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" Eccopsis fluctuatana, n. s. (PL X., fig. 7).

Capite thorace antennis et palpis grisescentibus. Alis
anticis costa fluctuata albidis, a basi ad finem cellulse

* Since writing the above I hare received, through the kind
assistance of Mr. W. F. Kirby, a slight sketch of the hind wing of
the original male specimen of Eccopsis wcihl-
bergiana, described by Zeller, for which I arn
indebted to Mr. C. Aurivillius, Assistant in
the Entomological Department of the State
Museum at Stockholm. Although the wing
is somewhat narrower and more tapering towards the apex than
those of the American species of Exartema, this sketch tends
strongly to confirm the view that the genera Eccopsis, Zeller,
and Exartema, Clemens, are identical.




Tineida, and Pterophoridce of South Africa. 231

fusco adumbratis excepta plaga costali elongata ante
medium. Posticis brunneo-fuscis.

Head and thorax greyish ; palpi greyish, much shaded
on the end of the second joint and on the short apical
joint with fuscous. Antennae greyish. Fore wings (with
the costa slightly waved, the apex depressed, the apical
margin slightly oblique) whitish, with a strong fuscous
patch stretching over nearly two-thirds of their length,
having its outer margin oblique and somewhat irregularly
denned; an elongated patch of the whitish ground
colour running along the costal margin before the
middle, extending to the base, surrounded by the fuscous
shade, and containing some small fuscous costal spots
and streaklets, which are again repeated beyond the
middle. Towards the apex is an olivaceous costal shade,
and an inconspicuous olivaceous streak crossing from
the costa to the middle of the apical margin. Hind
wings brownish fuscous, their costal margin whitish.
Two females ; expanse, 19 mm.

" D'Urban and Spring Vale ; to light in garden,
September and November."

Having only two female specimens from which to
describe this species, it must be somewhat uncertain
whether I have rightly placed it in the genus Eccopsis.
The coloration is almost exactly that of a Penthina, but
the shape of the wings is remarkably similar to those of
the supposed Eccopsis ivahlbergiana, mentioned above, as
well as to those of many species of the North American
genus, Exartema*

APHELIA, Stephens.
^ Aphelia lanceolana. .* , v

Aphelia lanceolana, Hub., Wocke Cat., No. 1006.
Bactra stagnicolana, Zell., Handlingar Kong. Svensk.

Vetens. Akad., 1852, p. 84. .
Ancylolomia siccella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M.,

xxxv., p. 1750.

I find in Mr. Gooch's collection three specimens,
which do not appear to differ in any greater degree from
some of the European varieties of Aphelia lanceolana,

* See footnote on preceding page.
TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1881. PART II. (JULY.) 2 H







232 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricida,

Hub., than they differ from each other. Prof. Zeller
described his Bactra stagnicolana from a single specimen
in bad condition, as being "lanceolanae valde affine sed
distinction alis latioribus, margine postico minus obliquo ;
linea disci postici recta, non arcuata fractave." The
remainder of his description could be fitly applied to one
of the more distinctly marked varities which occur in
this country.

The characters relied upon by Zeller are not sufficiently
maintained in the three examples now before me to justify
me in regarding the African species as specifically distinct
from the common European form, which has also been
recorded from North America.

Mr. Walker has inadvertently placed this species
among the CramUdce, describing it under the name of
Ancylolomia siccella. His specimen agrees entirely with
English examples of A. lanceolana, which tends to
confirm the opinion that the African form is merely a
variety of this well-known species.

Mr. Gooch's specimens were taken at Spring Yale, in
bush ; December, March, and April.



GRAPHOLITHA, Treitschke.

^i^rapholitha spissana, Zell., Handlingar Kong. Svensk.
Vetens. Akad., 1852, p. 82 ; Walk., Cat. Lep. Het.,
B. M., xxviii., p. 388.



CARPOCAPSA, Treitschke.

Carpocapsa diremptana, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M.,
xxviii. 409, 410.

