Thomas Dekker.

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critics who are unduly severe.

9 : 16. Momus. — The God of jesting and mirth. He
was continually engaged in satirising and ridiculing the
other gods until he was driven from heaven. Cf. Hesiod's
Theogony.

9 : 29. Dutch cryer. — In Holland the town criers
always used a drum in place of a bell.

9: 32. Lord or Lozvne. — Corresponding to " gentle or
simple." The word *'Ioon" comes from this.

10 : 28. lie at . , . on a truckle-bed. — The truckle-
bed was a small bed made to run under a large one. It
was generally appropriated to a servant or attendant of
some kind, also to pupils. In the statutes of Corpus
Christi College, Oxford, given in 15 16, the scholars are
ordered to sleep under the beds of the Fellows in a truckle-
bed. Also in those of Magdalen College, given in 1459,



NOTES



277



we read, " Sint duo lecti, principales, et duo lecti rotales,
' trookyll beddys' vulgariter nuncrepati." While in
those of Trinity College (1556) it is called "a trocele-
bed," also a trundle-bed, whence we can ascertain the
etymology. Cf. Rcturne from Parnassus^ II. vi. 43,
where Amorctte says, " When I was at Cambridge and
lay in a trundle-bed under my tutor."

11 : II. Tarleton, Kemp, Singer. — The names of famous
actors in the Elizabethan days. The first-named, a
broad comedian, is noted for his "Jig of the Horseload
of Fools." Kemp bought notoriety by dancing the
Morris dance from London to Norwich. Singer was also
a comedian of repute. They were all contemporaries of
Shakespeare. See Memoirs of the Principal Actors of
the Plays of Shakespeare among the publications of the Old
Shakespeare Society.

12 ; 18. Comus. — The god of revelry and feasting,
usually represented as a young man, much intoxicated,
holding a torch which is slipping from his grasp.

13 : I. Roivle Trinidado, Leaf, and Pudding — Rolled
Trinidad, Virginia Leaf, and Pudding — were all various
kmds of tobacco affected by the exquisites of the time.

13 : 15. penny galleries. — The part of the theatre
corresponding in Dekker's time to our " gods." The
penny galleries, however, in the later Elizabethan theatres,
such as the Globe, were not the cheapest parts of the
theatre. In reality twopence was paid for accommoda-
tion there. Every spectator paid one penny on enrering
the theatre, and this also admitted him to the "yard,"
where he stood among the " groundlings " or " stinkards."
If he desired better accommodation he paid additional
charges, to the "penny gallery," to the "twopenny
room," and so forth.

14 : 2. Grout-noivles. — A reference to the woollen or
hairy nightcaps worn by Dutchmen ; an instance of
metonymy, where peculiar and distinguishing articles of
attire are employed to designate the persons wearing them.

14: 2. Moames = momes, i.e., dolts and blockheads.
Cf. Comedy of Errors, when Dromio of Syracuse answers
his brother of Ephesus's call of " Maud, Bridget,
Marian, Cicely, Gillian, Jin," with *' Mome, malt-
horse, capon, coxcomb, idiot, patch."



27S THE GULS HORN-BOOKE

14 : 14. eringo-roote. — (Sometimes "eryngo ") a genus of
evergreen plants resembling thistle, the young leaves of
which (^Eringo maritimum, or sea-holly) are sometimes
eaten as a salad and esteemed a dainty. Lat. eryngicn.
Gr. epvyyos.

14: I >,. Jim baches., and fat bellyei. . . iCfen deadly sins
— Cf. Dunbar's Dance oj the Set-en Deadly Sins.,
Dekker must surely have seen Dunbar's poem for the re-
semblances are more than accidental.

14 : 26. Galionius. — A luxurious Roman who, as
Cicero says, never dined well because he was never
hungry. Cf. Cicero de Finibui Bk. II. chaps, viii. and
zxviii.

15:3. Burchin or Byrchin Lane. — An alley in old
London where canes and rods were sold ; whence came
the phrase to send one to Birchen Lane, i.e., to whip
them. See also note on 1. 27 of p. 200.

