe. This
defeat broke the power of the
Campbells in the Highlands for
many years.

nverkeithing (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1317, between the
English invaders, and the Scots,
under the Earl of Fife. The
first onslaught of the English
drove the Scots from their
positions, but they were rallied
by William Sinclair, Bishop of
Dunkeld, and forced the English
to retire to their ships.

Inverary (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1 5 10, between the
Scots, under Robert Bruce, and
the English, under Sir John
Mowbray, with whom was a



small force of Scottish sym
pathisers with the English
claims, under the Earl of Buchan.
The English were totally de-
feated and driven from the field
with heavy loss.

Ipsus (Wars of Alexander's
Successors).
Fought B.C. 302, between the
Syrians, 32,000 strong, under
Seleucus, and the Macedonians,
30,000 in number, under Anti-
gonus. Seleucus utterly routed
the Macedonians, Antigonus
being among the slain. Deme-
trius Poliorcetes, who now took
command, only succeeded in
rallying 8,000 men, after fleeing
for 200 miles.

Irun (First Carlist War).

This fortress was captured,
May 18, 1837, by 10,000 Cris-
tinos and British, under General
Evans. Evans appeared before
the place at noon, and sum-
moned it to surrender. On the
Carlists refusing, an assault was
ordered ; by 1 1 p.m. the fortress
was taken, with very small loss
to the assailants.

Isandhlwana (Zulu War).

Fought January 22, 1879,
when six companies of the 24th
Regiment, with two guns and a
small force of Natal volunteers,
under Colonel Durnford, were
overwhelmed and massacred by
the Zulus, under Matyana. Of
the regulars, 26 officers and 600
men were killed, in addition to
24 officers, and a large number
of men in the Colonial force.

Isara, The (Third Gallic Inva-
sion).
Fought August 8, 121 B.C.,
between the Arverni and AUo-
broges, under Betuitdus, and the



Ii6



DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



Romans, under Q. Fabius Maxi-
mus. The Gauls were totally
defeated, and a bridge breaking
down under the press of the
fugitives, they sui?ered enormous
loss.

Isaszcq (Hungarian Rising).

Fought April 6, 1849, between
the Hungarians, 42,000 strong,
under Gorgey, and the Croats,
under Jellachich. The Hun-
garian First Corps, under Klap-
ka, was put to flight, but the
rest stood their ground, and
repulsed the Croat attack. Both
armies bivouacked for the night
on the ground they held, but
early on the following morning
Jellachich retired, the Hun-
garians thus being entitled to
claim a victory.

Isle da France (Napoleonic Wars).
This island, now known as
Mauritius, was cajitured from
the French, December 3, 18 10,
by a fleet of 19 ships, under
Admiral Bertie, convoying a
number of transports, carrying
10,000 troops, under General
Abercromby. The British lost
167 killed wounded and
missing. Seven frigates and
ten sloops were taken, as well as
21 French and 3 captured Brit-
ish merchantmen.

Isly (Abd-el-Kader's Rebellion).

Fought August 14, 1844, be-
tween 8,000 F ench, under
Marshal Bugeaud, and 45,000



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