The specimen in the British Museum, from which
Mr. Walker's description was taken, has much the
general appearance and structure of the genus Penthina,
but its condition is too bad to warrant a re-description,
although a good specimen of the species might easily be
recognised by comparison with it.

STEGANOPTYCHA, Stephens.
'Steganoptycha infausta, n. s. (PL X., fig. 8).

Capite, palpis, antennis et thorace brunneo-fuscis
subgrisescentibus. Alis anticis elongatis acuminatis,



Tineidce, and Pterophorida of South Africa. 233

margine apicali obliquo, obscure brunneo-fuscis ; posticis
dilute fusco-griseis.

Head, palpi, antennae and thorax brownish fuscous,
with a slight greyish tinge ; the palpi projecting about
the length of the head beyond it; antennae simple.
Fore wings elongate-acuminate, with the costa slightly
rounded ; the apical margin oblique ; very slightly
indented below the pointed apex; unicolorous dark
brownish fuscous. Hind wings about the same width as
the fore wings ; pale greyish fuscous, cilia the same.
Abdomen missing. Expanse, 19 mm.

One male. At D 'Urban, taken at light.



PHOXOPTEKIS, Treitschke.
Phoxopteris natalana, n. s. (PI. X., fig. 9).

Alis anticis falcatis dilute argillaceis ; umbra ferruginea
externe prope apicem acuminata et strigulis costalibus
ante medium fuscis ultra medium dilute argillaceis ;
margine apicali peranguste fusco, ciliis argillaceis fer-
rugineo finitis. Posticis cinereis.

Head pale reddish ochreous ; palpi projecting about
the length of the head beyond it ; the apical joint and
the surrounding scales which project from the second
joint fuscous; antennas tinged with ferruginous. Fore
wings pale argillaceous, much shaded with ferruginous,
which forms an acute angle before the falcate apex,
leaving on the space above the anal angle a patch of the
plain ground colour : this ferruginous shade contains
above the middle of the wing and about the end of the
cell a longitudinal reduplicated and somewhat diffused
blackish fuscous streak, and below it two or three
slender diverging lines of the paler ground colour. , On
the costa before the middle are five or six small oblique
fuscous streaks, beyond the middle is a ferruginous
shade interrupted by a series of reduplicated pale streaks
each centred with a few dark fuscous scales at the base ;
the first of these streaks follows the upper edge of the
ferruginous discal shade from the middle of the costa
nearly to its extreme angle near the apical margin,
where it almost joins the point of the last streak nearest
to the apex ; a slender dark fuscous line indicates the
apical margin at the base of the pale cilia, which are



234 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricida,

tipped with ferruginous. Hind wings pale cinereous.
Expanse, 15 mm.

One specimen in Mr. Gooch's collection.



TINEID^E.

CHOREUTIS, Hiibner.

Choreutis bjerkandrella, Thnb., Wocke Cat., No. 1302.
Choreutis vibralis, Zell., 'Isis,' 1847, pp. 23120.
Choreutis vibrana, var. 0. australis, Zell., ' Isis,' 1847,

p. 643.

Choreutis vibrana, var. #. Ephemerid, Entomol. x. 235.
Choreutis australis, Zell., Handlingar Kong. Svensk.

Vetens. Akad., 1852, p. 85.

A single specimen in bad condition is in Mr. Gooch's
collection, taken at Spring Vale at light in October.
After careful comparison I am quite unable to separate
it from the common and well-known European species
from which Prof. Zeller at first considered his African
Choreutis australis to be distinguishable. The name
"australis" appears to be rightly included as a synonym
in the European Catalogue of Staudinger and Wocke.

ATYCHIA, Ochsenheimer.

Atychia quiris, F. & E., Keise d. Nov., pi. cxxxix.,
fig. 36.

PENESTOGLOSSA, Eogenhofer.
(Psilothrix, Wocke, nomen bis lectum.)

C Penestoglossa capensis, F. & K., Eeise d. Nov., pi. cxxxix.,
fig. 31.