15 : 4. Heliogabalus. — Roman Emperor elected to the
purple when only fourteen years of age. He was a
monster of folly, licentiousness and cruelty, raised his
horse to the honours of the Consulship, married four
wives, and was himself married to one of his officers
named Hierocles. He was finally murdered by his
soldiers in his eighteenth year (a.d. 222). His luxury
and gluttony were incredible, and he lived principally on
pies made out of the tongues of the rarest birds.

15 : 14. King Stephen's breeches. — An allusion to the
seventh verse in the old song, "Take thy Old Cloak
about thee" : —



•• King Stephen was a worthy peere,
His breeches cost him but a crowne.
He held them sixpence all too deare,
Therefore he called the tailor Lowne.
He was a wight of high renowne,
But thouse but of a low degree,
It's pride that putts this countrye downe,
Man, take thine old cloake about thee."



See Othello, III. lii, 92, where the first stanza is given :
also The Tempest, IV. i. 221, where Trinculo cries, "O
King Stephano ! O peer ! O worthy Stephano I look
what a wardrobe is here for thee !"



NOTES 279

15 : 22. Dorp. — A village. Cf. English "thorp."
15 : 27. slops. — Wide breeches worn by the Dutch
and also by the Spanish. " The great Dutch slop " was
mentioned as early as Chaucer, and frequently during
Elizabethan times, as for example in Dekker and
Middleton's Roaring Girl', "You'll say you'll have the
great Dutch slop."

15 : 28. ^fl///^flj^/« = gally-gascoyne3 ; wide hose worn
by the Gascons from Navarre. Cf. Nash's Pierce Peni-
lesse^s Supplication to the Dc'vil : "Of the vesture of
salvation make some of us babies and apes coats, others
straight trusses and divell's breeches, some gally-gascoyns
or a shipman's hose like the Anabaptists." Even as
late as the end of the eighteenth century, Canning, in the
Anti-Jacobin, says in " The Needy Knife-grinder" : —

" His galligaskens were of corderoy,
And garters he had none."

15 : 29. sagging doivn^hzngm^ down.

15: 31. standing coller.^-Cf. Hall's Satires: "his
linen collar labyrinthian set" (Bk. III. Sat. vii. 1. 39).

15 : 32 ruffes. — The fashion of wearing collars or ruffs
of lawn or fine linen set into intricate plaits by means of
an implement called a poking-stick, was then prevalent
with the beaux as well as the belles of the time. To
" set " a ruff required no mean skill, so much so that it
was thought to be the invention of the devil. Cf.
Greene's Tu S^uoque : " The woman that had her ruff
poked by the devil is a Puritan to her."

15 : 32. rebatoes. — Ornaments for the neck; a collar
band or kind of ruff, in some cases being merely the collar
of the shirt turned back. Dekker, in Satiromastix, speaks
of a rebate worn out with pinning too often, while in
Marston's Satires we read : —

" Her soul struts round about her neck,
Her seat of sense is her rebato set."

Also in Day's Laiv Tricks, II., the reference occurs ; —

" And broke broad jests upon her narrow heele,
Poked her rebatoes and surveyed her Steele."



28o THE GULS HORN-BOOKE

The original form of the word was rabato, and as such it
occurs in Much Ado about Nothing, III. iv. 6 : "Troth I
think your other rabato were better."

i6 : 7. Saturnian age. — The Golden Age, when Arcadia
was supposed to be the type of country life.

16 : 14. Crookes his ordinary. — A famous tavern and
dining-house in Cheapside.

16 : 25. Paris garden, or, as it ought to be written,
" Parish Garden," situated on the south side of the
Thames, was an ancient manor which in the 12th century
had been bestowed on the Knights Templars, and by them
assigned to the Church. After the Reformation it was the
property of Francis Langley and became public gardens
and bear-baiting yards ; finally the theatre called the Swan
was built within its bounds. See Mr Fairman Ordish's
invaluable work, Early London Theatres.

24 : 12. Platoes cocke. — Plato having defined man as a
featherless biped, Diogenes plucked the feathers from a
cock and sent it into Plato's lecture-room with the inscrip-
tion round its neck, ''Plato's Man."

24 : 27. bahioivnes. — Baboons.