SEMIOSCOPIS, Hiibner.

Semioscopis ? trigonella, F. & E., Eeise d. Nov., pi.
cxxxix., fig. 39.

TIQUADBA, Walker.
Tiquadra goochii, n. s. (PI. X., fig. 10).

Capite squamis appressis cinereo-griseis. Antennis
fortibus. Palpis recurvis obtusis articulis secundo et
tertio fasciculatis. Alis anticis elongatis (costa arcuata,
apice et margine apicali rotundatis) canis cinereo-fusco



Tineidce, and Pterophorida of South Africa. 235

irroratis guttatis et fasciculatis. Alis posticis ovatis
cinereo-ochraceis, ciliis pallidoribus.

Head with appressed pale greyish fuscous scales,
paler in front and beneath. Antennae rather stout, not
ciliated. Tongue none ; ocelli none ; maxillary palpi
none. Labial palpi recurved, dingy whitish, touched
with cinereous on their outer sides, with the second
joint tufted beneath, the apical joint shorter than the
second and concealed in a tuft of coarse scales. Fore
wings elongate (with the apex rounded), dingy whitish,
thickly irrorated and speckled with cinereous and
fuscous dots, especially conspicuous towards the costal
and apical margins, with several groups of raised scales,
especially noticeable on the basal half. Hind wings
rather shining yellowish cinereous, with paler cilia.
Hind tibiae short, incrassated, densely pilose above
having the inner and outer spurs of very unequal length.
Abdomen missing. Expanse, 32 mm.

Taken in December at light, in Spring Vale.

The earliest description of any species of this genus,
so far as I am able to ascertain, is that of Tiquadra
inscitella, Walk. (Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xxviii. 519), from
Mexico, from which the African species above mentioned
differs only in its larger size, its somewhat wider fore
wings, and rather darker shade of colouring. They may
possibly be found to be not specifically distinct, although
coming from such widely separated localities. Oscella
aneonivella, Walk., from Venezuela, and Manchana
avitella, Walk., from Santa Martha, the types of which
I have examined, are also evidently congeneric.

Prof. Zeller (Hor. Soc. Ent. Eoss. xiii., pp. 196203)
has described four species also from South America,
establishing for their reception the genus Acureuta,
ZelL, pointing out that two species, figured by Messrs.
Felder and Kogenhofer (Keise d. Nov. pi. 138, fig. 46, and
pi. 139, fig. 50), placed by these authors in the genus
Scardia, Tr., belong to the same genus. The two figures
referred to evidently represent this very distinct and
remarkable form, which furnished Mr. Walker with
material for the formation of his three genera, Tiquadra,
Oscella, and Manchana ; but it is not within the scope of
the present paper to determine how many distinct species
have actually been described, or how many names should
rank only as synonyms.



236 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricidce,

The remarkable fact with which we are at present
concerned is that a species, differing in no essential
particular from the South American representatives of
the genus, has been found by Mr. Gooch in South
Africa ; and this is the more remarkable since it is
known to be associated there with Eustixis flavivittella,
Eccopsis wahlbergiana, Zell., and Compsoctena primella,
Zell., as well as with several species of Cryptolechia,
whose representatives in the New World are also so
nearly allied to them in structure and appearance.

I have received, through the kindness of Mr. H. Doer,
of Eio Janeiro, amongst other interesting Lepidoptera,
two specimens, which he considered to be male and
female of the same species, the female being evidently a
species of Tiquadra, the male(?) presenting the same
peculiarities as the next species, figured .and described
in this paper under the name Ischnopsis angustella. To
such a remarkable degree does it approach it that, on
finding the same two forms in Mr. Gooch' s African
collection taken in the same locality and within a few
days of each other, I was induced to make some further
enquiries into the sufficiency of the evidence from which
the suspicion of their relationship to each other had
arisen. Mr. Doer is unable to assure me on this
point ; and as both sexes of Tiquadra have been
noticed, both by Prof. Zeller and Mr. Walker, I have
been compelled to regard the supposition as erroneous,
although I have placed them provisionally in juxta-
position in systematic order. It is at least a very
curious double additional instance of similarity between
South African and South American Lepidoptera. Prof.
Zeller states that the larva of a species of this genus is
a case-bearer.

ISCHNOPSIS, n. g.

Caput latum ; antennae articulo basali infra ciliato.
Palpi labiales porrecti, acuminati ; articulo secundo
incrassato nee fasciculato ; haustellum nullum. Alee
anticse et posticse elongatae, lanceolatse et acuminates ;
posticse costa post-medium emarginata ; cilia longius-
cula. Tibiae posticse longse, supra et infra pilosse,
calcaribus valde insequalibus.

Head broad ; antennae with the basal joint fringed
below. Labial palpi porrected (not recurved), pointed ;



Tineidte, and Pterophorida of South Africa. 237

the second joint thickened, not tufted. Proboscis none.
Fore wings and hind wings elongate, lanceolate, acumi-
nate. Cilia very long. Hind tibiae long, hairy above
and beneath, with the inner spurs a good deal longer
than the outer ones.



C - Ischnopsis angustella, n. s. (PL X., fig. 11).

Capite sordide cano squamis appressis. Palpis et
antennis sordidis. Alis anticis dilute cinereis, griseo-
fusco in longitudine lineatis. Posticis dilute cinereo-
ochraceis antice infuscatis. Ciliis et tibiis posticis
dilutioribus.

Head dingy whitish, with appressed scales. Palpi
with the second joint slightly thickened, roughly scaled,
but not tufted; apical joint not half as long as the
second joint. Antennae simple, three-fourths of the
length of the fore wings ; the basal joint fringed beneath.
Fore wings elongate, acuminate, pale cinereous, with
indistinct slender lines of greyish fuscous throughout
their length. Hind wings pale cinereous-ochreous,
shaded anteriorly" with fuscous, elongate, acuminate,
the costal margin appressed towards the apex. Cilia
paler. Hind tibiae very densely pilose above. (?) Male.
Expanse, 28 mm.

Two examples in Mr. Gooch's collection, taken at
light at Spring Vale in January.

- EUPLOCAMUS. Latreille.

Euplocamus stupens, Wallgr., Of. Af. Kongl. Vet. Akad.
For., 1875, Arg. 32, pp. 127, 128.

' Euplocamus horridellus.

Tinea horridella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xxviii.
474.

This large and distinct species is represented in Mr.
Gooch's collection by nine specimens, varying greatly
in size, the largest reaching an expanse of 32 mm., the
smallest only 18 mm. I have a specimen in my own
collection, given to me by Mr. Druce, from Bedford,
South Africa. It is rather remarkable that so con-
spicuous an insect, and one which appears to be not



238 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricida,

uncommon, should not have been contained in the
collections described by Prof. Zeller and Mr. Stainton,
but I have been unable to recognise it in any of their
descriptions. Its upturned palpi, with the second joint
roughly clothed with projecting coarse scales, separate
it from the true Tinece. It differs in this respect from
Tinea vastella, Zell., which was originally placed in the
genus Euplocamus (subgenus Scardia) by Prof. Zeller,
although not so by Mr. Stainton.

Taken in October, November, and December, at light,
in Spring Vale.

TINEA, Zeller.
Qx Tinea vastella.

Euplocamus (Scardia) vastellus,7ie[l. 9 Handlingar Kong.

Svensk. Vetens. Akad., 1852, p. 88 ; Haliday, Nat.

Hist. Eev., vol. iii., Proc. Dublin Zool. Assn.,

December 21, 1856, p. 23, pi. i.
Scardia vastella, Walker, Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xxviii.

p. 463.
Tinea gigantella, Stainton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.,

n. s., 1867, vol. v., p. 221; Trans. Ent. Soc.