24 : 29. mandilion. — A loose coat worn upon a doublet
either buttoned or open. It had no sleeves, but two
broad wings on the shoulders and hanging sleeves at the
back with side skirts or laps.

25 : 17. nimble "Jackes of a paire of Virginals. — The
virginals were one of the most popular musical instru-
ments of the Elizabethan era, and may be described in the
words of Mr Louis C. Elson in his excellent volume,
Shakespeare in Music, as ** a tiny and primitive piano on
which the strings were plucked by little pieces of quill."
The tone of the virginals was faint ; shading was im-
possible upon it ; and the player produced a constant and
irritating pizzicato. Cf. Shakespeare, ^ ^^wrfr'j Tale, I.
ii., where Leontes cries angrily: "Still virginalling upon
his palm " ; and in Sonnet 128 he makes a reference not
unlike that of Dekker : —

" Do I envy those Jacks that nimble leap.
To kiss the tender inward of thy hand.'

Nay, Dekker himself in Satiromastix says : " Lord ha



NOTES 281

mercy upon us ! We women fall and fall still ; and
when we have our husbands we play upon them like
virginal-jacks, they must rise and fall to our humours."

27 : 3. Jobbernoivlei. — Thick-headed dolts, from Flem.
jobbe^ dull, and Sax. no/, head. Cf. Marston's Satires, Bk.
II. vi. : *'His guts are in his brains, huge jobbernoule."

28 : 25. Conies. — The Elizabethan name for sharpers
and thieves. See Greene's pamphlets on " Coney-
catching."

28 : 30. May-mornings. — For an analogous passage see
Chaucer's Canterbury Ta/esy "Knight's Tale," 11. 1034-
1048.

32 : 22. Will Clark was a famous bell-ringer of St
Paul's, who for many years was chief of the staff of ringers
that on special occasions were called on to ring the
chimes of the old cathedral.

33: II. Ser'ving-mans log. — Seat for servants while
waiting on their masters.

34 : I. Poivles Jacks. — A figure made in old public
clocks to strike the bell on the outside ; but Halliwell
considered from this passage that the "Jacks" of old St
Paul's only struck the quarters. Cf. infra (p. 227, 1. 3),
where Dekker describes the mechanism of these "Jacks of
the clock-house." He there says, "The jack of a clock-
house goes upon screws and his office is to do nothing
but strike." Cf. also Beaumont and Fletcher's Coa:co»j^,
I. y. 3 :-

" How is the night, boy?
Drawer. Faith, sir, 'tis very late.
Uberto. Faith, sir, you lie ! Is this your Jack i' the clockhouse ? "

35:1. the Dukes Tomb. — The supposititious tomb of
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, who really was buried
at St Albans. He probably had a monument in St Paul's,
which gave the name to one of the aisles — Duke
Humphrey's Walk. In this aisle those who had no
means of procuring a dinner were wont to walk during the
dinner hour, whence arose the euphemism for going
dinnerless that one had been "dining with Duke
Humphrey." Cf. Hall's Satires, Bk. III. chap vii. :—

•' 'Tis Ruffio, trow'st thou where he dined to-day ?
In truth, I saw him sit with Duke Humfray."



282 THE GULS HORN-BOOKE

Also Nash's Wonderful^ Strange and Miraculous Prognosti-
cations for this T^ar (1591) : "Sundry fellows in their
silks shall be appointed to keep Duke Humfray company
in Powles because they know not where to get their
dinners abroad."

35 : 22. quoyt silver. — To cast silver into the hands of
the boys in much the same way as one does in playing at
quoits. Cf. 2 Henry IV.^ II. iv. 206, " Quoit him down,
Bardolph, like a shove groat shilling."

35 : 32. Put off to none. — Raise thy hat to no one.

37 : I. Si qjiis doore. — "Si quis = if anyone" was the
common beginning of a public announcement, whence
such bills took the name, "Siquises. " They were
usually posted on a particular door. Cf. Hall's Satires,
Bk. 11. V. :—

" Saw'st thou ere si quis patch'd on Paal's Church dore,
To gain some vacant vicarage before."

Also in Marston's What you Will^ III. i. : "I say my end
is to paste up a si quis.'^ Here serving-men intimated
that they were open to engagement.