Lond., 3rd ser., vol. v., part 8, p. cv. ; Wallengren,

Of. Af. Kongl. Vet. Akad. For., 1875, Arg. 32,

p. 128; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. li. ;

Ent. Mon. Mag., vol. xv., p. 133; Walk., Cat.

Lep. Het., B. M., xxxv., p. 1812.
Tinea lucidella f Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xgh,

p. 474.

Two examples of this interesting species, varying in
the expanse of the fore wings from 28 to 32 mm., are
in Mr. Gooch's collection. I have received it also
through the kindness of Mr. H. Druce, whose specimens
were collected at Bedford in South Africa. Professor
Zeller's original description contains no allusion to the
habits of the larva, and I have had some difficulty in
tracing the evidence upon which the identity of this
species, with the horn-feeding larva of South Africa, has
been generally accepted.

Mr. Kirby has called my attention to what appears to
be the earliest mention of the habits of this larva in the
' Natural History Keview,' vol. iii., 1856, where, at p. 23
of the Proc. of the Dublin Zool. Association, I find the
following :



Tineida, and Pterophoridtz of South Africa. 239

"Mr. Haliday made some remarks on two pairs of
antelope's horns, exhibited to the meeting by J. M.
Neligan, M.D. These horns belonging, one pair to
Oreas canna (pi. i., fig. 3), the other to Koltis cllipsi-
prymnus were brought home from the Gambia by
J. Fitzgibbon, Esq., M.D., who lately purchased them
from some natives in the market at Macarthy's Island,
being struck with their appearance, as they were
perforated by grubs enclosed in cases which projected
abundantly from the surface of the horns, although
these were taken from freshly-killed animals, the blood
not having dried up on them when brought to market."

When first examined by Dr. Neligan, at Dublin, they
contained "larvae plump and fresh;" but when Mr.
Haliday first saw them they were " shrivelled up."
The largest is described as " nearly an inch long, with
the body of a pale colour, without distinguishable
markings ; the head, the terminal segment, the legs,
the ring of the prothoracic spiracles, and the booklets
of the prolegs, dark chestnut, tending to black on the
head." The structure is described as "not inconsistent
with the probability that it belonged to some of the
Tineidce." " The most remarkable point was the
evidence that the horns had been thus infested while
the animal was yet living which bore them."

" The President showed some horns of the Gayal,
from University Museum, more extensively perforated
by a similar larva."

It will be observed that on this occasion no specimens
of the perfect insect were obtained.

On the 6th of November, 1878, Mr. Stainton
exhibited, at the meeting of this Society, specimens of
" a new horn-feeding Tinea (T. orientalis), reared from
horns from Singapore, allied to the well-known large
species from South Africa, of which the larvae fed in
the horns of living buffaloes and antelopes, and which
had been described by Zeller under the name of
Vastella, and subsequently by himself under the name
Gigantella" " Mr. Simmons, of Poplar, who found them
in his greenhouse, was quite at a loss to account for
their appearance, till Mr. Stainton suggested they were
horn-feeders, when he remembered a piece of horn
placed on a shelf and forgotten, but which, when
examined, showed evident traces of having been eaten,
and from which pupa-skins had been obtained."

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1881. PART II. (JULY.) 2 I



240 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricidce,

The description of Tinea orientalis was published with
full particulars in Ent. Mo. Mag., xv. 133.

On reading this report of the meeting I instituted a
diligent search for the description of the habits of
Scardia vastella, Zell. The only further allusion to a
horn-feeding Tinea larva which I could find was in the
Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. cv., where Mr. Stainton
"records a new habit for the larva of a Tinea. Mr.
Swanzy had shown him the larva-case of a Tinea which
was taken from the horn of a Kooloo, from Natal, and
there could be little doubt that the larva must have been
burrowing in the horn of the living animal." Mr.
Swanzy added, " that since Mr. Stainton's visit he had
found a living larva in the horn."

" Mr. Trimen had seen the skull of a harte-beest, the
base of which was eaten by what he had no doubt was
the larva of a Tinea."