38: 4. Sir Phillip Sydney {i'^^:^-\!^%e).—nt had died
of wounds received at the battle of Zutphen only a few
years previous, but his memory was still green as one of
the greatest of English heroes.

40 : 8. Gra've Maurice. — Maurice, Prince of Orange
and Count of Nassau, was the son of William the
Silent, and became one of the greatest generals of
his age, completely defeating the Spaniards in such
desperately-contested fields as Turnhout in Brabant
(1597) and Nieuwpoort (1600), and for three years
baffled and defied all the power of Spain by his defence
of Ostend (1601 -1604), until Spain was in 1609 com-
pelled to recognise the Netherlands as a free republic.

48 : 9. Lords roome. — The best box, immediately ad-
joining the stage.

48 : 18. Camhises. — A popular play by Thomas
Preston, which was produced as early as 1569-1570.

48 : 19. Estridge. — Ostrich.

50 : I. daivcocke. — Literally the male daw or jack-
daw, and metaphorically an empty, chattering fellow.



NOTES 283

Cf. Hospital of Incurable Fools (1600), "Who with new
magic will hereafter represent unto you the Castle of
Atlas full of dawcocks."

50 : 24. Tripos or three-footed stoole. — The gallants sat
on the stage on tripods, or stools with three legs, for
which they paid sixpence for the performance.

51 : 9. never lin snuffing. — Never stop snuffing.

54 : 4. Arcadian and Euphuized gentleivomen. — Gentle-
women who have formed their manners upon Sir Philip
Sidney's Arcadia and Lyly's Euphues.

54 : 6. shittlecocke. — Our modern shuttlecock.

56 : 29. Pentecost. — The day of the descent of the
Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, now called in England
Whit-Sunday, because, being the season when the sacra-
ment of baptism was administered, the newly-baptised
were clad in white robes.

62 : 20. Inghle. — A male favourite of a disreputable
kind. Cf. Dekker's Satiromastix, where it is continually
usedintheform "ningle,"anabbreviation of "mine ingle"}
also Massinger's City Madam, IV. i. 4, *' Coming as we
do from his quondam patrons his dear ingles now."



THE BEL-MAN OF LONDON

78 : 16. Baucis and Philemon, — The names of a happy
old pair who, having entertained Jupiter and Mercury,
found their humble cottage changed into a magnificent
temple and they appointed as the keepers of it. After a
long life they died on the same day and hour, that the one
might not have the pain of lamenting the other. Cf.
Ovid's Metam., Bk. VIIL 631.

78 : 27. Pedlar's French, or canting language, or the
thieves' patter, which has in many respects preserved its
identity down to the present day.

85 : 5. Tom of Bedlam. — Bedlam is a contraction of
Bethlehem, from the Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem.
This was not converted into an hospital for lunatics until
about 1546. Cf. 2 Henry VI., V. i., "To Bedlam with
him ! Is the man grown mad ?"

85 : 10. Abraham-men, or Tom of Bedlam's men, or
Bedlam beggars. — A set of vagabonds who wandered



284 THE BEL-MAN OF LONDON

about the country soon after the dissolution of those

religious houses, where the poor had been wont to

receive relief. Cf. Beaumont and Fletcher's Beggars^
Buih, II. i. :—

" And these what name or title e'er they bear,
Jarkeman or Patrice, Crank or Clapperdudgeoa,
Frater or Abraham-man ; I speak to all
That stand in fair election for the title
Of ' King of Beggars.' "

In the play of the Beggars' Bush, as also in Greene's
pamphlets upon " coney-catching," the facts which
Dekker in this peculiar volume details, receive ample
confirmation.

92 : 16. they professe Artnes^ etc. — Cf. in connection
with this passage the description of FalstafFs " Ragged
Regiment" (1 Ucnry IV., IV. ii. 11-49).

98; 2. Hoipital or Spittle house. — The former usually
devoted to the purposes of treating disease; the latter
being almost wholly devoted to the segregation of lepers.
Ci. Henry V. ,11. i. :—

" No, to the 'spittle go
And from the powdering tub of infamy
Fetch forth the lazar kite o»'Cressid's kind."