Being unable to find any published reference of the
African horn-feeding larva to the species described by
Zeller and Stainton, I referred the question to Mr.
Stainton for his kind assistance. In a letter, dated
December 16th, 1880, which I gratefully acknowledge,
he writes :

" I suspect that the identity of the horn-feeding Tinea
and T. vastella has never appeared in print. I enclose
you extracts from my correspondence with Zeller on the
subject ; he evidently then thought that Kogenhofer, of
Vienna, was going to write on the subject, which
possibly he never has done."

From these extracts I gather that in 1873 Professor
Zeller received from Herr Kogenhofer one male and two
females, with two larvae and one pupa of a moth, the
caterpillar of which lives in the horns of buffaloes at the
Cape, the specimens agreeing exactly with Scardia
vastella, Zell., and that he took them to be identical with
a species which is common at the Cape in rotten bones.

In a subsequent letter, discussing the geographical
distribution of the species, Prof. Zeller writes :

" Somit bleibt Siidafrica das Vaterland, wenn die Art
nicht kiinstlich verpflanzt wird, was ich fur gut ausfiihrbar
halte ; nur wird der Aufenthalt wahrscheinlich nicht
anderswo sein konnen, als wo unverarbeitete Horner
von Wiederkauern aufbewahrt werden. Das die Eaupe
am gesunden Horn des lebenden Thieres vorkomme, ist
nur nicht recht wahrscheinlich ; ich nehme den faulenden



Tineida, and Pterophoridce of South Africa. 241

Kopfknochen, wovon noch Eeste am Home sitzen, als
das eigentliche Futter an."

It is probable that this unpublished correspondence
was the cause of Mr. Stainton's suggestion to Mr.
Simmons, in 1878, that the large Tinea found in his
conservatory at Poplar was possibly a horn-feeder.

I have in my own collection a pair of horns of Kolus
ellipsiprymmis, given to me by the late Col. Harvey
Tower, which are bored by the larvae of this species, the
substance of the horn itself being visibly perforated in
several places up to one-fourth from the base ; the pupa-
cases protruded from the holes when I received them.
The small portion of the skull still attached to the
horns is not perforated, but has the appearance of
having been much exposed, conveying the impression
that the specimen may have been obtained by purchase,
rather than killed in the course of Col. Tower's hunting
expedition. I have also a very old pair of horns of an
Indian buffalo, perforated in the same manner.

I am informed by Lieut. -Col. the Hon. Wenman Coke,
who has shot very large numbers of various species of
horned animals in South Africa, that he has never seen
the horn of a living animal perforated by one of these
larvae, although almost every dead horn that has been
exposed to the open air is found to be attacked by them.
He has not observed any traces of similar larvae in the
neighbourhood of Zanzibar or Lake Nyassa, where he
has also hunted ; but it seems extremely probable that
it may also occur there.

Colonel Coke is most confident that the larva never
attacks a living animal; he assures me that had this
been the case it could not have escaped his observation.

Mr. Koland Trimen, to whom also I have spoken on
the subject, concurs in expressing great doubt as to the
correctness of the theory that the larva feeds in the
horns of living animals ; on the other side, we have the
strong evidence of Dr. Fitzgibbon ; and as the fibrous
substance of the horn undergoes little or no change at
the death of the animal, there seems to be no reason
why the moth should not deposit its eggs when the
living animal is at rest, nor why the larva should not
penetrate the horn ; but the question must be considered
to be " sub judice."

Mr. Walker has described this species under the name
of Tinea lucidella.



242 Lord Walsingham on the Tortricidce,

Mr. Gooch's specimens were " taken at Spring Yale in
December among trees."

Since writing the above I have been informed that some
specimens of this species have been reared in England
from the hoof of a horse lately brought from Zululand.
(Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. viii.)

Tinea abactella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xxviii.
476.

The specimen from which Mr. Walker's description
was taken is in such bad condition as to be utterly
unrecognisable.

Tinea incultella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., xxx.
1003.

T. purpurea, Stn., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., n. s.,



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