104 : 10. Doxye. — Is an instance of a word taken
from the thieves' " patter " and introduced into English
speech. It originally meant a prostitute, then a mistress,
and finally a woman in the lower ranks of life. Cf.
A Winter i Tale., where Autolycus in his song introduces
it: —

" When daffodils begin to peer
With heigh 1 the doxy over the dale."

Also in Beaumont and Fletcher's JVomans Prize, III.
ii. : —

" She has studied
A way to beggar us both, and by thb hand
She shall be, if I live, a doxy."

Also in their Beggars^ Bush, II. i., " Prostitute doxies
are neither wives, maids nor widdows."



NOTES 285

107 : 8-28. St S^uintens . . . Knapsburie ; also from
Middlesex . . . mere Blackheath. — These places can
still be recognised, such as Kingsbarns and Ketbrook,

Ii8 : 27. — St Martin was the patron saint of gamesters.

119: 3. Barnards Laiv. — Note the explanation of
the term in lines 30-32 : "Travelling up and down the
whole land, sometimes in the habit of gentlemen, some-
times in that of serving-men, sometimes of graziers,
farmers and plain fellows, maintaining themselves only
by the cozenage they use in carde playing, which kind of
play of theirs they call 'The Barnards Law.'" Dekker
then goes on to state on page 120 the Ji-ve persons re-
quired to carry out this piece of rascality, viz., the Taker,
the Cozen, the Verser, the Barnard and the Rutter.
Greene, in the preface to his pamphlet, A Notable Dis-
co-very of Cczenage, seems to have anticipated Dekker, for
he says, " There was before this many years agoe a
practice put in use by such shifting companions, which
was called the Barnard's Law, wherein, as in the Art of
Coney-catching, four persons were required to perform
then coosning commodity — the Taker-up, the Verser, the
Barnard and the Rutter." Dekker rather unnecessarily
introduced the cozen, otherwise the dupe, which reminds
one of Meg Dods's first sentence in the recipe for " Hare
Soup " in her inimitable Cookery Book : *' first catch your
hare."

121 : I ff. The Stage on luh'tch he playes . . . such
like places. — A passage like this shows us how little
change topographically and in the nomenclature of the
streets has come over London since the days of Elizabeth,
especially those parts of it which abut on the river. The
Strand, Fleet Street, Chancery Lane, Holborn, St Paul's
were the names of the principal thoroughfares then as
now. Greene writes in almost identical terms in The
Arte of Coney-catching: "The coney-catchers, apparelled
like honest civil gentlemen or good fellows, with a
smooth face, as if butter would not melt in their mouths,
after dinner when the chents are come from Westminstei
Hall and are at leasurc to walke upp and downe Paule's,
Fleet Street, Holborn, the Strond and such common
haunted places where these cosening companions attend
only to spie out a praie."



286 THE BEL-MAN OF LONDON

124: 9. Brainfordy Kingston^ Croydon^ Rumford^ etc.
— Names familiar to us to-day, and for the same reason,
viz., being the great sources of supply for the London
markets. It is interesting to note how Greene in his
preface seems to have anticipated much of Dekker's in-
formation. There can be little doubt that the latter
owed a great deal to his elder fellow-dramatist.

125 : 24. Vincents Lauo. — With regard to this section,
Greene and Dekker absolutely agree in the terminology
used — the Bankars, the Gripe, the Vincent and the
Terraage, But Dekker has again appropriated a con-
siderable portion of Greene's matter wholly without
acknowledgment. For example, Greene writes (Grosart's
Edition, Vol. X. p. 82): "The bankers, for so are the
common hanters of the Alley termed, apparelled, like
very honest and substantial citizens, come to bowle, as
though rather they did it for sport than gains and under
that colour of carelessness doe shadow forth their pre-
tended knavery." Dekker states the same facts in the
following terms: *'The bankers are commonly men
apparelled like honest and substanciall citizens, who
come into the Bowling Allies, for a rubber or so, as
though it were rather for sport than for any gaines, pro-
testing they care not whether they win or lose, which
carelessness of theirs is but a shadow to their pretended
knaverie." And so on all through the book. Dekker
owed much to Greene, though of course, on the other
hand, he has introauced an immense number of new facts
of which seemingly Greene was in ignorance. The same
indifference to the rights of meum and tuum appears on
pages 134, 135, where the matter is almost identical
with that on pages 76, "^"j of Greene's Second Part tf
Coney-catching,

143 : 17. Westminster and Holborn, as being then
beyond the bounds of the city proper, would be without
the jurisdiction of the Mayor and Aldermen.

145 : 8. The Figging La%v. — This is simply the trade
of the cut-purse and the pickpocket.

148: 3-18. Exchequer chamber . . . Borough in South-
luarke. — Places still familiar to every Londoner. East-
cheap received its name from the market there, in
contradistinction to the market at Cheapside known as



NOTES 287

Westcheap. Eastcheap is familiar to us from the
immortal scenes in Shakespeare's Henry IV. at the
Boar's Head Tavern. As it was surrounded by markets
(says Mr Ordish), the grassmarket on the north, the
fishmarket on the south, the meat market on the nest —
open to the receipt of all commodities from the Wards of
Billingsgate eastward of the bridge, tlie Boar's Head
Tavern was in the way to afford excellent entertainment
for man and beast.

148: 18. both Fishstreetei. — One called New Fish
Street and the other Fish Street Hill. " In New Fish
Street" (says Stow) " be fishmongers and fair taverns; on
Fish Street Hill and Grass Street men of divers trades,
grocers and haberdashers."

148 : 30. the Beare-garden. — At Paris Gardens.

153: 9. Magnijico in pomp. — A Venetian senator in
State or official garb.

LANTHORNE AND CANDLELIGHT

174: 4. no Germaine . , . Dutch. — Dekker, being of
Dutch extraction, naturally attributed the Low German
dialect as the speech of the whole of Germany.

189: I. The suggestion of this scene seems to have
been taken from Machiavelli's Marriage of Belphlegor.

190, 191. In these two pages Dekker is satirising the
condition of the English Law Courts of his age, which
was disgraceful in the extreme. His description, abating
a little for the exaggeration of satire, may be taken as not
far from the truth. The passage 11. 3-15 of page 191
was said to be aimed at Francis Bacon.

193: 9. Minos, Eacus and Rhadamanthus were the
three Judges of Hell appointed to try the souls of the
departed.

197 : 30. Grand Sophy. — A title of the Shah of Persia,
from the Persian sufi, wise.

199 : 5. Ride up and dotvn Smith-field. — Where so
much would be done among country farmers come to
town for the markets.

199: 23. London and Sainte Albones = St A\hzns.

200: 27. Burchin-lane. — The locality in Elizabethan
London where tailors congregated, and ready-made



288 LANTHORNE AND CANDLE-LIGHT

clothes dealers. Cf. Return from Parnassus, IV. ii. 193 :
"It's fine when that puppet-player, Fortune, must put
such a Birchen Lane in so good a suit, such an ass in so
good a fortune." Cf. Overbury's Characters ("Of a Fine
Gentleman") : '* If all men were of his mind, all honesty
would be out of fashion ; he withers his clothes on the
•tage as a salesman is forced to do his suits in Birchen
Lane." Also in fVits' Recreations : —

•• 'Tis like apparel! made in Birchen-lane
If any please to suit themselves and wear it."

206: 31. Tobacco-shop in Fleet-street . . . afternoone-
— Tobacconists in Dekker's time provided the pipe and
tobacco at so much a pipeful.

209: 17. Some hunt the Unicorne for the treasure on his
head. — The fabled beast, the Unicorn, was said to have a
rare jewel at the root of his horn.

217 : 225. Falconers. — This is doubtless a true picture
of the manner in which many of the dedications upon
Elizabethan volumes were worked up. Names of most
obscure country knights and squires were puffed up to
the skies as being those of men who were nothing short
of latter-day Maecenases.

218 : 2. Djctcr Doddipols. — This is an allusion to the
farcical comedy of The Wisdom of Dr Doddipol^ entered on
the Stationers' Registers, October 7, 1600, and played by
the children of St. Paul's soon after. Dekker refers to
the play in Satiromastix and Old Fortunatus. In the
latter Andelocia says, "Whilst thou art commencing thy
knavery there, I'll precede Dr Doudipoll here."


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